Basics of Project Management
Sneak peak at the PMP Certification course
Hello and welcome to PMCLounge.com. My name is Shoaib and today we are looking into PM 101 Project Management 101 session. This is your gateway to the world of project management. So if you're someone who's new was just starting off or is interested in starting off a career in project management. This is the session for you. Now typically I take up these sessions in certain avenues and on certain stages but I thought of sharing this on this YouTube channel as well, subscribe to the channel if you haven't done so already, we are all about project management and we are all about the PMP certification. So what can you expect out of this long lasting session. Right. So what can you expect. Why should you watch this session. The first thing like I said earlier this is going to be your gateway into the world of project management. So we will talk about a lot of basics of project management. This is going to be an introduction session. Again if you are already aware of the basics of project management and once you go through the initial slides they initialize part of the session you will already know the basics of project management. Then we are going to take a step ahead. We are going to take a step deeper into the world of project management and really know some more stuff about project management which will be much better than the than just the basics. So if you are into project management if you're starting off your career in project management or if you're thinking about getting into the career into the domain of project management then this session is definitely going to be helpful for you. Another point is this is also going to introduce you to the PMP courseware not PMP if you're not aware is it is the gold standard certification in the field of project management. It is offered by Project Management Institute you as a PMP stands for project management professional. This channel is all about PMP. This channel is all about project management. So I'd like to repeat subscribe if you haven't done so already. All right let's move one so a brief about me although I cover this slide only when I'm on stage in much more detail and give it some time. But in this video I'd like to just share that I got my PMP in 2016 and I'd like to remind you to check out the website PMCLounge.com which is your number one free PMP resource and subscribe to the channel YouTube.com/PMCLounge. If you haven't done so already. So this is going to be the agenda for the session. A lot of hard work has gone into meticulously designing this agenda. Like I said earlier a lot of work has gone in just to ensure that we cover First the basics. Then we take a step ahead and then we also introduce you to the PMP courseware. All right. So let's get started. Let's get ahead. Let's take you to your first step in the world of project management what is a project now. First thing to note is that a project is temporary. It is something which is temporary. It has a definite start and end date. So there is going to be a start date and an end date and that is why a project is something which is temporary thereby having a defined scope and resources. So there's only so much you can do between definite start and end date. Right. So that is the reason why you should have a defined scope and you should have defined resources that can be consumed within this definite start and end date. So that is what Project is one or one very basic. That is what project is now a project is also unique. That means there is nothing like this which has been done earlier. That is the definition of unique right there. A project is also supposed to be unique. It is not routine every day. Operational work. Now this is what we mean when we say a project is unique. Nothing like that has been done before a project is unique in the sense that it is not your everyday operational work which has a repetitive output. It is a specific set of activities designed to accomplished a well defined unique objective. So there you have the textbook definition of a project. It is a specific set of activities which are designed to accomplish to accomplish a well defined unique objective. So there is a unique objective which is well-defined and that is what we are setting out to achieve as part of a project now you may recognize these world famous projects the pyramids creating the pyramids. That was a project The Wall of China the Great Wall of China. Construction of the Great Wall of China was a project. Similarly construction of the Taj Mahal. It was also a project. So these are some of the world famous projects but then projects are not just construction work. These are also projects. Having a man reach the moon right. That is a project designing a car. This is also a project or creating a software package. This is also a project. So like I said projects are not just construction work projects can be anything that have a unique output. Nothing like this was done before. Nothing. A car like this was never designed before a software like this was never made before. So all of these projects had a unique output so let us do a little bit of practice here setting up a mobile phone factory. This is a project assembling pounds of mobile phones every day. What do you think. Is that a project. No sir that is not a project and is a specific name for this. It is an operation putting together a team of research analysis to come up with a design and a prototype of a waterproof phone. Within six months. Just read this again putting together a team of research analysts so you have put together a team. The these are resources to come up with a design and a prototype. So this is your well-defined output of a waterproof phone. Again this is part of the output. Within six months. So this is the timeframe that you have. What is this. Of course this is a project. This basically satisfies all the conditions that we read about project area manufacturing. Thousands of those waterproof phones using the design blueprint. So this project is now complete. You have come up with the design. You have come up with the prototype of how to kind of come up with that project right. How to make that project know how to make that mobile phone. How can you manufacture that. You have the design you have the prototype with you. Now what you're doing basically is you are manufacturing thousands of those waterproof phones using the design blueprint using the output of the previous project. So now manufacturing thousands of these phones. Is that a project. No sir. That is not a project. It is an operation so I hope this was clear. I hope you were able to understand what our project is and what is the difference between a project and an operation. Number two is where do projects come from. So how do we come up with these projects. That's a good question right. That's a good place to start. So if there is a change in technology or a new technology has come up right then projects may emerge from them. So G.P.S. was when G.P.S. came to the mobile phones there were a lot of projects a lot of apps that were developed to make use of the G.P.S.. So new technology brought new projects competitive forces. If you're in the market and there are forces in your competition of course they will. You may have to come up with new projects to stay ahead of the competition. Material issues. Right. You might be using certain materials for certain projects which are no longer used political changes. Market demand economic changes are all changes related to the hour outside of your office. The real world changes right. Customer requests. If a customer wants something well you have to deliver. Stakeholder demands legal requirements. Also sometimes there could be legal issues with your you know your product or anything that you offer. And that may you know you may have to come up with new projects to deal with those legal requirements. An example that comes to mind was the Samsung Note phone which kind of was blasting with the customer's right. I'm not sure what phone was that or that note or something but yeah. So that phone started blasting and customers started reporting it. News media started covering it so legally you can not sell a phone that is a potential bomb so you have to come up with a new project and that project was to how you are going to deal with the media how you're going to deal with the customers and how you're going to phase out those phones so that you know you kind of stop the manufacturing of those phones. But how do you deal with all of this. That as a potential project a legal requirement has led to that project business process improvement strategic opportunities business needs social needs environmental considerations also lead to new projects. So these are some of the avenues. Some of the pointers that you know are basically initiating projects. These are some of the pointers that give birth to projects project constraints. Now this is something very very useful and this is something which I'd like you to pay attention to. The classic triple constraint triangle. So we have something which is known as triple constraint triangle which is also known as Iron Triangle as well so these are project constraints. You have time you have scope you have cost and then you have quality as well. So these are project constraints and these are put together as form of a triangle because if you decrease the time let's say you decrease the time of a project what is going to happen with this triangle is the scope may remain the same but the cost is going to rise. So this area this line is going to be larger than the previous line this line and which means your cost has increased. If you have decreased the time of the project and what has happened to quality quantity is the entire area. So quality is also decreasing. Why. Because quality is defined by the entire area of the triangle of the triple constraint triangle. So the quality if you see in the previous triangle the quality was quite high. That area was quite large. Now that area is smaller and that is why quality is decreasing. So this is the reason why we call time costs Corp and quality a part of the triple constraint triangle because a change in any of these a change in cost. A change in scope project scope a change in the project time or project schedule is going to impact the other constraint of projects. So this is something which you as a project manager need to take care of and that is why we introduced this topic. The project constraints do not like I just set these constraints are interrelated. So a strand on one of the core constraints will affect one or more of the other constraints as well. This is also known as Iron Triangle of project management like I mentioned earlier. So this is the triple constraint triangle also known as item constrained iron triangle of project management. And this is something which is very very important for you as a student of project management. This should be the first thing that you should be studying after you know what the project management is. What what project is now if you go deeper like I said we'll go a step deeper from the basics. You will realize that it is not a triangle anymore. There are some other constraints as well. We talked about time we talked about cost. We talked about scope. We also talked about quality. But then what about risk. What about resources. If you are decreasing the time for a project. If you're decreasing you know the time required to achieve a project it is possible that the cost is going to increase right. The other constraints are going to have an impact. But what about resources. What about the materials that you need to achieve that project right. If it is a construction project and it was supposed to finish in six months. Now you say you need that in five months. It is possible that the cost is going to increase. It is possible that the quality may decrease but it is also possible that the resources you need the manpower that you need is also going to increase right. So that is the reason why these are some more project constraints that you need to take care of. What about risk. The risk is also in going to increase in the same example that I just talked about. Isn't there a risk if you are finishing a construction project which is supposed to take six months you are finishing that in five months. What are some of the risks. Our you know folks that work in the construction area are going to tell you well that there is going to be a risk because there is a certain time that you need after a construction is done for let's say watering the area for let's say I am not sure about the exact civil civic civil engineering definition or civil engineering word for it but yes the risk is going to increase if you are going to reduce the time. I'm 100 percent sure about that. So these are some more project constraints that you need to consider as a project manager. Now let's talk about how do you define project success. So you we we just discussed the project constraint and now if you have delivered a project if you're done with the project if you're done with the construction that you were talking about how do you know that the project that you delivered was a successful project or not. So we just talked about constraints and those are some of the areas that define the success of a project as well. So no one is going to be sure do you need to continually evaluate your progress as you go as a project manager. You need to make sure that the schedule that you have six months construction project you need to make sure to continually check with the project team after one month. Where are you. What is our progress. Will we be able to finish the remaining tasks in the remaining five months at the end of second month. You need to go ahead and check with the project team again. Where do we stand. Will we be able to complete the project in the next four months. So this is something that you as a project manager need to do and you need to work out the slippages in a timely manner. So if there is any slippage if you are supposed to have completed a certain part of the construction project by the end of three months but you are not able to do so how do you handle those slippages. That again is a part and a job of a project manager. An example here is from the Bangalore Metro Phase One project. This was supposed to complete in March 2010 but after missing at least nine subsequent publicly announced deadlines the Phase 1 Metro was finally open to public. In October 2011. So there was basically slippage in schedule from March 2010 to October 2011. So schedule is something which is very important and it defines the success of your project. If you are delivering your project on schedule then it is quite possible that you can say that yours was a successful project but delivering the project on schedule is that the only way you define a successful project. Of course not. There are four more. Let's look at all of them. Point B is going to be cost. And I'd agree with you if you look at this point and say well this should actually rank first in the list. To hell with the schedule what about the cost right. What about the dollars all over the money. And of course it could rank actually first in this list. How do you hold and control cost is you evaluate just like should you. You need to evaluate the amount that your project has already spent. You need to do that in a timely manner. You can also look forward and read forecast to compare with the original budget. So let's say the schedule was six months for the construction project but we were talking about in the previous slide and let's say the scope for the sake of simplicity let's say the cost that you had forecast in the beginning of the project was sixty thousand U.S. dollars. So at the end of three months you should ideally be at thirty thousand U.S. dollars right. And of course this is just for the sake of simplicity. So let's say at the end of three months if you are if you have already spent forty eight thousand U.S. dollars and you're left with three months and twenty thousand U.S. dollars then you'd need to do a re forecast and you need to compare that with the original budget and you need to make sure that your project falls in place or we need to make sure that extra funds are arranged. But at the first place you need to ensure that you don't waste money you don't spend more than you're supposed to cost or Warren is going to be fatal for your project. My mark my words on that. So in 2006 let's take a look at an example. So in 2006 33 kilometre of Bangalore Metro phase when work had a baseline cost of six thousand three hundred and ninety five crores which is sixty three point nine five billion Indian rupees. Due to delays in extension of mental work to forty two point three km. Here's here's something important to note. The original scope of this project was thirty three km right. Construction was to be done for 33 km but later the scope was changed. The scope changed to forty two point three km. Right. A change of almost a little less than 10 kilometers here. But just look at the cost that has changed. Six thousand three hundred and ninety five crores to the final cost of fourteen thousand four hundred and five gross right. So this project basically had is a major case of cost overrun. But this also had a change in scope. But if you see the cost has has actually changed and it is back or it is now costing more than twice of the original budget with a change of just less than 10 kilometers number three without any guesses is quality and if you see if you recall the iron triangle that we talked about cost is here. Schedule is here and now. Quality is also here. So these three define whether your project was a success or not. Again there are two more factors that define which we will look into after this slide. So quality how do you maintain quality for your project. Again just like cost and just like schedule. Quality is something which you need to review timely and at the end of each project phase as well. So what is a project phase. This is something we will be discussing later on in this session. So keep that in mind let's park that aside for now but understand the fact that you need to review as a project manager you need to review quality timely now. How do you review quality and that is where quality standards come into the picture. Right. In your 6 months per project for construction right you need to have quality standards with you. You need to understand what is the quality standard for a 2 month old project right. Let's take another example for the sake of simplicity let's try to understand from the perspective of a verb development project let's say you're creating a website a well-defined quality standard would mean that the home page should load in zero point zero five seconds. First thing is this is a very very defined quality standard that the project manager and the project team is aware of and they should be working towards achieving this quality standard. And the second thing is it should be accessible the quality standards which are defined right by the end customer by the product sponsor or whoever has designed or defined the quality standards day. These standards should be easily accessible by the project team. It should not be locked away somewhere on another country in another country where the project team cannot reach out for it right. They should be easily accessible. Now some example here is that food is not good here. That movie is boring. This phone is really bad that God is a work of art. Bangalore Metro is pretty crowded. If you see the quality standards and these examples are not well defined not good. What do you mean by not good. What is the definition of good. Similarly the movie is boring. How boring is it. What is the definition of boring a movie being you know a movie you call a movie boring. It may be boring for one person but it could not be boring for another person right. So the quality standards are very subjective in these examples and they should be very defined. These quality standards are not well-defined. The phone is really bad. This is something very personal. You may say that Windows phones are really bad. I tend to think the opposite. I may feel that Windows Phone are really good. So we need to define quality standards and that is why quality is important. That is why quality should be reviewed timely and standards should be defined. This is an important factor to determine whether your project was successful or not. Another point is stakeholders satisfaction. Now I have a separate section on stakeholders as well. This is one of the important topic for your PMP preparation as well. I have taken a brief section in this session itself for stakeholders who will talk about stakeholders in further details as well later on in this session. But this is also something which defines how successful your project was. So you may see a lot of surveys in your daily life right. Facebook puts out a survey or let's say your employer puts out a survey or lets say a political party or a government puts out a survey. They are all there for a reason. They just like a previous slide. When we did a timely check on schedule we did a timely check on cost we did a timely check on quality survey is also a timely check with the stakeholders level of satisfaction so even qualitative checks during the course of the project is worth it instead of somehow walking through the project and completing it with only the project manager being happy. So while you are working on the project while you were working on that six month construction project at the end of two months or at the end of three months ask your project team. Ask the person who's paying for that project and take their feedback even if it is qualitative right. You don't have to ask them to give you marks out of 10 on any different topics right. You don't have to do that. Even qualitative checks is everything good or is everything not good. Qualitative checks like these are also going to help you make sure that the stakeholders are satisfied with your project. An example here is the presence of a high pressure petroleum pipeline flows to Bangalore Metro route to airport to be ordered the Bangalore Mangalore petroleum pipeline has become an important stakeholder so while the Bangalore Metro route was being planned nobody went and took a survey or nobody went and took a qualitative check as well. Video Bangalore Mangalore petroleum pipeline this organization nobody checked with them whether they were okay with the route that the Bangalore Metro had finalized for the airport. What happened was they finalized the route and then they had to alter it because this stakeholder was never surveyed. This stakeholder was never asked if they were okay with the route if they were okay with the plan and they became a very important stakeholder because you can not have a Metro route in the vicinity of a high pressure petroleum pipeline right. So this is why stakeholder satisfaction is important. This is why doing a check with the stakeholders is important when you are in the course of delivering your project. Finally the last point is alignment to business case. So there is a business case for every project a project needs to make business sense. And what is the business sense that the project is going to make is written in the business case. So how aligned was your project to that business case document right. Cost schedule quality are just one part of the puzzle. Did your project meet the original benefits it set out for and these benefits are defined in the business case document. So do the problems that led to the project being conceived still exist. Are you working on something nobody wants. So that six month construction project that we were talking about was actually being was actually a house being built for someone who was paying for it but we came to know at the end of four months that the person paying for the project that the person paying for that construction of the house is actually moving to a different country permanently. Does that mean he wants that house now. Maybe not. Maybe the the problem that the project was going to solve has does not even exist anymore. Right. So at that time for you as a project manager you need to do a check on this as well whether your project is still aligned to the business case or not. What if people find shared cabs a better more convenient and cheaper alternative to Metro if you're the Project Manager working on the Bangalore Metro and you find within the course of delivering your project itself that the people are finding shared cabs as a better and more convenient and even cheaper alternative to metro. Are you going to go ahead and still deliver your project. Are you going to still go ahead and deliver the Bangalore Metro that you had promised that you are that you were working on. Maybe or maybe not because the original business case the original problem that Metro was going to solve has already been solved. So these were the five factors that define after you're done with the project. These five factors define whether your project was a success or not now that we have talked about constraints. Now that we have talked about how and you can say that a project was successful let's talk about project management and I have specifically put this point here because now it will make much more sense and now it will be much easier for you to grasp what project management is. Project management is the application of knowledge skills methods experience tools and techniques on project activities to meet the project objectives. So you do know from the definition of project that it is a set of activities so you are as a project manager applying knowledge skills methods experience tools and techniques to make sure that these activities meet the project objectives and you already know how a project is going to be called successful. So you need to make sure that you apply all these good things to meet and to satisfy those conditions as well. And that is what project management is in a nutshell. Developing a new website or a software of course that is a project relief effort. As a result offered natural disaster is also a project that you can manage construction of a building or a bridge are all examples of a project that requires project management male business leaders understand that project management is a function within the organization. Nobody else is going to come in and manage your projects. So this is a function within the organization and that is why business leaders hire individuals that are specifically trained in this discipline and they are known as project managers to handle organizations project management needs. So this is the reason why business leaders hire project managers because they know that there are specialized people with specialized knowledge right there. These people are specifically trained in the application of knowledge skills methods experience tools and techniques and they are known as project managers so they should be hired to do the project management job in an organization now just above project is something known as program and just a program is something known as portfolio. Let's talk about programs and portfolios. So programs are commonly defined as a group of related projects. This is important but related projects that provide certain benefits when managed together. So in over six months construction project let's say you are basically trying to construct four units together. So managing those four units as a program managing those four projects as a program may be beneficial because resources could actually be shared between those four projects right. So that is a program managing the development of all e-commerce projects together can be a program. So let's say you were designing an e-commerce Web site and your company designed many e-commerce Web sites. So developing all those e-commerce Web sites managing that as a program and having a program manager look over this program is going to be beneficial for sure too. Here's an equation that is typically used and you'll find in certain texts are program is equal to some programs plus projects and some projects what is a portfolio. Now portfolios are not just a group of programs but can also include projects that do not align with any program. So this is important portfolios of course from common sense. You may make out that portfolio would be a group of programs. Of course it is that but it can also include projects as well that do not align with any program. They are so unique. There is no other project like that with within your organization. So managing all types of website development related projects and programs can be a portfolio while managing all mobile apps related projects and programs can be another portfolio. So this is an example of two different portfolios here. So here's the equation that you may find in certain tax portfolio as equals to sub portfolios plus programs and sub programs plus projects and some projects. So that is portfolio for you. So if you have project then you have programs and then you have portfolios so this slide is going to help you understand project program and portfolio diagram ethically as well. If you can see this entire thing is one portfolio and it has two programs one and this is the second program. Right. Each program have certain projects which are similar in nature. This program has three projects which are similar in nature. And then you've got these two programs which are now a part of one portfolio. So this is one portfolio. And this is how you can understand projects programs and portfolios diagram ethically you need to understand here one other point that just like project management we have a certification called PMP project management professional from PMI. PMI offers two other certifications as well be PgMP which is program management professional and PfMP which is portfolio management professional. So these three all these three certifications are provided by PMI just like you see project managers you may see program managers and portfolio managers in certain organizations as well if you are interested in the PMP and want to know how you can clear it in 50 days go on to this link PMCLounge.com/pmp-study-plan This is a free plan thousands of people have downloaded and have been benefited by it. So go ahead download it. Now let's do a quick agenda check so we have covered six items already here and we are now left with six more items. We've talked about project we have talked about the constraints of the project you talked about what project management is now let's try to add this to hand who is a project manager. Again like I said this agenda has been meticulously designed so that you can easily grasp the upcoming concept. So let's talk about project manager from definition perspective. The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives. So there is a performing organization which is basically delivering the project and the project manager is going to lead the team lead a team and that team is responsible for achieving the project objectives. So the project manager he does project management he or she does project management with the project team not alone. Right. He manages that team. He leads that team. But there are other managers as well which you may find in your organization and many other organizations functional managers so functional manager focuses on providing management oversight for a functional or business unit. Now your project may require several teams from several different functions. Those teams are people from those teams may report to the functional manager. So you have a functional manager in the picture here. Then you have operations manager as well. Operations Managers are responsible for ensuring that business operations are efficient. So these are three kind of managers you will typically find in every organization. You may require resources human resources from functional areas as well as operational areas. And that is why you need to be good friends with the functions manager as well as operations managers so there is a very famous talent triangle which is published by PMI. This is PMI stuff here. So what are the balance that a project manager should have. We already know who the project manager is. We already know that he needs to deal. He may or may not need to deal with functional manager as well as operations manager. There's certain talent that the project manager should have. Number one is strategic and business management which means business oriented skills which applies to all certifications that PMI offers. Right. So you've got benefits management and realization business acumen business models and structures competitive analysis customer relationship and satisfaction industry knowledge legal and regulatory compliance market awareness operational functions like finance and marketing Strategic Planning Analysis alignment. So these are some of the skills from strategic and business management domain that the project manager should have then domain expertise is something which is certification specific which is specific to the certification offered by PMI here. But as a project manager you should have technical knowledge as well. Something like Agile practices so agile is now a part of PMP scope PMP courseware itself. So agile practices is something you should know data man modeling and gathering on value management does is something again part of project management professional courseware itself governance of all three project program and portfolio lifecycle management performance management requirements management and traceability risk management schedule management scope management time budget and cost estimation Don't be scared if you're kind of worried with all these terminologies we will discuss at least some of these terminologies later in the session when we dive deeper into the PMP corporate. And finally in the PMI talent triangle you have leadership skills so competency in guiding and more motivating. This also applies to all the certifications that PMI offer brainstorming coaching and mentoring conflict management emotional intelligence influencing interpersonal skills listening negotiation problem solving team building basically strategic and business management leadership and technical are of the kind of skills that you as a project manager should have now. Let's talk about organizational structure. We talked about how you may have to deal with functional manager an operational manager different kinds of managers in your organization. How is your organization structured also kind of impacts and influences how much you need to deal with these different managers. So let's look at organizational structures. Determination of the appropriate organizational structure type is a result of the study of tradeoffs between two key variables. Number one is organizational structure types available for use. And number two how to optimize them for a given organization. So what is the organizational structure of your organization. This is dependent on these two key variables. What are the available types of organizational structure that your organization can use. And number two is how can that organizational structure be optimized for your given organization. There is no one size fits all structure for any given organization. The final structure is unique due to the numerous variables which need to be considered. So now let's look at the organizational structure types which are available to these are the four organizational structure types functional organization metrics organization Project based organization composite organization which is also known as hybrid organization. So your organization is going to be one of these four or it might be a load to fit your own organization right. Let's understand these four in detail so that you know how much you as a project manager need to deal with the functional manager or the other managers in the organization. So the first kind of organizational structure is functional organization. Now this is where the project resources are your project team members are going to be working in silos and they are going to report to the respective functional managers. So how does this work. This works by having project team members that report to their own respective functional managers be a part of your project team. So if you need let's say orders from three different skill sets you need Java coders you need C++ coders and you need that's a dot net coders all three are going to report to their respective functional manager a functional manager is going to have 10 Java coders and he's going to assign two or three as per your project requirement to your project. Those coders are going to be reporting to the respective functional manager. They are not reporting to you. This basically impacts and influences how you should be talking to your functional manager and how friendly you should be with the functional manager because your project team is basically reporting to functional managers not to you so function manager here in functional organizations. They have all the authority. The project manager here is only an expediter. You can only expedite stuff the resources. They don't report to you. You can. You basically have to influence a lot to be able to get your work done. The second kind of organization is matrix organization and matrix organization itself has three different kinds of organizational structure that an organization can follow. The first is known as weak matrix organization structure. This is where the project manager has certain authority in the previous functional organization that we saw the project manager did not have any authority. But here he has certain authority. He's not just an expedited but he can coordinate stuff. He is more of a coordinator the function manager has higher authority and resources report to both. So in the previous example in the previous slide in the previous topic of functional organization the project resources reported to the functional manager. They did not report you but in a vk matrix organization the resources are going to report to you as well as the functional manager. The second kind of matrix organization structure is balanced matrix organization. What this means is the PM in their form which means the project manager as well as the functional manager. They share the same level of poverty and resources. Again they report to both. But here you as a project manager have almost as much authority as the functional manager does. This is a balanced matrix organization. And finally you have a strong matrix organization. This is where the project manager has hired a party with resources still report to both but project delivery is most important. So the functional manager can not take away his or her resources because of any x y z reasons because the delivery of the project that they are assigned to is most important and that takes precedence over any functional activity that the functional organize the functional manager might want the resources to do and might be looking for taking away those resources. But he or she can not do the and then you have project based organizations. What do project based organization mean is the project manager has the highest authority here. So you are the boss here. You as the project manager are the boss aims are organized around projects so the teams the project teams right. They are organized around projects. They are not organized around functions. This is something which is important to note here. Resources have no room after project completion what this means is if you need Java developers the organization is going to hire Java developers after your project is done. Those Java developers will not have a project to work on so they may be acquired by a different project or they may be asked to leave the organization. Of course project based organization you will find them only on very large engagement projects projects that span around more than let's say three years. Those kind of projects will have project based organization an example that we talked about in previous slides was the Bangalore Metro work. That is where project based organization is going to shine because that is a huge project and the resources may not have a home per say or may not have work per say. After the project is complete but then if there is any other metro construction work in any other city of course they will be part of that project. They can apply for that project or they will be acquired by that project team. So this is how project based organization work. And finally you have composed it or hybrid organization. Now this is basically a combination of all the three organization structures that we just looked into functional matrix and project based so composite organization is going to be a mixture of all these three now. A good question here would be well how does this organization really work how can you mix all these three organizational structures into one. So let us address that question. So within an organization there could be certain projects that are being managed following the balanced matrix organization structure while others could be following the project based organization structure. So usually in the same organization a project may be following the balanced approach and the other may be following the project based approach a new project may pop up where it is beneficial for the team to follow the functional organization structure. So here you see in the same organization different projects are following different organizational structures and that is the very definition of the composite or hybrid organization and structure. The organization is using all organizational structures and whichever is beneficial in whichever project they are going ahead with it. So that is a composite organization composite organizational or hybrid organizational structure. Let me know in the comments which organizational structure does your organization follow because almost all modern organizations specifically the software companies they follow the composite organization structure now before we deal with this topic. Project Management Office p. m.. Oh let me ask you a question. We just talked about functional managers and how we have functional teams you know developers that belong to the java team report to a Java functional manager right. So there is a team. Where do the beam of project managers report to the team of project managers might just report into this department which is known as project management office PMO. Now I say might because it is possible that project managers will have a separate team in certain organizations and they don't report to be in all in certain organizations. They may and that is why there are different types of PMO's which we are going to look into now. First up PMO is a group or department that defines and maintains standards for project management within the organization. So this is important. They define and they maintain as well these standards for project management so who should be doing this. Who should be the members of the PMO. To be able to do so of course project managers. Right. So that is why I say a team of project managers might make up the PMO but in certain organization there could be a different team and they that the members of that team may not actively manage projects but they would simply define and maintain the standards of project management within that organization the PMO strives to standardize and introduce economies of reputation. Now this is important. This point is important economies of the reputation in the execution of projects. So let's take an example of call center set up Project. Let's say you are an I.T. infrastructure project manager. You are going to deliver 200 seats for a call center set. So what all infrastructure do you need. You need Wi-Fi. You need land connection you need phones whatever infrastructure that you need right switches wireless APIs everything. That is something that you are going to need and deliver as part of the project right. The percent of project now let's say your next project is also a call center second project. Now can you take advantage of your previous project experience here. Of course you can. And that is where economies of reputation comes into the picture. If PMO takes certain documents from your previous project and keeps it in a central repository so that every project manager who is going to deliver a quality End of Project can look into those documents can take reference from those documents and be able to deliver the project easily. That is what is known as economies of reputation and that is something that PMO strives to achieve so they want to standardize the and introduce economics of reputation. They want to maintain such documents. They want to standardize the. The project management discipline in an organization so that different project managers can make use of economies of reputation. Now there are three different types of PMO actually the first one is a supportive people. This type of PMO will basically provide templates. So like I said in my previous slide in the call center project right. In that example project there you may have certain documents that you would have created which needs to be repeated for other call center project. Those documents can be used as templates. They can be used as a template for future calls into projects. So these templates are something that PMO will keep with them be a more will they are going to publish them in a central repository or store with themselves so that the beams for similar call center project can use those templates right to manage their project and to carry out with their project management activities the second kind of PMO is controlling PMO. So in addition to whatever the supportive beams do. Controlling PMO skin or did a project to ensure the processes prescribed by them are being followed. So we just talked about how PMO describes the process. Right. The standards for project management discipline in your organization. So members of the PMO can also come in and what if your project. To make sure that you are following the standards that they have prescribed for your organization and finally you have directive PMOs and these are the kind of PMOs that actually assigns project managers to projects and beams might be reporting directly to the PMO. So this is the kind of PMO which we initially talked about in the introduction of this of this topic where we said that PMO could actually be a team of project managers a directive PMO is just that it is a team of project managers and project managers are assigned to projects through this directive. PMO let's take a look and do some practice questions here. PMO meet the project manager every once in a while to go over the project documents to ensure compliance. What kind of PMO is this. This is controlling PMO. PMO audits the project status at regular intervals to ensure reporting integrity. Again this is controlling PMO project managers retail project manager reaches out to the PMO for a template of change log. So what kind of PMO is this. This is support of PMO. This is providing templates PMO shares the organisation's knowledge base and lessons learned for the project manager to use what kind of PMO is this. Again this is support of PMO you are assigned a project to work on by the PMO or what kind of PMO is this. This is directive PMO you report to this PMO before the project can move from designed to coding the PMO ensures that all the prescribed design processes were followed. So PMO here is ensuring that the prescribed processes by them whether they be followed or not. This is a controlling PMO Alright so we talked about stakeholders in a one of the topics previously where we talked about the factors that define the project success cost quality schedule stakeholder satisfaction and alignment of business case. That is where I said that we will go over stakeholders as well although stakeholders itself is a pretty big area to cover so we are only going to introduce it here because we talked about it in the factories that defined project success. All right. So anyone who will be affected by the outcome of the project is a stakeholder. This is a very important definition and this is going to kind of make sure that you don't fall into the confusion of who a stakeholder is. It basically says any one who will be affected by the outcome of the project. So they are a stakeholder. Remember we took an example of the Bangalore Mangalore pipeline. They were affected by the outcome of the Bangalore Metro project right. So they were a stakeholder important stakeholder project manager identifies all stakeholders and manages their expectations. Again alignment to not just alignment but stakeholder satisfaction which was one of the important factors that the domain project success. So you as a project manager you need to identify all these stakeholders and you need to manage their expectations something which was not done in that Bangalore Metro project we just talked about. Remember that there can be negative stakeholders not this is where the problem comes in. There can be negative stakeholders they are negatively impacted by the outcome of your project. BANGALORE MANGALORE pipeline that organization was negatively impacted by the Bangalore Metro project right. So they were actually negative stakeholders and it can be tricky. It can become tricky for a project manager to manage negative stakeholders so three things that you need to remember about stakeholders. This can be a bit of an NBA tells us of what we just talked about in the previous slides about stakeholders satisfaction but you need to understand that not all stakeholders have the same power or impact right. They may not have the same power or the same impact on the outcome of your project. Not all stakeholders will always be satisfied. And this is important right. We just talked about how stakeholder satisfaction is an important factor in determining whether your project was a success or not. But then not all stakeholders will always be satisfied so this is something that you need to live it. This is something that you need to understand and accept as a project manager. That 100 percent of your stakeholders will not be satisfied with the way you deliver your project does that mean none of the project can ever be called a success. Of course not. People understand that there are negative stakeholders and they are negatively impacted by the outcome of your project. So they may not be satisfied always and that is why they don't have to be. So not all stakeholders will always be satisfied and they don't have to be but you as a project manager you need to do a lot of stuff to make sure that stakeholders are satisfied. By and large and you need to make sure that you identify all the stakeholders. Like I said there's a blockage area to cover in the stakeholder management domain and there's a separate knowledge area itself on stakeholder in the European courseware. But I just wanted to introduce this topic here because we talked about stakeholders in in the previous slides OK. A quick reminder here before we move ahead. If you're looking for PMP book recommendations if you are preparing for PMP and wondering what books to read you can go to PMCLounge.com/resources. That is where we have listed our favorite books for PMP preparation a quick agenda check here. So we have covered 10 points already and we are down to the final two. This is where we will be going much deeper into the PMP course where we will be talking about project management lifecycle and its types and we will be talking about the project management processes specifically the five process groups and the kind of tasks that are expected out of project managers in these process groups. All right let's get ahead. So let's talk about project management lifecycle. Now the project management lifecycle it basically comprises of the stages or phases that the project typically goes through. Remember we mentioned phases in one of our previous Slate where we were talking about checking quality timely and that is where I said that you should check for quality at are at the end of each phase as well if possible. And so this is where the phases of the project comes through so each project essentially has four phases so you've got four phases for every project. Initiation planning execution and closure. So these are the four project phases that each project goes through. So you should ideally be checking for quality in all these four phases. Of course quality is just an example that I'm taking because I talked about it in the previous slide. There are several different tasks that you as a project manager should be doing for each phase and we will be going over it in the next slide. There is one more phase which is monitoring and controlling this is one such activity which is common to all the phases so you as a project manager are doing this activity doing the monitoring and controlling while the project slides or goes through all these four phases. So this is how the cycle looks like we just talked about how there are four phases in easy Asian planning execution and closing and then there is monitoring and controlling which is common to all the four phases so let's talk about the types of project management lifecycle. There is a predictive lifecycle which you might be aware of as a waterfall lifecycle or the waterfall model. That kind of lifecycle that kind of model is known as predictive lifecycle then there is iterative and incremental lifecycle and you have adaptive lifecycle which it is also popularly known as agile. So we will be looking into all these three types of project management lifecycle. Let's get started so the first one is predictive lifecycle which I like I previously mentioned is also known as waterfall model or a fully plan driven life cycle. Now the project takes a phase by phase approach whereby the work on each phase is completed before moving on to the next phase. So we just talked about how there are different phases for each project right. You've got initiation you've got planning you've got execution and then you've got closure right. Each phase the work for each phase each of these phase will be hundred percent complete. So if your project is in the initiation phase in the tasks involved a lay initiate initiation phase should be hundred percent complete before you can move your project to the planning phase. Take this is the main idea behind the waterfall model or the predictive lifecycle so all requirements must be signed off before development can begin. This is a classic example right. You first gathered requirements and then you start the development in a software project so all the requirements must be gathered your requirements document must be signed off before you can start the development for those requirements. In the end the outcome is the final product. So after your through with the closing phase of the project your outcome is basically the final product. Then you have iterative and incremental lifecycle. So here the project team can start working on a single set of requirements. Once they are signed off instead of waiting for entire requirements to be fleeced. So what we are doing here is we are not waiting for the hundred person off requirements to be closed before beginning the development. If let's say a total of 20 requirements are expected in the project. Five of them are complete and five of them are marked as complete as well as signed off by all the stakeholders everyone involved. You can go ahead and begin the coding for those five. You need not wait for the remaining 15 to be completed and signed off by everyone before you begin coding. So this is of course saving a lot of time here right. The outcome is possible product that increments as we move further so let's say you move ahead and you started coding for those five requirements. You've done that the coding for those five requirements while the 15 requirements the remaining 15 requirements were not yet signed off. Even the requirement number six was also not signed off. So what is the outcome here. The outcome is a partial product and it will have increments as we move for the last one is adopted lifecycle or change driven lifecycle also known as a giant. So just like the waterfall model the project will take phase by phase approach but multiple times. So the phase by phase approach is going to be followed but it will be done multiple times each iteration will generate a deliverable or a set of deliverables. Right so at each iteration since unlike the previous cycle that we talked about iterative and incremental here the requirements should be frozen right. So not all requirements may be frozen but at least for one iteration the requirements should be frozen so that you have a ship a built product at the end. Right. So each iteration is going to generate a deliverable a deliverable that can be shipped and that is why this is different from the previous slide because the previous slide didn't mention that you should have a deliverable a shipper built deliverable. It may be a partial increment itself while here in agile you should have a shipper build deliverable at the end of each iteration. Also the outcome could be an instance of the end product. This is also important right. It could be an instance of the end product which can be improved in further iteration. So you may be delivering a beta of a software itself in the first iteration and then second iteration will have the final product. The final outcome the last topic here in this session is going to be the project management processes that different project management processes. Now there are five process groups. Again this is part of the PMP courseware guys. So there are five process groups in the being because we're initiating planning executing monitoring and controlling and closing. Remember these are the phases that we just talked about. So these are process groups in the PMP courseware and then there are certain knowledge areas that cut across these process groups the knowledge areas are integration scope schedule cost quality resource communications risk procurement and stakeholder. So remember we talked about some of these in the project constraint itself. We talked about stakeholder as well right. That is where I said that stakeholder is a big area in itself because it is a large knowledge area in itself when it comes to PMP courseware. Now this is how the process groups and the knowledge areas interact. How do you read this. PG-KA mapping. We call it PG-KA mapping because PG stands for process groups. KA stands for Knowledge areas. We just said that there are five process groups and there are 10 knowledge areas and then D when they get across the intersection is all these processes. And as of PMBOK 6 you have 49 total processes so in the project integration management knowledge area you have these processes across the process groups right. This is how you are going to lead the big A mapping table initiating process group is in the initiating process group in the integration management knowledge area has just one process which is developed project. Schachter And when you read the PMP courseware you are going to read about the developed project charter process. What are the inputs you need. What is the output of this process. What other tools and techniques you need to develop the project tackle and that is the study which you are going to do for all these processes which is essentially the PMP courseware. Now in the later slides in the remaining slides of this session we are going to talk about certain tasks that you as a project manager would be doing as part of these process groups right. These five process groups what are the tasks that you as a project manager should be doing. That is what we are going to discuss. We will not be going into detail of each process because then that is going to become a five day training session. All right. Let us go ahead. So initiating process group is the first process group in the list as you can see to where you are right in the PGA mapping. You have two processes in the initiating process group, one is develop project charter and the other is identify stakeholders. Let's look at some of the tasks that you as a project manager would be performing as part of the initiating process group. First is your going to perform project assessment. Now this is going to be based upon available information that you have the lessons learned from the previous project. Lessons learned from previous project you can always get from your PMO and meetings with relevant stakeholders in order to support the evaluation of the feasibility of new products or services within the given assumptions and or constraints. Identify key deliverables based on the business requirements in order to manage customer expectations and direct the achievement of project goals perform stakeholder analysis using appropriate tools and techniques in order to align expectations and gain support for the project. Identify high level risks you can also identify the high level assumptions constraints based on the current environment in which the project is working. Organizational factors historical data and expert judgment in order to propose an implementation strategy you'll have to develop project charter and you need to participate in the development of the project charter by compiling analyzing gathered information in order to ensure project stakeholders are in agreement on its elements project charter by the way is a document and that is why the next point is opt in that approval for the project just right. It is a document that is being prepared. So you need to obtain the approval for Project Charter. You need to do that from the sponsor or sponsor is the person who's sponsoring the project offering you money for the project in order to formalize the MOU so when you obtain the approval for the project charter you basically formalize the authority assigned to the project manager and you gain commitment and acceptance for the project from the different resources. You need to conduct benefit analysis with relevant stakeholders to validate project alignment with organizational strategy in the expected business value of the project as well. You need to inform the stakeholders. Once your project target is approved. So you need to inform them that the project charter is approved so that this is going to ensure a common understanding of the key deliverables project milestones roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders right. All of that at a high level is mentioned in the project charter. So these are some of the tasks some of the activities that you need to perform as part of the initiating process group. Let's move to planning so planning first week before we talk about the tasks required and planning. You can see the planning process group is pretty populated right. In terms of the number of processes you have here. A lot of planning processes. So that is why planning is definitely important and there are a lot of tasks that you need to do as a project manager in the planning process group. Let's start with the review and assess detailed project requirements. You will also have to do so for the constraints and the assumptions that you came up with based on the project charter. Lessons learned and by using requirement gathering techniques in order to establish detailed product deliverables so the project charter is already done in the initiating process group. So here you are doing a review and assessment of the requirements concerning assumptions everything that you have mentioned in the charter. Then you develop a scope management plan based on the approved project scope and using scope management techniques in order to define maintain and manage the scope of the project scope. Again one of the constraints. Remember that triple constraint triangle that we talk about. So it is important then you develop the cost management plan as well. This is based on the project scope schedule resources approved project charter and other information using estimation techniques in order to manage project costs. Again cost is important. You need to have a cost management plan. Then you need to develop the project schedule. This will be based on the approved project deliverables and milestones. Scope of the project and resource management plans in order to manage timely completion of the project. Then before we move ahead I'd like to remind you that scope cost schedule are all part of the iron triangle that we have already discussed and that is why management plans for these are extremely extremely important. The next is you need to develop a resource management plan as well so you will define the roles and responsibilities of the project team members in order to create a project organizational structure. So at an organizational structure just for your project right. And provide. You can also provide guidance regarding how resources will be assigned and managed to out the project. Resource was one of the other constraints project constraints that we talked about when we dogged about six project constraints. That is we had a resource came into the picture another important part of the planning process group is to develop communications management plan. So this will be again based on your project's organizational structure itself and what are these stakeholder requirements in order to define and manage the flow of the project information to important stakeholders will require more frequent communications right projects the stakeholders which are not so important which do not have a larger role or larger impact on the project will have less communication requirements the procurement management plan that is also something that you need to develop because that is also something which is going to be important. This will be based on the product school budget and schedule in order to ensure that the required required project resources will be available. Then you have a quality management plan by the way. Are you noticing that there is a plan for each knowledge area. Here we are talking about scope management plan. We are talking about schedule management plan. We're talking about cost management plan quality management plan. We've also talked about resource management land communications management plan and now you're talking about a quality management plan. Again so the quality management plan. So this is something that you need to develop and this is going to you also need to define the quality standards. Remember we took an example of how quality standards are important right so for your project what the quality standards are going to be. This is something that you will define as part of the quality management plan that we are talking about here. Right. So the what are the scope of your project. What are the risks. What are the requirements. All of these right are you need to consider when you are defining the quality standards. Next year. Develop the change management plan so again for this you need to define how the changes if there are any changes in one of the examples we saw how 33 kilometre metro line was changed to forty three point two kilometers when that changed when that change occurred right. What happened was the project manager would have looked into his change management plan. So this change management plan basically defines how changes will be addressed and controlled in order to track and manage that change throughout the project. Some more tasks for planning process group are risk management so you need to plan for risk management as well. Again this is going to be how you plan for risk as you're going to develop the risk management plan. You need to identify analyze and you need to prioritize what are the project risks you need to create at risk register as well and you need to define what are your risk response strategies in case those risks which you are kind of working on looking into identifying if they materialize. What are your risk response strategies. Right then you will have the project management plan you need to present that to the relevant stakeholders. So you basically prepare a plan for all of these you've got scope management plan schedule management plan cost management plan you've got quality management plan resource management plan communications management plan you've got the risk management plan that we just saw. You've got procurement management plan you've got stakeholder management you've got plans for everything. And the combination for all this is known as a project management plan. So you need to present this project management plan to the relevant stakeholders then you need to conduct kickoff meeting you need to communicate that the project has started off and what are the key milestones of your project right. You need to inform you know these stakeholders with the relevant information and finally there's a stakeholder management plan something that we missed before we talked about the project management plans or stakeholder management plan. Again you need to analyze needs interests and potential impact of all these stakeholders right. In order to effectively manage stakeholder expectations and engage them in deep project decisions. So stakeholder management plan again an important part of the project management plan itself the next one is executing process group and if you notice the executing process group actually has less number of processes as compared to the planning process group and this again signifies the importance of planning. There's a saying that goes by a minute spent in planning is going to save 10 minutes in execution and as a project manager you need to make sure that you spend a lot of time in planning so that execution is smooth. Let's look into some of the tasks that you would do as a project manager in the executing process group. The first is you need to acquire and manage the project resources. This will be based on your resource management plan. So the resource management plan and your procurement management plan so what are the resources that you need to deliver your project. So you are going to acquire and manage those resources. Next is you need to manage task execution. Again this will be based on your project management plan then you need to implement a quality management plan. So this is quality management. You already have the quality management plan you already have your standards quality standards written in the quality management plan. So you need to make use of the appropriate tools and techniques and you need to ensure that the work we just perform is in accordance with the quality standards that you have to find. Then you need to implement approved changes and if there are any corrective actions you need to implement them. Then you also need to implement approved actions. If there are any so you followed the risk management plan here and if any risk materializes then you need to implement the approved actions based on your risk management plan. You need to manage the flow of information. This will be part of your communications management plan. You need to manage the flow of information and you need to keep your stakeholders engaged as well in the process right and you need to of course manage the stakeholder relationships you need to follow the stakeholder management plan in order to receive the continued support and manage the expectations of the stakeholder. So basically in executing you are making use of all the plans that you have previously formulated. So the next is monitoring and controlling process group. So remember we talked about how monitoring and controlling is one such activity that the project manager does throughout the project life cycle. So what are some of the tasks of the monitoring and controlling process group. But before that if you see the number of processes in the monitoring and controlling process group is actually more than the number of processes in the execution process group which means a project manager's job is a lot of project manager's job is in addition to planning is also monitoring and controlling the entire project work. So that is why there you see a lot of processes actually do processes here cut across all the knowledge areas of project management. So that is why you have work in all knowledge areas in the monitoring and controlling process group. So some of the tasks for project manager are you need to measure the project performance so you need to use all the tools and techniques available to you. You need to identify and quantify any variances and you need to take corrective actions if required. Many changes to the project you need to follow the change management plan to do so and you need to make sure that the project goals are aligned with the business needs by managing changes to the project you need to verify that project deliverables conformed to the quality standards. Again this is where the quality management plan will come into use and you need to use other tools and techniques to meet the project requirements and the business. Each monitor and assess risk. Again you need to determine whether the exposure has changed and you need to evaluate the effectiveness of the response strategies which you had formulated in the risk management plan right. Here's your risk management plan. So in the risk management plan you had formulated certain risk response strategies in case risk materializes. So again you need to monitor and assess risk and you need to also check the effectiveness of your risk response strategies in order to manage the risks and the opportunities if any on the project you need to review the issue log. So there is the issue log which contains all the issues of your project. You need to update that as well if necessary and you need to determine if you need to take any corrective actions based on the issue log as well. Write you need to capture and analyze and manage lessons learned. If there are any lessons learned on your project you need to do that too well with the project not just at the end of the project and you need to use the lessons learned management techniques in order to enable continuous improvement. So if you are looking for some of the lessons learned management techniques you can always reach out to your PMO. And finally you need to monitor the procurement activities in your procurement management plan. This is where we are talking about. So you need to monitor the procurement management activities and you need to make sure that the procurement management plan is being followed. Compliance as are in place with the project objectives. Finally you have the closing process group and there is only one process in the closing process group which is closed project or face and what are some of the tasks that you as a project manager would do in the closing process group. So number one is you will opt in the final acceptance of the project deliverables so you will obtain the final acceptance your project has done. Who will give this acceptance of course the relevant stakeholders they will be confirming and they will be giving the acceptance based on the project scope and the deliverables that you will be providing to them. You need to transfer the ownership of deliverables to the same stakeholders in accordance with the project plan in order to facilitate the project inclusion of course you will obtain the financial legal and administrative closure you will use generally accepted practices and policies to do so. These practices and policies will be available with your PMO again so you can check with them and you will communicate the former project closure and ensure the transfer of liability is right. So this is where the project manager's job ends and the support team's job begins. So you need to transfer the liability to the respective support team. You need to prepare and share the final project report. This is according to the communications management plan so communications management plan will have details on this and you will be kind of sharing this final project report with the folks mentioned in the communications management plan. According to your communications management plan and you will be documenting and you will be conveying the project performance. This is going to assist of course in your project evaluation. Next you are going to collate the lessons learned. Remember we talked about lessons learned in the previous slide and monitoring and controlling. So those lessons learned which you have been kind of documenting throughout the life of the project. You will collect all of them and you will conduct a comprehensive project review in order to update the organization's knowledge base of course organization's knowledge base something which could be coming under the purview of the P M or you will archive the project documents and materials using generally accepted practices. Again this will be from your PMO in order to comply with statutory requirements and for potential use in the future project and the audits. Finally you will opt in feedback from the relevant stakeholders. You will use appropriate tools and techniques for it and based on your stakeholder management plan is. When is how you're going to opt in the feedback and you will evaluate their satisfaction. So these stakeholder satisfaction is of course important a factor to determine the project success. And like I mentioned in one of the previous slides that not all stakeholders will be happy with the project. But again those are some of the tasks that you would do in your closing process. Group so with that we come to an end of this session. I hope you enjoyed it to hit the Like button if you found this helpful and subscribe to this channel we are all about project management and PMP. There are loads of helpful articles and videos on this channel as well as on our website PMCLounge .com So don't forget to check out the website PMCLounge.com it is our number one free PMP resource. Thank you and have a nice day.