Nutrition For Beginners - Learn More About Nutrition Today !

Nutrition For Beginners - Learn More About Nutrition Today !
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  • Lectures 53
  • Length 2.5 hours
  • Skill Level All Levels
  • Languages English
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About This Course

Published 5/2014 English

Course Description

Nutrition For Beginners is a beginner friendly course that focus's on Carbs,Fats, Protein,Minerals and Vitamins, Users will learn the following in Nutrition For Beginners course

Nutrition For Beginners - Overview

This Module is the first section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Nutrition For Beginners - Course Introduction
  • Review of Anatomy & How Food Becomes Fuel
  • Calories Burned During Physical Activity + Common Terms & Dietary Reference
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans + Consumer Education Tools
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Carbohydrates

This Module is the second section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Definition, Categories and Fiber
  • Carbohydrates, Digestion, Absorption and Related Medical Conditions
  • 2010 Dietary Guidelines
  • Nutrition Educational Tools,Food labels and My Plate
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Protein

This Module is the Third section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Introduction and Learning Objectives
  • Definition and Benefits Of Protein
  • Classification Of Amino Acids
  • What Foods Contain Protein
  • Estimating Protein Needs
  • Dietary Guidelines For Protein
  • Protein Digestion and Absorption
  • Protein and Health
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Fats

This Module is the Forth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Introduction
  • Benefits and Definitions
  • Types of Fat - Harmful Fats & Healthful Fats
  • Digestion
  • Effects On Health - Harmful Fats & Healthful Fats
  • Dietary Recommendations & Education Tools
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Vitamins

This Module is the Fifth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Introduction
  • Understanding Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin A
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin D
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin E
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin K & Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin B12
  • Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C
  • Supplement Use
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Minerals

This Module is the Sixth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Introduction
  • Understanding Minerals
  • Calcium
  • Calcium Deficiency and Toxicity
  • Iron
  • Iron Deficiency and Toxicity
  • Zinc, Potassium & Sodium
  • Sodium-Related Conditions & Cutting Back On Sodium
  • Supplement Use
  • Summary

Nutrition For Beginners - Water, Alcohol & Other Beverages

This Module is the Seventh section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on:

  • Introduction
  • Water, A Nutrient
  • Alcohol
  • Agricultural Beverages - Milk
  • Agricultural Beverages - juice, Coffee, Tea & Cocoa
  • Manufactured Beverages - Soda, Sports & Energy
  • Summary

What are the requirements?

  • internet connection
  • pen
  • pad

What am I going to get from this course?

  • By the end of Nutrition For beginners. you will be able to discuss and understand how Fats, Carbs, Protein, Minerals and Vitamins have a effect on the body.
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Overview This Module is the first section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Nutrition For Beginners - Course Introduction Review of Anatomy & How Food Becomes Fuel Calories Burned During Physical Activity + Common Terms & Dietary Reference Dietary Guidelines for Americans + Consumer Education Tools Summary ​
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Carbohydrates This Module is the second section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Definition, Categories and Fiber Carbohydrates, Digestion, Absorption and Related Medical Conditions 2010 Dietary Guidelines Nutrition Educational Tools,Food labels and My Plate Summary
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Protein This Module is the Third section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Introduction and Learning Objectives Definition and Benefits Of Protein Classification Of Amino Acids What Foods Contain Protein Estimating Protein Needs Dietary Guidelines For Protein Protein Digestion and Absorption Protein and Health Summary
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Fats This Module is the Forth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Introduction Benefits and Definitions Types of Fat - Harmful Fats & Healthful Fats Digestion Effects On Health - Harmful Fats & Healthful Fats Dietary Recommendations & Education Tools Summary ​
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Vitamins This Module is the Fifth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Introduction Understanding Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin A Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin D Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin E Fat Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin K & Water Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin B12 Water Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C Supplement Use Summary
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Minerals This Module is the Sixth section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Introduction Understanding Minerals Calcium Calcium Deficiency and Toxicity Iron Iron Deficiency and Toxicity Zinc, Potassium & Sodium Sodium-Related Conditions & Cutting Back On Sodium Supplement Use Summary
  • Nutrition For Beginners - Water, Alcohol & Other Beverages This Module is the Seventh section of the Nutrition For Beginners lectures and it includes lectures on: Introduction Water, A Nutrient Alcohol Agricultural Beverages - Milk Agricultural Beverages - juice, Coffee, Tea & Cocoa Manufactured Beverages - Soda, Sports & Energy Summary​

What is the target audience?

  • nutrition
  • nutrition for beginners
  • people who are poorly informed about nutrition
  • people who would like to improve their diet and lifestyle
  • Moms
  • Dads
  • People who would like to lose weight

What you get with this course?

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Curriculum

Section 1: Nutrition For Beginners - Overview
01:48

INTRODUCTION

This module of Nutrition For Beginners provides an overview. Other modules in Nutrition For Beginners series include carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and beverages. Module’s build on one another and are best when taking in the sequence.

During this module we will lay the foundation for other nutrition essentials modules. Our overview will include a brief review of the discipline of food and nutrition, anatomy and energy, which is otherwise known as calories. We will look at the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and how the guidelines shape educational tools, such as the Food Guidance System - MyPlate and the Nutrition Facts labels. We will also explore the role of the nutrition educator versus the role of the registered dietitian.

Let’s first discuss the discipline of nutrition. Nutrition is the study of nutrients and other compounds found in food and beverages that may promote health or disease. Some of these nutrients contain calories. For example, carbohydrates, protein and fat contribute calories to the eating plan. Alcohol is not a nutrient, but it too contributes calories to the eating plan. Nutrients are essential for life.

Why study nutrition? Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, some forms of cancer and osteoporosis all have a diet related component. These chronic diseases are major causes of death and disability.

04:09

REVIEW OF ANATOMY

During this section we will review anatomy as it relates to ingestion, digestion and absorption.

Food moves along the digestion tract. Each organ has a role to play in the digestion of food. Food moves along the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine - which is also known as the colon - the rectum and the anus.

During this physical process of food moving through the GI or gastrointestinal tract, other events are also taking place. Food is ingested, digested, absorbed, assimilated and eliminated.

Food and beverages are ingested by swallowing. Digestion involves the breakdown of food particles from larger compounds to smaller molecules that the body can absorb. Enzymes perform this task. Enzymes are proteins that are required for chemical reactions in the body. In this case, enzymes are necessary to break down the food into small molecules that the body can absorb.

Once the food is broken down into small molecules, nutrients can be absorbed by the cells in the small intestines. Nutrients are then transported to every cell in the body. Once inside cells, molecules from carbohydrates, proteins, fats and even alcohol are broken down to release energy.

HOW FOOD BECOMES FUEL

Perhaps you have heard of bioavailability. Bioavailability is related to the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used in the body. Bioavailability is dependent on several factors. For example, bioavailability is related to digestion. When someone has a stomach flu digestion may not be complete because of a rapid GI transit time, or otherwise known as diarrhea. The presence of other foods eaten at the same meal can affect the bioavailability of a nutrient. The absorption of calcium can be affected by the presence of dietary fiber. Food preparation can affect the bioavailability of the food. For example, vitamin C is not very heat stable and cooking foods high in vitamin C will reduce its bioavailability. Some nutrients, such as B12 and folic acid, are better absorbed in the fortified form than in its natural form. Age and health will also affect nutrient uptake or bioavailability. As people age, it becomes more difficult to get nutrients from the food that is eaten.

Food and beverages provide fuel in the form of calories. Energy is the ability to do work and should not be confused with the motivation to do work. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans define calorie as a unit of energy available from the metabolism of food that is required to sustain the body’s various functions including metabolic processes and physical activity.

A calorie is the unit of measure for the body’s energy. The amount of calories are different for each source. Fats have the most calories, 9 calories per gram. Alcohol is next, each gram of alcohol contributes 7 calories. Carbohydrate and protein are similar, they both have 4 calories per gram. This is why when trying to lose weight the reduction of fat and alcohol is often recommended.

Energy needs - that is to say the calorie intake that will maintain a healthful weight - varies from person to person, day to day and changes over the lifespan. Caloric needs will depend on age, gender, metabolism, health, body size and activity level.

02:51

CALORIES BURNED DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Physical activity is recommended to help balance calorie intake with calorie output for the maintenance of weight. On this slide you will see several activities that are considered to be moderate physical activity and the number of calories burned per hour of activity. For example, hiking, gardening or doing yard work, dancing, golf, bicycling at the speed of less than 10 mph, walking at 3.5 mph or less and stretching are moderate physical activities. Their calories range from 370 to 180 calories per hour of activity.

Vigorous physical activity burns more calories than activities that are moderate. For example, running or jogging, bicycling at the speed greater than 10 mph, swimming, aerobics, walking at the rate of 4.5 mph, performing heavy yard work and playing vigorous basketball or all examples of vigorous physical activity and the number of calories burned per hour of activity range from 590 to 440.

COMMON TERMS

This is a good place to stop and talk about some common terms. Some terms and concepts that may be appropriate when talking about populations. For example, some assessment tools, such as the body mass index, or BMI, is valuable when monitoring populations. We also speak in terms of associations, not cause and effect. For example, television viewing may be associated with obesity but watching television does not cause obesity. Also the term prevention is often misused. For example, on the population basis the recommended intake of folic acid by women childbearing age may prevent birth defects of the brain and spine. However, on an individual basis we can only say that the recommended folic acid intake reduces the risk of certain birth defects. This is because a woman may consume the recommended levels of folic acid and still have a child affected by spine bifida.

04:03

DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are revised every 5 years to ensure they are consistent with the latest nutrition and medical research. Guidelines shape federal policies and food programs. Also, the guidelines are the basis for nutrition education. This ensures that consistent science-based information is disseminated.

The goal of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to provide sound nutrition and dietary information to help people manage body weight, achieve nutrient adequacy and reduce the risk for chronic disease such as those we’ve talked about earlier.

The guidelines provide consumer tips on how to balance calories, which foods to increase and which foods to decrease. Calories should be balanced by eating less food while enjoying the food that is eaten and by avoiding the temptation to oversize portions. Foods to increase include vegetables, fruits, whole grains and fat-free and low-fat milk. Foods to decrease are foods with higher levels of sodium, then products like sugary drinks.

00:44

SUMMARY

This overview of Nutrition For Beginners should help you prepare to study nutrients in greater detail in the remaining modules. Today we’ve reviewed the discipline of food and nutrition, anatomy and how food becomes energy or calories. We also mentioned the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Food Guidance System, which is called MyPlate and Nutrition Facts label. We also briefly discussed the role of the registered dietitian as compared to a nutrition educator. We hope this overview was helpful for you and will help you lay the foundation for other Nutrition For Beginners models to follow.

Section 2: Nutrition For Beginners - Carbohydrates
06:13

DEFINITION, CATEGORIES AND FIBER (AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES)

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this module, participants will be able to:

Discuss carbohydrates as a main source of energy in the diet and the percentages of meal calories that should come from carbohydrates;

Give examples of simple and complex carbohydrates;

Discuss phytonutrient fiber and compare soluble to insoluble fibers relative to their physical state in water, food sources, and their effects on the digestive tract;

Name common medical conditions that are related to carbohydrate consumption and metabolism;

List 4 food groups and food examples that have the most impact on the blood glucose level and list 3 food groups and food examples that have the least impact on carbohydrate levels;

Tell which carbohydrate sources are to be reduced and which carbohydrate/fiber sources are to be increased according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans;

Discuss how food labels can assist consumers in knowing the total carbohydrates and fiber sources in foods;

Be able to discuss MyPlate and how carbohydrates can be an important part of a healthy meal plan.

As the main energy source for the body, carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in various amounts and arrangements. Think of carbohydrates as belonging to 2 major groups: sugars, which are simple carbohydrates; and complex, which are starches + fiber.

Carbohydrate categories include: simple or monosaccharaides, mono meaning 1 or 1 sugar unit, simple or disaccharides, di meaning 2 or 2 sugar units which are monosaccharaides that are linked together; and complex or polysaccharides, poly meaning more than 10 sugar units that are linked together.

Simple carbohydrates or sugars are the 1st major group. They are known as monosaccharaides and are found in the blood as glucose or dextrose, sugars found naturally in fruits such as fructose or fruit sugar, high fructose sweetener in beverages or other processed foods and milk sugar galactose and lactose found in fluid milk and milk products. An interesting fact is that all of these monosaccharaides have the same chemical composition of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. But they differ in their molecular arrangement.

Another simple carbohydrate class is known as disaccharides. These simple sugars are found naturally in beer and broken down starches such as maltose, which is glucose added to another glucose. Another disaccharide is sucrose, which is glucose added to a fructose. It’s found in fruits and white granulated table sugar. Finally, lactose is made up of glucose plus galactose. It is found in fluid milk, cheese and other dairy or milk products.

Added disaccharides or sugars contribute on average 16% of the total calories in American diets. These sugars include high fructose corn syrup, white sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, raw sugar, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, liquid fructose, honey, molasses and hydrous dextrose and crystal dextrose. The majority of sugars in typical American diets are sugars that are added to foods during processing, preparation or at the table. These added sugars sweeten the flavor of foods and beverages, contribute to preservation and improve functional properties such as food thickness and texture. High intakes of sugars can be associated with consuming fewer nutrients and other healthy dietary components. For example, many foods that contain added sugars often supply calories, but they supply few or no essential nutrients and no dietary fiber.

The other major carbohydrate category is known as complex carbohydrates or polysaccharides. Polysaccharide food sources are starches that are at the storage form of energy in plants such as grains from wheat, rice, legumes such as dried peas or beans and potatoes. Glycogen is another form of complex carbohydrate that is found in meat, since glycogen is the storage form of energy found in the muscles and the liver of both humans and animals. Glycogen helps the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal column, by supplying energy during fasting periods.

Fiber is not a nutrient so it is not a polysaccharide. Other complex carbohydrates including starches and glycogen are classified as nutrients. Fiber is classified as a phytonutrient not a nutrient. Fiber includes the structural part of the plant in which long chains of glucose are linked so digestive enzymes cannot separate them during the digestive process which results in no energy being available. Fiber food sources include vegetables, fruits, grains such as oats, wheat or unmilled rice and bran.

Fiber is classified as being either soluble or insoluble. Let’s take a look at what determines this classification. Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Food sources of soluble fiber include oats, fruits, barley, flaxseeds, legumes and vegetables. The role of soluble fiber is delaying or slowing-down gastrointestinal (GI) transit, delaying the absorption of glucose and helping to reduce blood cholesterol. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. Food sources of insoluble fiber include wheat, corn and oat bran, whole grain breads and cereals, fruit skins, root vegetables such as carrots, beets and turnips, green beans and vegetables in the cabbage family such as broccoli, brussels sprouts or cauliflower and white or sweet potatoes. The role of insoluble fiber is to speed up GI transit time, delay glucose absorption, slow starch digestion and absorption and increase fecal bulk.

08:02

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION/ABSORPTION AND RELATED MEDICAL CONDITIONS

In this section, the focus will be on digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Additionally, we will review some of the common medical conditions related to carbohydrates in carbohydrate metabolism, such as overweightness and obesity, diabetes, lactose intolerance, dental caries and constipation. The digestion of carbohydrates involves the breakdown of food particles from larger compounds into smaller molecules that the body can absorb. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Digestion of carbohydrates does not take place in stomach. Enzymes in the small intestine perform the task of further breakdown of carbohydrates, protein and fat. Amylase is a digestive enzyme needed to digest carbohydrates into small molecules that are known as monosaccharaides, so the body can absorb them. Carbohydrate absorption occurs following digestion where individual monosaccharaides are absorbed by the cells that lie in the intestinal wall. Fructose and galactose, which are both sugars, travel to the liver to be converted into glucose. Glucose remains in the blood stream for distribution into all cells requiring energy and is used for the body to do its work. In response to the rise of blood glucose, insulin is needed so the blood glucose can be utilized by the cells. Once insulin is released, glucose is utilized by the cells.

Poor diet and physical inactivity are the most important factors contributing to an epidemic of overweight people and obesity in this country. The most recent data indicates the 72% of men and 64% of women are overweight or obese, which means about 1/3 of adults are obese. Even in the absence of obesity, poor diet and physical inactivity are associated with major causes of morbidity and mortality. Eating too many calories from carbohydrates and sweetened beverages, processed foods and desserts are one of the factors in the overweight and obesity crisis today. It leads to degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and some types of cancer. Other conditions unique to carbohydrates include lactose intolerance, dental caries and constipation. Some racial and ethnic population groups are disproportionately affected by the high rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases. The connection between diet and health make the focus on improved nutrition and physical activity even more urgent. It also provides important opportunities to reduce health disparities through dietary and physical activity changes.

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body utilizes food. The food you eat turns into glucose which is sometimes called blood sugar. Insulin helps the glucose to enter the cells so it can be utilized as energy. When you have diabetes your body has trouble making and or using insulin. Because of this your body lacks the fuel it needs and your blood glucose stays excessively high. Therefore, you have a problem with carbohydrate metabolism. You have to learn to control carbohydrates to know which ones cause your blood glucose to increase more and those carbohydrates that have less impact on your blood glucose. In type 1 diabetes, the body doesn’t make any insulin which usually has to be injected every day. In type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t make enough insulin or use insulin well. As a result the body lacks fuel which is a problem with carbohydrate use.

A person with diabetes and a problem with carbohydrate metabolism needs to learn which foods cause their blood glucose to increase and those which have less of an impact on their blood glucose. Let’s take a look at these categories. Food groups with more carbohydrates and more impact on blood glucose levels include grains, such as starch and fiber like whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables such as corn, potatoes, green peas and pasta, fruits, dairy such as low-fat milk, yogurt or dairy-like foods, and sweets, desserts or other carbohydrates. Food groups with less carbohydrates and less impact on blood glucose levels include vegetables that are nonstarchy or high fiber content, protein food such as lean meat, poultry, fish or eggs and other foods such as fats, bacon, butter, margarine, nuts, salad dressings and other fat containing foods.

Lactose intolerance is another disease unique to carbohydrates. People with lactose intolerance are unable to digest the large quantities of lactose that are found in dairy products. This is due to an enzyme deficiency of lactase in the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include bloating, flatulence, cramps and diarrhea. It is important, however, to use caution when dairy products are eliminated. Individuals should be selecting other calcium food sources or taking supplements as these products are major sources of calcium in the US diet. Additionally, they provide vitamin A and protein. Lactose intolerance has a higher prevalence in special populations such as certain ethnic groups. These groups include Asian Americans, Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and the elderly. Also lactose intolerance is more prevalent in people who have temporary side effects associated with surgery and certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS.

If a person can’t tolerate lactose in his or her meal plan, what can be done to ensure that a healthy meal plan is still possible? Here are some tips for lactose tolerance or treatment when dairy products can’t be tolerated. Instead of totally cutting out all dairy foods, first try to eat smaller amounts of dairy with your meal. The best dairy choices to select are those that have been more highly processed such as yogurt, buttermilk and hard aged cheeses. If neither of these tips are successful, select milk products treated with lactase from the Lactaid brand. Lastly, try taking a lactase supplement before eating.

Carbohydrates which are sugars and starches increase the risk of tooth decay or dental caries. Sticky foods are more harmful than non-sticky foods because they remain on the surface of the teeth. Frequent snacking increases the time that acids are in contact with the surface of the teeth. Let’s consider who might be a high-risk population for dental caries. Those more prone to dental caries are from certain ethnic and racial groups include black or Hispanic children of Mexican origin who had significantly higher percentages of untreated cavities than white or non-Hispanic ones. Another factor for tooth decay is known as the baby bottle syndrome. Tooth decay can occur when a baby is put to bed with a bottle or when a bottle is used as a pacifier for a fussy baby. The sugary liquid pours around the teeth while the child sleeps. Bacteria in the mouth use these sugars as food. Avoid high-risk foods that stick to the teeth such as candy, raisins, dried cranberries, sweetened beverages and white bread. For prevention of dental caries eat sweetened foods during meals instead of as snacks, drink beverages with less added sugar with meals, brush your teeth regularly and chew gum with artificial sweeteners.

What’s the connection between carbohydrates and constipation? First, let’s consider the definition of constipation, which is the condition of infrequent bowel movements that produce hard stools and require straining. Prolonged constipation is linked to hemorrhoids and diverticulitus which is damage to the colon caused from straining and causes the colon to become inflamed and infected. Common causes of constipation include eating a diet that has little fiber and limited fluid intake with most afflicted people eating from 11 to 14 grams of fiber when 25 to 35 grams are recommended each day, as well as a lack of physical activity, the use of certain medications and chronic use of laxatives, traveling and ignoring the urge to defecate. Treatment of constipation should include gradually increasing fiber intake to recommended levels of at least 25 grams per day, drinking between 8 to 10 glasses of fluid daily, trying foods with a natural laxative effect such as prunes, grapes and wheat bran, engaging in daily exercise or activities and following the urge to defecate.

05:38

2010 DIETARY GUIDELINES

In this section we’ll see the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which are recommendations for planning carbohydrates into healthy meals. The guidelines recommend that at least 130 grams of carbohydrates be eaten each day. This should be about 45 to 65% of the total calories eaten daily. Added sugar should be no more than 25% of total calories. Nutrient fibers should be 14 grams per 1000 calories, which equals 25 grams for women and 35 grams for men. The average person eats only about 11 to 14 grams of fiber each day but the guidelines recommend that we eat 25 to 35 grams per day. Print the handout Nutrient Needs at a Glance, review the amount of carbohydrates required, their food sources, their functions within the body and symptoms of nutrient deficiencies. This publication defines nutritional terms unless all of the nutrients, vitamins, minerals and electrolytes for which recommended dietary allowances have been established.

So what does the term nutrient dense of foods and beverages mean? Nutrient dense means that the food or beverage provides vitamins, minerals and other substances that have a positive health effect with relatively few calories. The term nutrient dense indicates that the nutrients and other beneficial substances in the food have not been diluted by the addition of calories from added solid fats, sugars or added refined starches or by solid fats naturally present in food such as the fat in meats, poultry, fluid milk and other milk products such as cheese. The fat in fluid milk is considered to be a solid fat. It is solid at room temperature, but it is suspended in milk by the process of homogenization. Nutrient dense foods and beverages are lean or low in solid fats and they minimize or exclude added solid fats, sugars, starches and sodium. Ideally they are also in the forms that retain naturally occurring components such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans, peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat milk and milk products, and lean meats including poultry when they are prepared without adding solid fats, sugars or salt are considered nutrient dense foods.

Refined grains are processed which results in the loss of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Although they’re rich in iron, thiamine and folic acid before being used as a food ingredient some of the benefits like fiber content are lost in processing. The chart on this slide shows the sources of refined grains in the diets of the US population. It shows the reason for the recommendation to substitute whole grain products for refined grain products. Over a quarter of all refined grains consumed are from yeast breads, rolls and bagels. These items and many other foods on the chart have whole grain counter parts in the marketplace that could be selected by consumers. Other refined grain sources are from pizza, grain-based desserts and tortillas. Pasta dishes and mixed rice and chicken dishes are also a source for refined grains. You can identify other sources that are refined grains on this slide as well.

This chart shows the sources of added sugars in our diets. It highlights the contribution of sodas and similar calorically sweetened beverages as the major source of added sugars in the American diet. Starting on the right side of the pie chart you will see that most added sugars come from sodas or sports and energy drinks. They’re followed by grain-based desserts, fruit drinks, dairy desserts and candy, then ready-to-eat cereals, sugars and honey and finally sweet tea. About 2.1% is from yeast breads. All other categories of food account for about 15.4% of added sugars in the diet.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide consumer tips on how to balance calories, which foods to increase and which foods to decrease. Calories should be balanced by eating less food while enjoying the food that is eaten and by avoiding the temptation to oversize portions. To improve our diets Americans need to eat more of the following food groups and nutrient dense forms, which contain carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fat-free or low-fat milk. The total amount of protein foods Americans eat is adequate on average, but within that food group, sea food should be consumed in greater amounts and meat and poultry in smaller amounts. Oil should be used to replace solid fats when possible. The 4 nutrients that the committee for the Dietary Guidelines for Americans concluded were public health concerns are potassium, dietary fiber, calcium and vitamin D. The new recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D are included in an appendix of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. They were set under the assumption of minimal sun exposure.

Another new key recommendation is to limit refined grains, especially those that contain solid fats, added sugars in foods and beverages and added or higher levels of sodium. Enriched refined grain products provide some vitamins and minerals but not the fiber provided by whole grains. Replace refined grains with whole grains.

09:47

NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL TOOLS, FOOD LABELS AND MYPLATE

In this section we’ll learn about some educational tools including the Nutrition Facts label, ingredients listing label and the new MyPlate recommended meal plans. These tools will help us to have a better understandings of carbohydrates in our meal plans. The Nutrition Facts label and ingredients listing label which are found on processed food packaging are educational tools to help consumers know what nutrients and calories are in the foods that they buy. Let’s briefly go over the ingredient and nutrient facts information on food labels regarding carbohydrates and sugars. As we all know some products contain sugars. People need to check the product labels, so that they can avoid eating large amounts of concentrated sources of sugar such as table sugar. Research has found that people can eat some sugar and other sweeteners within the context of a healthy meal plan. We don’t have to avoid sugars all together but we do need to eat them in moderation. Sugars are easily absorbed into the bloodstream. Carbohydrates and sugars have the greatest impact on blood glucose levels.

Let’s look at the ingredients listing on the food label shown here. One way to know whether a food has too much sugar is to look for whether sugar falls in the list of ingredients on the label. The first ingredient listed on the label is the one that the food contains the most of by weight. The second ingredient listed has the second largest amount of that item. And the ingredient with the third most amount is listed third. The remaining ingredients are also listed in descending order of amount by weight. If sugar is listed as the first, second, third or fourth ingredient then the product probably contains too much sugar. You might consider eating the food if sugar is listed as the fourth, fifth or sixth ingredient. There’s probably a small enough amount of sugar that it won’t matter or you might consider avoiding this food all together or eating only a little of it. If you aren’t sure, look at the total carbohydrates and the amounts of fiber and sugar on the nutrition facts information to help you decide if you can eat that product or not.

On the Nutrition Facts label on this slide, how much of each of these items is contained in the product? Take a look at the serving size and the number of calories per serving. What is the serving size for this container? The answer is half a cup. How many calories do you get from eating 1 serving? The answer is 90 calories. What is the total carbohydrate amount for 1 serving? The answer is 13 grams. What is the amount of fiber? The answer is 3 grams. What is the amount of sugar? The answer is 3 grams.

Everyone should be alert and able to recognize all forms of sugar that can be mentioned in the ingredients listing of a food label, because sugar is not always identified by the word sugar. Sugar plus many different sweeteners that are known as nutritive sweeteners contribute about the same 4 calories per gram as sugar. Sugar has many disguises on food labels. Sugar can be disguised on label as many of the terms ending in ose, such as sucrose, fructose, levalose, lactose, dextrose, maltose and glucose. It’s worth noting that non-nutritive sweeteners, which contain few or no calories, are saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K, neotame and sucralose. Since sucralose, which is also known as Splenda, ends in ose that could be confusing. Sugar may not be so disguise with the more commonly known sugars of other names, such as malaises, maple syrup, corn syrup, sorghum, honey and brown sugar. Sugar can also be disguised in some of the manufactured ingredients like invert sugar, high fructose corn syrup and dextreme. Other forms of sugar end in ol and are known as polyols, which are commonly referred to sugar alcohols. They include mannitol, xylitol and sorbitol. Let’s take closer look at the polyol sweeteners or sugar alcohols that are like sugar and provide energy or calories. They don’t contain ethanol like an alcoholic beverage. They may be referred to as sugar replacements. Sugar alcohols are naturally present in many foods like berries, other fruits and vegetables. Some sugar alcohols are hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, isomalt, lactitol, mannitol and erythritol. Compared to sugar at 4 calories per gram, these sweeteners have fewer calories per gram. At .2 to 3 calories/gram than sugar are less sweet and are similar in bulk and texture. Polyols don’t promote tooth cavities because they aren’t converted to acids like sugar is. Oral bacteria needs sugar to produce cavities. The food and drug administration approved the health claim for gum, candies, beverages and snack foods with sugar alcohols noting that the sugar alcohols in these foods do not cause tooth decay. Polyols, especially mannitol and sorbitol produce abdominal gas and have laxative effect if eaten in excess, so eat foods with sugar alcohols in moderation and along with other foods in case your tolerance is lower. Sugar alcohols are absorbed slowly and incompletely by the body. The body uses little or no insulin with sugar alcohols.

Fiber is another dietary concern. Remember that fiber is part of the plant that your body cannot digest. Most people need to increase their intake of fiber because it aids in digestion and increases the amount of fiber in relation to starch contents of foods. The jury is still out as to whether or not the fiber might help lower the levels of glucose and fat in your blood. The Food is a good source of fiber, if it has between 3 to less than 5 grams of fiber. It’s a high fiber food if it has 5 or more grams. It is a poor fiber food if it only has 1 to 2 grams of fiber. Let’s look at this Nutrition Facts label to find the amount of both total carbs and dietary fiber. Look on the ingredients listing for whole grains, cellulose etc. Remember that whole grains will provide higher amounts of fiber in your meal plan. To put more fiber in your meal plan, look at both the ingredients listing and the nutrition facts information for the items listed on this slide.

Let’s take a look at the nutrition facts information on this slide to see the fiber amounts in various foods. First, look at the total carbohydrates on this label for black beans which is 16 grams. We also see that it has 6 grams of dietary fiber and 3 grams of sugar. Remember that the rule is that the product is considered high fiber if it contains 5 or more grams of fiber. These black beans would be an excellent fiber choice.

Let’s take a look at the nutrition facts information on these 2 cereal labels to see the fiber amounts and which would be the best choice. Shredded wheat or fruit loops? One cup of each cereal is one serving. Shredded wheat has 170 calories and contains 40g of total carbohydrates, 6 grams of fiber and 0 grams of sugar. In comparison fruit loops has 120 calories and contains 28 total carbohydrates, 1 gram of fiber and 15 grams of sugar. Which has the higher sodium content? The answer is fruit loops. Which one has more protein? The answer is shredded wheat. Would shredded wheat be considered a high fiber, good fiber or poor fiber source? It qualifies as a high fiber source. Would fruit loops be considered a high fiber, good fiber or poor fiber source? Fruit loops is a poor fiber source. Remember from our earlier discussion on fiber a food is considered to be high in fiber if it has 5 or more grams. A food is a good source of fiber if it has between 3 to less than 5 grams of fiber. A food from 1 to 2 grams of fiber would be considered a poor source of fiber.

The new MyPlate from ChooseMyPlate.com was introduced in 2011 and it provides guidelines for eating healthily. MyPlate is a visual system to help increase the consumption of plant-based foods. For example a 9 inch plate can be divided into 4 quadrants. About a quarter of the plate should be for protein foods, the next quarter would be for grain foods, the remaining half of the plate should be covered in vegetables plus one fruit per each meal. One fat-free or low-fat milk should be added to each meal. By using MyPlate as a daily food planning guide you will be eating healthily each day.

01:36

SUMMARY

In this Nutrition For Beginners module you became aware of carbohydrates as the main source of energy or calories. We should provide about 45% to 65% of calories in a meal plan. We described the carbohydrate categories as simple, which includes monosaccharaides or disaccharides and complex, which includes starch or glycogen. Although the fiber is not classified as a nutrient it is important to include fiber containing foods to aid in digestion. Dietary carbohydrates in a relationship to common medical conditions were discussed. The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes were given as well as the discussion of nutrient dense foods and beverages, refined grains and foods with added sugars. Food sources of each were also given. Additionally, we discussed the carbohydrate foods and their need to be increased and those that need to be decreased. Educational tools to help consumers learn more about carbohydrates were provided and are included on the nutrition facts and ingredient listings on foot labels with attention to total carbohydrates, sugar, sugar alcohols and fiber. The new MyPlate guideline for eating healthily was also discussed. If you need assistance with a meal plan for any type of special medical condition, contact registered and licensed dietitians to assist you with your special food needs for your medical condition.

Section 3: Nutrition For Beginners - Protein
01:26

INTRODUCTION AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

This is the 3rd module in the Nutrition for beginners series and it provides an overview of protein, which is an essential nutrient. Other modules in this series include the overview, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and beverages. Because the modules build on one another, they’re best when reviewed in sequence. At the conclusion of this module, participants will be able to do the following: discuss the functions of protein, explain the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids, estimate individual protein needs, identify protein foods that reflect the recommendations by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, discuss protein foods that are suitable for vegetarians, describe how protein is digested and absorbed in the body and list 3 claims that are often made by companies that mark your protein and amino acid supplements.

During this module we’ll learn about protein and its role in the diet. We’ll discuss the benefits of protein and learn the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids. We’ll also discuss current dietary recommendations for protein and the recommended foods to meet those needs. We’ll briefly review protein digestion and absorption, learn how protein can help with weight management and end the module with the discussion on protein supplements.

01:45

DEFINITION AND BENEFITS OF PROTEIN

Protein is a nutrient that is comprised of amino acids. Sometimes these amino acids are referred to as building blocks for protein. Each amino acid has the same basic structure and includes carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and a unique side group. The side group is different on each amino acid and helps to distinguish one amino acid from another.

Protein is often associated with helping the body build muscle and other tissues, but as you can see this nutrient does much more. The body uses protein to make enzymes and hormones. Enzymes help facilitate the many chemical reactions that occur in the body every day. Hormones are often thought of as chemical messengers that travel to targeted tissues and cause a specific response. Protein is also used to help the body maintain fluid balance. That means making sure that the body has the right types of fluids in the right amounts. Another important function of protein is acid-base balance. Numerous chemical reactions happen in the body every day. As a result of these reactions, acids and bases are produced and carried by the blood to the kidneys and lungs so that they can be eliminated. To keep the blood at the right pH, the body uses protein to buffer the acids and the bases. Protein also serves as a transporter carrying nutrients and other molecules throughout the body. For example, hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the rest of the body. Protein is also used to make antibodies, which help fight infections. Additionally, protein can be uses as a source of energy if needed.

01:09

CLASSIFICATION OF AMINO ACIDS

Every day the body uses amino acids to build proteins. However, for these proteins to be built all of the necessary amino acids need to be present. Our body uses 20 different amino acids to make protein. These amino acids can be classified as either essential or non-essential. Non-essential amino acids are those that can be made by the body from nitrogen and carbohydrate or fat. Most of the amino acids in the body that are used are non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that cannot be made by the body or made in sufficient amounts that the body needs. These essential amino acids must be obtained from the diet.

Generally speaking, 9 of the 20 amino acids used by the body are considered to be essential. This means that they must be obtained through the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make them in sufficient amounts. The amino acids listed in the first column are those that are considered essential. The non-essential amino acids are shown in the second column.

02:09

WHAT FOODS CONTAIN PROTEIN

Given the many roles that protein plays in the body, it’s important to consume protein containing foods every day. This will assure that the body receives the required essential amino acids as well as the nitrogen needed to make the non-essential amino acids. A variety of foods contain protein including meat and eggs, nuts and seeds, processed soy products and beans and peas.

As we’ve learned earlier, essential amino acids are those that must be obtained from the diet. Food with the highest amount of essential amino acids per serving include meat, fish, poultry, eggs and soy products. Fruits, vegetables, breads and other grain foods have lower amounts of essential amino acids.

It’s important to choose high quality protein foods to assure that your body gets the essential amino acids it needs. Protein foods that come from animal sources like eggs and meat have all the essential amino acids needed by the body. These foods are often called complete proteins. With the exception of soy, protein foods that come from plant sources often lack one or more essential amino acids. These foods are often called incomplete proteins. For those individuals who eat only a plant-based diet it is important that they eat a variety of protein foods from vegetable sources to make sure they get the necessary essential amino acids. Soy is the only plant-based protein food that is a complete protein.

Milk, yogurt and cheese are considered complete proteins because they contain the needed essential amino acids. However, since these foods contribute significantly to calcium intake in the United States, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans groups them in other dietary groups separately. Individuals who consume dairy foods in addition to foods rich in protein should have no problem meeting or even exceeding their protein requirements.

02:14

ESTIMATING PROTEIN NEEDS

Protein needs are often based on age and body weight, but other factors including illness and injury can increase protein needs. As shown in this chart, children need more grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight than adults. That’s because more protein is needed at this younger age to support the growth and development of new tissue. By adulthood protein needs decrease because we’re no longer growing. Instead, during adulthood protein supports the maintenance and repair of body tissue.

Here’s an example of how protein needs are calculated. An adult needs .8 grams of protein for every kilogram of bodyweight. First you need to convert a person’s weight in pounds to kilograms, because there are 2.2 pounds in one kilogram. Dividing one’s weight in pounds by 2.2 will give you the total number of kilograms. After you calculate an adult’s weight in kilograms, multiply that number by .8 to arrive at the estimated grams of protein needed for healthy adult. Here’s an example: Fran is a 54 year old female who weighs 132 pounds. 132 pounds is equal to about 60 kilograms. When weight in kilograms is multiplied by .8, we see that Fran needs 48 grams of protein based on her weight. Keep in mind that this is just an estimate. If Fran has other health issues her protein needs could be different.

An easier way to determine a person’s protein needs is by using the SuperTracker website developed by the United States department of agriculture. This website allows you to estimate your calorie and nutrient needs including protein. On this website you can create a profile by entering your age, gender, height, weight and physical activity habits. You get a customized plan that is complete with your estimated calorie needs and the recommended amounts of food from each different food group that are needed to promote to get health. Track your progress towards meeting your food goals by entering in your food intake and physical activity each day.

Dietary Guidelines for Protein
02:40
01:40

PROTEIN DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION


PROTEIN AND HEALTH

Most people in the United States get more than enough protein which is needed for good health. However, there are certain times in one’s life when additional protein is needed such as during periods of growth, pregnancy, lactation or recovery from an illness. High protein diets are often promoted for various health reasons but in reality there are some groups of people who shouldn’t consume protein in excess. These groups include those with liver or kidney disease. In addition, excessive protein intake can result in the diet that is too high in total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Individuals who need to increase their protein intake should do so by choosing lean protein foods.

Research continues to show that protein plays an important role in promoting a healthy weight. For example, a study showed that high quality protein in the diet can help promote satiety, which is the feeling of fullness. This in turn can help to reduce hunger and help people eat less. Additionally, eating a little more protein in the diet when trying to lose weight can help spare muscle loss. This is as simple as adding some low-fat protein with each meal.

Individuals who want to add some extra protein to their diets may be tempted to turn to dietary supplements. These supplements are available in stores and marketed heavily in the media and on the internet. Protein supplements are often marketed with claims that they will help with weight loss, help improve athletic performance or even help fingernails grow. Amino acid supplements are marketed and sold to people in hopes of preventing cold sores or getting a better night sleep.

Unfortunately, research doesn’t confirm most of the claims made by the marketers of protein and amino acid supplements. Most people who need extra protein can obtain it by adding nutrient dense foods in their diet. Supplements of single amino acids aren’t recommended as there is no research to support the proposed benefits. In addition, taking supplements of individual amino acids could lead to excessive intake. Finally, dietary supplements of protein or amino acid can be very expensive compared to food.

Here you see 2 foods that contain protein along with a protein supplement. Suppose you’re trying to add extra protein to your diet and want to do so in a way that doesn’t cost too much or add too many calories. The first food is a can of tuna packed in water. The 3 ounce can cost $1.29 and provides 26 grams of protein and has 120 calories. In addition to the protein, the tuna also provides small amounts of vitamin A, calcium and iron. Next we have a protein bar. This is a specially made bar that is fortified with protein and other nutrients. At $1.58 this protein bar provides 30 grams of protein and is a good source of calcium and iron. It offers 360 calories. Last we have a protein supplement. 2 scoops of powdered supplement cost $1.59 and is mixed with water to provide 40 grams of protein and more than half of the daily value for vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron. In addition, the supplement provides 280 calories. At first glance you might choose the protein powder because it provides the most protein, however, you will also be adding almost 300 calories to your diet. To avoid weight gain you will either need to decrease calories somewhere else in your diet or increase your physical activity. Also ask yourself a question: Do I need those additional nutrients? The bar looks good, but doesn’t provide as much protein as the supplement and it contributes 360 extra calories. And that’s quite a bit for what looks like a small snack. The tuna provides the least amount of protein per serving, but it also has the least amount of calories. All 3 products are similar with respect to cost. So if you are trying to increase your protein intake, which one would you choose? If you’re watching your calories then the can of tuna is a great way to boost your protein intake without adding too many calories to your plate. It’s also low in fat and low in saturated fat. If calories aren’t a concern, then perhaps the protein supplement is a good option since it’s not only high in protein but also low in fat. The bar was a good source of protein but it’s high in fat. In addition, more than a third of the fat in the bar is from saturated fat. For a person watching calories and fat the can of tuna is likely the better buy. If additional calories are needed the protein supplement is a good choice too. As you can see, when evaluating foods and supplements it’s wise to take into consideration the number of calories that will be added to your plate as well as other nutrients such as fat, vitamins and minerals. This will help assure that you’re getting all of the nutrients you need without consuming excessive amounts of calories.

05:27

PROTEIN AND HEALTH

Most people in the United States get more than enough protein which is needed for good health. However, there are certain times in one’s life when additional protein is needed such as during periods of growth, pregnancy, lactation or recovery from an illness. High protein diets are often promoted for various health reasons but in reality there are some groups of people who shouldn’t consume protein in excess. These groups include those with liver or kidney disease. In addition, excessive protein intake can result in the diet that is too high in total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Individuals who need to increase their protein intake should do so by choosing lean protein foods.

Research continues to show that protein plays an important role in promoting a healthy weight. For example, a study showed that high quality protein in the diet can help promote satiety, which is the feeling of fullness. This in turn can help to reduce hunger and help people eat less. Additionally, eating a little more protein in the diet when trying to lose weight can help spare muscle loss. This is as simple as adding some low-fat protein with each meal.

Individuals who want to add some extra protein to their diets may be tempted to turn to dietary supplements. These supplements are available in stores and marketed heavily in the media and on the internet. Protein supplements are often marketed with claims that they will help with weight loss, help improve athletic performance or even help fingernails grow. Amino acid supplements are marketed and sold to people in hopes of preventing cold sores or getting a better night sleep.

Unfortunately, research doesn’t confirm most of the claims made by the marketers of protein and amino acid supplements. Most people who need extra protein can obtain it by adding nutrient dense foods in their diet. Supplements of single amino acids aren’t recommended as there is no research to support the proposed benefits. In addition, taking supplements of individual amino acids could lead to excessive intake. Finally, dietary supplements of protein or amino acid can be very expensive compared to food.

Here you see 2 foods that contain protein along with a protein supplement. Suppose you’re trying to add extra protein to your diet and want to do so in a way that doesn’t cost too much or add too many calories. The first food is a can of tuna packed in water. The 3 ounce can cost $1.29 and provides 26 grams of protein and has 120 calories. In addition to the protein, the tuna also provides small amounts of vitamin A, calcium and iron. Next we have a protein bar. This is a specially made bar that is fortified with protein and other nutrients. At $1.58 this protein bar provides 30 grams of protein and is a good source of calcium and iron. It offers 360 calories. Last we have a protein supplement. 2 scoops of powdered supplement cost $1.59 and is mixed with water to provide 40 grams of protein and more than half of the daily value for vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron. In addition, the supplement provides 280 calories. At first glance you might choose the protein powder because it provides the most protein, however, you will also be adding almost 300 calories to your diet. To avoid weight gain you will either need to decrease calories somewhere else in your diet or increase your physical activity. Also ask yourself a question: Do I need those additional nutrients? The bar looks good, but doesn’t provide as much protein as the supplement and it contributes 360 extra calories. And that’s quite a bit for what looks like a small snack. The tuna provides the least amount of protein per serving, but it also has the least amount of calories. All 3 products are similar with respect to cost. So if you are trying to increase your protein intake, which one would you choose? If you’re watching your calories then the can of tuna is a great way to boost your protein intake without adding too many calories to your plate. It’s also low in fat and low in saturated fat. If calories aren’t a concern, then perhaps the protein supplement is a good option since it’s not only high in protein but also low in fat. The bar was a good source of protein but it’s high in fat. In addition, more than a third of the fat in the bar is from saturated fat. For a person watching calories and fat the can of tuna is likely the better buy. If additional calories are needed the protein supplement is a good choice too. As you can see, when evaluating foods and supplements it’s wise to take into consideration the number of calories that will be added to your plate as well as other nutrients such as fat, vitamins and minerals. This will help assure that you’re getting all of the nutrients you need without consuming excessive amounts of calories.

01:19

SUMMARY

This module reviewed the nutrient protein. We’ve learned that nutrient protein plays an important role in our health. While protein is most often linked with growth and repair in the body, we’ve learned that it is important for the synthesis of many enzymes and hormones that our body needs to function. It can be used as a source of energy, but only when needed. Protein is found in a variety of foods. It’s recommended that protein foods will be selected carefully in order to maximize nutrition without exceeding calorie intake. Whenever possible, choose lean protein foods, such as lean meat or poultry, fish, beans and peas. If you’re following a vegetarian diet, you shouldn’t have a problem getting enough protein if you include beans, peas, nuts, seeds or soy foods on your plate. Finally, use caution if you’re considering protein or amino acids supplements. While some products can help to boost your protein intake, some are high in calories and fat. Plus there isn’t enough research to show that they are beneficial for healthy people. Our body is designed to get most of its nutrition from food and that’s where we should start.

Section 4: Nutrition For Beginners - Fats
01:37

INTRODUCTION (AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES)

Learning objectives

The learning objectives for Nutrition For Beginners: Fat module are listed below.

At the conclusion of this module, participants will be able to:

List three health benefits associated with dietary fat;

Describe solid fat and list which types of fat are considered solid fats;

Explain why eating fish twice a week is a health recommendation;

List two health benefits of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and poly-unsaturated fatty acids; and

List an educational tool that consumers have to aid in selecting foods with lower saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol content.

This is the fourth module of Nutrition For Beginners and it provides an overview of fat. Other modules in the Nutrition For Beginners series include the overview, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. Modules build on one another and are best when reviewed in this sequence.

During this module we will review fats. Fats are also called lipids and are in the classic compounds that include fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol. Our review of fat will include the review of fat benefits and definitions, types of fat, digestion, the effects on health of a various types of fats, dietary recommendations and educational tools.

03:24

BENEFITS AND DEFINITIONS

Let’s first discuss the benefits of dietary fat. Dietary fat provides caloric energy. In fact, fat is the densest form of caloric energy. For each gram of fat, 9 calories can be generated. Fat is also a source of essential and omega 3 fatty acids. It aids in the absorption of important fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins A, D, E, K and carotenoids require fat for their absorption from the intestine into the bloodstream. Other functions of fat involve insulation of the body and cushioning for vital organs.

Fat, also called lipids, are really a family of compounds that do not dissolve in water. Fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol are included in this family of compounds. We also commonly use the terms fat and oil. In general, we use the term fat to describe a fat which is solid at room temperature and oil to describe a fat which is liquid at room temperature.

Let’s discuss triglycerides. Triglycerides are made up of 3 fatty acids held together by a carbon backbone. Fatty acids associated with triglycerides can be saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids include essential fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids. We’ll talk more about each kind of fatty acid and cholesterol later in this course. Fats, such as butter and oils are really blends of different types of fatty acids.

By looking at this figure you will notice the coconut oil and palm kernel oil are high in saturated fatty acids. You can also see that butter is higher in saturated fat than margarine. Canola oil is an excellent oil for general household use. Notice that canola oil is low in saturated fat, has a moderate amount of polyunsaturated fat and is rich in monounsaturated fats.

Food manufacturers often use solid fats such as saturated fat and trans fat in their product formulations because they have enhanced self-stability. They are less likely to become rancid. In contrast oils rich in PUFA can quickly spoil. To increase the stability of oils keep them tightly sealed and store at cool temperature. Food processors can add stabilizers or hydrogenated oils for added stability.

Solid fat is a term used to describe all fats that are solid at room temperature. Saturated fat, trans fats and cholesterol. Solid fats are deleterious to health and their consumption should be limited. Sources of solid fats include those that are naturally occurring in foods, the result of food processing, added during cooking and added at the table.

04:08

TYPES OF FAT - HARMFUL

Saturated fatty acids can also be referred to saturated fat or sat fat. This type of fatty acid does not have any double bonds. Dietary sources high in saturated fat include butter, lard and beef tallow as well as palm oil and coconut oil. In the typical American diet most of the diets saturated fat comes from regular cheese, pizza, grain-based desserts - because most of these items are usually made with shortening - and milk desserts. This is why one of the major key messages of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to switch to 1% or fat-free milk. Switching to low-fat and non-fat cheese will also help to reduce saturated fat intake.

Trans fatty acids or trans fat are formed when liquid oils are hydrogenated to produce solid fats. Hydrogenated oil is sometimes referred to as shortening. This is done because trans fat is more shelf stable than oil is and alters the texture of the food it’s cooked with. For example a cookie made with shortening is very different from one made with oil. While most of the trans fat consumed in the diet is from hydrogenated oil, a small amount of trans fat is naturally occurring in some foods. The major source of trans fats in the American diet is processed grained foods such as cookies, crackers, cakes and frostings as well as microwave popcorn.

Cholesterol is manufactured by the liver. The other cholesterol source is dietary. The cholesterol molecule has a different shape than fatty acid and as such does not contribute to calories. Cholesterol is found in animal products and foods which contain animal products. Some foods and beverages contain cholesterol. Some examples would be eggs - at least the yolk of the egg - meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese and butter.

TYPES OF FAT - HEALTHY

Monounsaturated fatty acids are also commonly referred to as the acronym M. U. F. A. or MUFA. A monounsaturated fatty acid is a fatty acid containing 1 double bond. Examples of oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids are olive oil and canola oil. Nuts, avocados and seeds are also rich in monounsaturated fat.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be referred to as polyunsaturated fat or P. U. F. A. or PUFA. Fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated. Because of the presents of double bonds polyunsaturated fats can easily become rancid. Oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids are sunflower, corn, soybean and some fatty fish, such as salmon.

Certain fatty acids are nutrients and they are essential. Essential fatty acids like vitamins are necessary for life and cannot be made by the body. Although very rare, deficiencies in essential fatty acids result in skin lesions. The 2 essential fatty acids are linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Linolenic is an omega 3 fatty acid while linoleic is an omega 6 fatty acid. Omega 3 or omega 6 are designations referring to the location of the double bond on the fatty acid molecule.

Food sources of omega 3 fatty acids are flaxseed, canola oil, wheat germ, nuts and seeds. Shellfish and cold water fish such as salmons and sardines are rich in omega 3 fatty acids and have health promoting properties.

01:55

DIGESTION

During this section we will review anatomy as it relates to fat ingestion, digestion and absorption. Dietary fat is consumed when we ingest food and beverages that contain fat. The presence of fat in our food can be a result of inherit properties of the food. This is truth for meats, nuts, seeds and dairy. Fat can be added during processing or preparation of foods such as grain based foods like cookies, cakes and crackers to name a few. Fat can be added at the fable in the form of spreads, dressings and gravies.

Food moves along the digestive tract. Each organ has a role to play in the digestion of food. Food moves along the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine also known as colon, the rectum and anus. The digestion of fat begins in the mouth as a result of specific enzyme called lipase. However, fat broken down into smaller particles happens mainly in the small intestine. Bile and specific enzymes are required for the breakdown of fat into smaller particles called micelles. They can be absorbed by the lining of the intestine. Micelles are tiny oil droplets that may compose vitamin A, D, E, K and carotenoids.

The cells are taken up by the lining of the small intestine. Fatty acids are then repackaged into triglycerides and are transported in the blood as chylomicrons. Blood lipids can be used as fuel by the various organs of the body or stored in adipose tissue as a future energy source. It should be noted that excess calories from carbohydrate, protein or alcohol can be converted to fat and the energy can be stored in adipose tissue.

03:00

EFFECTS ON HEALTH - HARMFUL FACTS

Lipid related diseases require medical intervention by a physician and may also involve a consultation with a registered dietitian. Lipid related diseases include gallbladder disease, atherosclerosis or the hardening of the arteries, and elevated blood lipids and cholesterol.

Reducing the intake of dietary saturated fats helps promote healthiness. The consumption of saturated fat increases blood cholesterol levels and increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. Also saturated fat intake increases insulin resistance and increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes.

Likewise, trans fat also has deleterious effects on health. The consumption of trans fat is positively associated with cardiovascular disease, inflammation and atherosclerosis.

Dietary cholesterol has negative effects on health. Dietary cholesterol can raise blood cholesterol levels and promote atherosclerosis. In degrees of health risk saturated fat is the worst and is followed by trans fat. That is not to say you should not be concerned with cholesterol. On the contrary, you should also be aware that there are dangers to health from saturated and trans fats as well.

Elevated blood triglyceride levels are associated with increased health risk and are associated with cardiovascular risk. The consumption of simple carbohydrates and alcohol can increase blood triglyceride levels.

EFFECTS ON HEALTH - HEALTHY FATS

When oils rich in monounsaturated fats, such as olive and canola are substituted for fats high in saturated fat, such as butter or lard, health risks decrease. In fact, there is a reduction in the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, inflammation and insulin resistance.

When polyunsaturated fatty acids are substituted for saturated fat or trans fat they can decrease total blood cholesterol levels, LDL cholesterol and blood triglycerides. Using polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

2 servings of seafood per week is associated with reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease and sudden death in persons with and without cardiovascular disease. Emerging research suggests consumption of omega 3 fatty acids is associated with reduced risk for inflammation, cardiovascular disease, depression and diabetes. More research is needed to conform these health promoting properties of omega 3 fatty acids.

03:49

DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS

Fat recommendations have changed. It is no longer the recommendation to limit fat intake to no more than 30% of your caloric intake. Instead the range for adults is to get 20-35% of your total calories from fat. Fat should not exceed 35% from calories because this may also increase solid fat and calorie intake above healthy levels. On the other hand adults' calories from fat should not be less than 20% because this may also limit vitamin E intake as well as the intakes of essential fatty acids. Children require more dietary fat than adults as they are growing and have higher energy needs. Children between the ages of 4 and 18 should have 25 to 35% of their calories in the form of fat. Young children between the ages of 1 and 3 should have 30 to 40% of their calories in the form of fat. This is why low-fat diets are not appropriate for young children and persons who are underweight and or frail. The recommendation is now on the type of fat that is consumed. We are advised to limit solid fats and to replace solid fats with monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.

Dietary guidelines recommend that adults limit saturated fat to less than 10% of daily calories. Healthy adults should limit cholesterol intake to 300mg per day. Adults with chronic disease should limit daily cholesterol to less than 200mg per day. Individuals should avoid trans fats from hydrogenated vegetable shortenings sometimes called industrial fats. As far as foods to increase, it is recommended that individuals consume seafood twice a week.

The typical daily dietary intake of cholesterol for men is 350mg while the intake for women is 240mg. Men often exceed the recommended daily cholesterol limit of 300mg for healthy adults. Adults with cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes should limit their daily cholesterol intake to 200mg.

The dietary guidelines recommend we increase our seafood consumption to 2 servings a week in order to benefit from the health promoting properties of omega 3 fatty acids. However, there are 4 types of fish that are not recommended for consumption because of their high mercury level. They are tilefish, swordfish, shark and king mackerel.

EDUCATIONAL TOOLS

The nutrition facts label lists the total number of calories a food has per serving as well as how many calories from fat. Total fat, saturated fat and trans fat in the serving of food are listed in grams. Cholesterol is listed in milligrams.

When shopping use the nutrition facts labels to help in reducing intake of solid fats. Compare saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, unprocessed grain foods, dinner entrées, vegetables with sauces, salad dressings and margarines.

The current food guidance system is called MyPlate. It illustrates a healthy eating plan. However, vegetable choices should be made without the addition of solid fat such as butter, dressings and sauces in order to reduce fat intake. Grains such as whole grain rice, rolls and tortillas likewise should not be accompanied by spreads and sauces high in solid fats. For protein foods, meat should be lean and cooked by grilling, roasting or broiling instead of frying. Also fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids should be consumed twice a week. As far as dairy the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that people over the age of 24 months drink lower-fat or fat-free milk. As mentioned earlier it is recommended that children 12 to 24 months of age should drink whole milk because of their rate of growth and energy needs. Making these food selections will help your plate stay low in solid fats.

01:19

SUMMARY

This module provides an overview of fat. We’ve reviewed benefits, definitions, digestion, effects on health, dietary recommendations as well as educational messages. We’ve reviewed that dietary fat can have healthy properties and that essential fatty acids are necessary for life. The caloric contribution of fat to the diet is higher than for carbohydrate, protein or alcohol. We’ve reviewed that fats and oils are blinds of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Saturated fat along with trans fat and cholesterol are considered solid fats. Dietary recommendations include limiting the consumption of solid fats because of their negative effects on health. This can be done by substituting monounsaturated fat and or polyunsaturated fat for solid fats when possible. The nutrition Facts labels help to identify foods high in saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. A healthy plate can be achieved by choosing lean meats and low-fat or fat-free dairy and by avoiding fried foods and rich fat contained in dressings, sauces and gravies. Because of the health promoting benefits of omega 3 fatty acids, eating fish twice a week is recommended.

Section 5: Nutrition For Beginners - Vitamins
00:52

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the vitamins module of Nutrition For Beginners. By now you’ve learned about carbohydrates, protein and fat. Compared to these 3 nutrients our body needs vitamins in very small amounts so they are termed micronutrients.

During this module we will provide a definition for vitamins and discuss the function of several vitamins including B12, folate, vitamins E, K, C, A and D. In addition, we will cover food sources for each vitamin as well as related deficiencies and toxicities.

02:46

UNDERSTANDING VITAMINS

Let’s first discuss the definition of a vitamin. Vitamins are described as organic compounds that are distinct from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. They are essential in small amounts for maintenance, growth, development and reproduction. They are not produced by the body in amounts that are adequate to meet normal physiological needs, they don’t contain calories or energy, they are natural components of foods, they are usually present in small amounts, such as milligrams or micrograms and they cause specific deficiency syndromes if not consumed in adequate amounts.

The discovery of vitamins lead to the field of nutrition. For example, long ago Egyptian and Greek doctors were able to link the consumption of liver to curing night blindness, which is a condition related to vitamin A deficiency. Today scientists have identified 14 known vitamins from food sources. Each of these vitamins is important for proper body function. These 14 vitamins include vitamin A, C, D, E and K, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin and choline. During this presentation we will be discussing the vitamins listed in green.

The 14 vitamins can be classified into 2 groups: water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Their classification depends on how they dissolve and how they’re transported in the body. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat then they’re carried through the blood stream attached to substances within the body that are made with lipids or fat. In fact, we need to consume moderate amounts of healthy fat in our diets so that we are able to absorbe these vitamins. There are only 4 fat-soluble vitamins. These are A, D, E and K. These vitamins can be stored in the body fat so consuming too much of them for a long period of time can be harmful to your health. In fact, high levels of vitamins A and D have been linked to toxicity, which leads to negative health effects. The water-soluble vitamins of B12, C and folate dissolve in water. These vitamins are transported in the blood stream and are not stored in the body in any significant amount. The body uses what it needs from these vitamins and the rest is excreted through the urine. Therefore individuals need to eat these vitamins on a regular basis. Although water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body, moderation is still the best approach. For example taking high doses of water-soluble vitamins can be harmful for your kidneys.

02:42

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN A

During the next few slides we will learn more about some specific vitamins. First let’s talk about vitamin A. Vitamin A as we’ve already learned is a fat-soluble vitamin. Some important functions of vitamin A are that it promotes normal vision and helps individuals see in low levels of light. It helps with normal bone and tooth development, the growth and health of cells and tissues in the body - especially the skin - normal reproduction and development of a maturing embryo and a healthy immune system which fights infections. In addition to these functions carotenoids, such as alpha and beta-carotene that form vitamin A can function as antioxidants and may reduce the risk for certain cancers.

There are both plant and animal sources for vitamin A. In animal sources, vitamin A is completely formed and is referred to as preformed vitamin A. Food such as liver, fish, eggs and fortified milk are good sources of vitamin A. Some plant-based foods provide carotenoids, which the body can use to make vitamin A. These carotenoids are referred to as pro-vitamin A carotenoids. Red, yellow, orange and dark green leafy vegetables are good sources of carotenoids.

If an individual doesn’t consume enough vitamin A a deficiency can result. One of the early signs of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness. Night blindness is the inability to adapt from a bright light or glare into being in complete darkness. This results in poor vision in low light conditions. If the deficiency persists, additional symptoms such as increased infections, dry, scaly, rough skin, problems with reproduction, dimness, poor growth, blindness and possibly death can result. The resulting deficiency disease when there is a lack of vitamin A is called xerophthalmia. Vitamin A deficiencies can be common in developing countries, but are rare in the United States.

Because vitamin A is stored in the body, consuming high doses of it over time can lead to toxicity. Some effect of vitamin A toxicity include birth defects, liver damage, nerve damage, reduced bone mineral density, headaches, dry and scaly skin, vomiting and appetite loss. Most toxicity results from a high intake of vitamin A via dietary supplements, however the consumption of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is considered safe. The body slows its conversion of carotenoids to vitamin A when the body stores are full. High carotenoid intakes can turn the skin yellow.

03:52

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN D

Vitamin D which is also known as the sunshine vitamin is the fat-soluble vitamin that serves several important functions in the body. Some of the functions of vitamin D include promoting the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and regulating how much calcium remains in the blood stream. In fact vitamin D may help prevent osteomalacia and along with calcium osteoporosis by promoting the formation of healthy bones and teeth, regulating cell growth and promoting proper immune functions.

Very few foods in nature contain vitamin D. The best sources are beef liver, egg yolks, cheese, and fatty fish such as herring, salmon and sardines. Other good choices are vitamin D fortified foods, such as milk, margarine yogurt and some cereals. In fact fortified foods provide most of the vitamin D in the American diet. Just be sure to check the nutrition facts panel to ensure that the food purchased is fortified with vitamin D. As we learned previously vitamin D is known as the sunshine vitamin. The body can make vitamin D when sunlight or ultraviolet light hits human skin. Most people meet at least some of their vitamin needs through exposure to sunlight. However it’s important to consume food sources with vitamin D as well. Exposure to sunlight in radiation from tanning beds should be limited due to the risk of skin cancer.

Rickets and osteomalacia are classic vitamin D deficiency diseases. In children, vitamin D deficiency results in rickets. Rickets involve defective bone growth, which leads to soft bones and skeletal deformities. In adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to osteomalacia or the softening of bones. Fortification of milk with vitamin D virtually eliminated rickets in United States. However vitamin D deficiencies may become more prevalent if milk consumption continuous to be replaced by juice and soda.

Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and is stored in the body, too much of it can be toxic possibly leading to kidney stones or kidney damage, weak muscles and bones, excessive bleeding, deafness and other problems. And overdose of vitamin D is usually from dietary supplements, not from food or from overexposure to sunlight.

Vitamin D intake through food and supplementation is especially important in the following special populations. The vitamin D requirements for breastfed infants cannot ordinarily be met by human milk alone. Exclusively or partially breastfed infants should receive a vitamin D supplement. Breastfeeding mothers should check with their child’s pediatrician about this issue. Older adults are at risk for deficiency in vitamin D because as the human body ages, it is not able to synthesize vitamin D as efficiently. In addition many older adults spent less time outdoors and experience less exposure to sunlight. People with limited sun exposure, such as those who are homebound, women who wear long robes and head coverings, or those with occupations that limit their sun exposure may also require supplements. People with dark skin have greater amounts of melanin, which is the pigment that gives human skin its color. Darker skin reduces skin’s ability to synthesize vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and requires fat for absorption into the body. People with fat malabsorption may not be able to absorb sufficient amounts of vitamin D. Lastly people who are obese or who have undergone gastric bypass surgery require higher amounts of vitamin D. Those who’re coming from surgery may not absorb adequate amounts of this vitamin.

02:10

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN E

Vitamin E is also fat-soluble and functions primarily as an antioxidant. Because vitamin E works as an antioxidant it can prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol That lowers the risk for heart disease, vascular disease and stroke. In addition vitamin E may help reduce the risk of cancer.

As we just learned the main function of vitamin E is to serve as an antioxidant. An antioxidant is a substance that can inhibit the reactions of damaging free radicals in the body. Free radicals cause oxidative stress or damage to the cells, which can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The main food sources of antioxidants like vitamin E are fruits and vegetables.

Plant products are some of the richest sources of vitamin E. In particular vegetable oil such as soybean, corn, cottonseed safflower and canola oil contain high amounts of vitamin E. Food products that contain oil such as margarine and salad dressings are also good sources. In addition nuts such as almonds and hazelnuts, seeds, such a sunflower seeds and wheat germ are high in oil and a great sources of vitamin E. Other foods such as avocados, peanut butter and egg yolks are also high in vitamin E. Some leafy green vegetables like spinach contain vitamin E in much smaller amounts.

A deficiency in vitamin E is rare for most healthy people. However very low birth-rate infants, those with cystic fibrosis, those with very poor fat absorption and those who consume a very low-fat diet can be in risk.

Toxicity from too much vitamin E may lead to an increased risk of bleeding, impair bone mineralization, and impair vitamin A storage. Consuming large doses of vitamin E as a supplant does not conclusively have any benefits, therefore it is not recommended.

03:53

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in proper blood clotting. In addition, it plays a role in reproduction of other important proteins related to the blood, bones and kidneys. Just like vitamin D, vitamin K can be produced by the body. Vitamin K is produced by bacteria that is found in the stomach, but it can’t be produced in sufficient amounts.

The best food sources of vitamin K are green leafy vegetables including spinach, broccoli, cabbage and dark lettuces.

Except for rare medical conditions deficiency of vitamin K is rare. Individuals who are prescribed and take anticoagulant drugs, such as coumarin for example, may be at risk for deficiency because these drugs interfere with the vitamin K cycle. As a result, perfuse bleeding or hemorrhaging may result if the person is injured. Prolonged use of antibiotics could also lead to a deficiency because they eliminate beneficial bacteria, which produce vitamin K. Toxicity from too much vitamin K has few known effects. There have been some cases of vitamin K causing jaundice in infants.

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: FOLATE

Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin. Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, which is found in supplements. Folate has several important functions, such as promoting the proper growth and development of a fetus, which helps lower the risk of delivering a baby with neural tube defect such as spina bifida. It promotes proper DNA synthesis and new cell formation and promotes proper formation of red blood cells. Specifically, folate orgs with vitamin B12 to form hemoglobin in red blood cells. In addition, folate helps control plasma homocysteine levels, which are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Let’s take a moment and further discuss the differences between folate and folic acid. Folate as mentioned previously is naturally occurring form of the vitamin. Folate is only about 50% bioavailable, which means that the human body absorbs only about 50% of the folate that is present in the food. Folic acid is the synthetic version of this vitamin. It is often added to foods or is available as a dietary supplement. The bioavailability of folic acid is greater than 90% and that’s why it’s used as a supplement into fortified foods.

Leafy green vegetables such as spinach in terms of greens, citrus foods and dried beans and peas are all natural sources of folate. Some examples of food include orange juice, lentils, dried beans, spinach, broccoli, peanuts and avocados. In addition, many products including breakfast cereals, flour, bread, rice and pasta are fortified with folic acid. Many whole grain foods are not.

A deficiency in folate can affect normal cell division in protein desyntehesis, which will impair growth. Pregnant women who do not take in adequate folate especially during the first trimester have an increased risk of delivering a baby with a neural tube defect, which is a birth defect of the brain and spine. Spina bifida is an example of a neural tube defect. Because folate is needed for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells a deficiency may also result in anemia. However consuming too much folate can sometimes mask the symptoms of anemia from a B12 deficiency.

Neural tube defects tend to be more prevalent among infants of Hispanic women. Due to the special role folate plays in a prevention of neural tube defects, there are special recommendations regarding folate and folic acid consumption among pregnant women and those who may become pregnant. In fact it is recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 micrograms of folic acid per day. During pregnancy, women should cons

04:17

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN B12

Vitamin B12 which is also known as cobalamin is water-soluble. It has several important functions. Those include the development of red blood cells, proper nerve function, proper cognitive performance and proper metabolism and DNA synthesis. Some studies suggest that vitamin B12 may help prevent coronary artery diseases, stroke, vascular diseases and blood clots.

Vitamin B12 is only found in animal foods such as meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, milk and cheese. It may also be found in fortified foods, such as some breakfast cereals. Strict vegetarians who eat no animal products as well as the infants of vegan mothers are in risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Consumption of vitamin B12 fortified foods or the use of supplements for these individuals is very important.

Let's take a moment to discuss the digestion and absorption of vitamin B12. First hydrochloric stomach acid and intrinsic factors are needed for vitamin B12 absorption. Intrinsic factors is a specific binding protein that is produced by the stomach. Intrinsic factors binds to vitamin B12 in the stomach. Then the intrinsic factors and vitamin B12 complex is absorbed into the body via the ileum of the small intestine. Interestingly, although vitamin B12 is water-soluble healthy people are able to store 5 to 7 years worth of vitamin B12 in their liver.

Before we discuss the specific symptoms of a deficiency in vitamin B12, let’s discuss several factors that may place an individual at risk for such a deficiency. These factors include having a poor diet, being a strict vegetarian who does not consume any type of animal products, having decreased stomach secretions which causes decreased absorption, having bacteria overgrowth in the small intestine that result in less absorption, having a parasite, having an injury or surgery on part of the stomach or small intestine, having a gastroectomy, having decreased pancreatic secretions and the lack of intrinsic factor, which results in pernicious anemia.

Deficiency of vitamin B12 can result in anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite and weight loss. Additional symptoms include nerve damage, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory and very sensitive skin. Let’s take a moment and further talk about anemia. Anemia is the shortage in the number or size of red blood cells, which results in a lower amount of oxygen being available to body cells. There are 2 types of anemia associated with vitamin B12, megaloblastic and pernicious. Megaloblastic anemia is a blood disorder in which the body produces larger than normal red blood cells. It is caused by deficiencies of folate or vitamin B12. Sometimes this type of anemia can be masked if large doses of folic acid are administered. However these large doses do not correct the neurological damage that also occurs as a result of deficiency in B12. Pernicious anemia results when the body cannot properly absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of intrinsic factors. Some people may not make intrinsic factors because of genetic or medical reasons. Pernicious anemia can be effectively treated with injections of vitamin B12. There are no known symptoms or conditions from consuming excess vitamin B12.

Several populations tend to have a higher prevalence of anemia. These populations include pregnant women and women of childbearing age, vegetarians who are especially strict vegetarians or are considered vegan and the elderly. On average most adults over the age of 50 consume adequate vitamin B12. However many older individuals may have a reduced ability to absorb naturally occurring vitamin sources of vitamin B12. In fact the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggest that individuals ages 50 and older should include foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as fortified cereals or take a dietary supplement.

02:06

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: VITAMIN C

Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It is a water-soluble vitamin with several important functions including serving as an antioxidant, helping the body to absorb iron from plant sources of food, boosting immunity by protecting from infection and stimulating the formation of antibiotics that fight infection, helping to heal wounds, helping to keep gums healthy, reducing bruising by keeping capillary walls and blood vessels firm and synthesizing collagen which is a connective tissue that holds muscles, bones and other tissues together.

Vitamin C mainly comes from plant food sources. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. All citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruits and tangerines are good sources. Other fruits, such as kiwi and strawberries are also high in vitamin C. Dark green vegetables such as spinach, bell peppers, collards and broccoli as well as tomatoes and potatoes are good sources of vitamin C. Whenever possible choose fresh and frozen produce since processing, heat and oxygen can easily destroy vitamin C.

A severe deficiency of vitamin C will lead to scurvy. Scurvy is a disease that causes tooth loss, swelling gums as well as bleeding around the gums, nails and hair follicles. Individuals suffering from vitamin C deficiency may also suffer from anemia, fatigue and poor wound healing. If left untreated Scurvy can be fatal. Thankfully vitamin C deficiency is rare in the United States.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin and any additional amount above what the body needs will be excreted into the urine. In some cases high doses of vitamin C in the urine can mask the results of a test for diabetes. Very high doses of vitamin C may cause kidney stones in addition to GI distress and diarrhea. Vitamin C is the most commonly used and overdosed supplement.

01:33

SUPPLEMENT USE

Approximately one third of Americans take a multivitamin and or mineral supplement. Taking this type of supplement can assist people with meeting certain nutrient requirements. However, no multivitamin or mineral supplement can take the place of eating a variety of healthy foods. Certain groups of individuals might benefit from a multivitamin and or mineral supplement. Let’s talk about each of these groups. Women who might become pregnant should get at least 400 micrograms a day of folic acid from fortified foods and or dairy supplements to reduce the risk of birth defects of the brain and spine in their new-born babies. Pregnant women should take an iron supplement as recommended by their health care provider. A prenatal vitamin or mineral supplement is likely to provide iron. Breastfed and partially breastfed infants should receive vitamin D supplements of 400 international units or IU each day as should non-breastfed infants who drink less than about 1 quart per day of vitamin D fortified formula or milk. In post menopausal women, calcium and vitamin D supplements may increase bone strength and reduce the risk of fractures. People over the age of 50 should get recommended amounts of vitamin B12 from fortified foods and or dietary supplements because they may not absorb enough of the vitamin B12 that is naturally found in food. Individuals considering the use of a supplement should first consult with their doctor. The doctor or health care provider can determine if a supplement is needed and if so, which kind.

00:30

SUMMARY

This concludes our module on vitamins. Today we have discussed information about fat-soluble vitamins, such as A, E, D and K. We also learned about key water-soluble vitamins including folate, vitamin B12 and C. In addition we discussed key food sources for each of these vitamins and disease conditions related to deficiency or toxicity. Thank you again for choosing for Nutrition For Beginners

Section 6: Nutrition For Beginners - Minerals
00:52

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the minerals module of Nutrition For Beginners. You’ve learned about carbohydrates, protein, fat and vitamins and how important they are in our daily lives. Today we’ll explore minerals, which are needed by the body in small amounts.

During this module we’ll discuss the definitions, functions and food guidance of minerals in our daily diet. We’ll specifically look at calcium, iron, zinc, potassium and sodium. We’ll also look at the food guidelines, sources and other deficiencies and toxicities for each mineral

02:25

UNDERSTANDING MINERALS

When we think of minerals we often conjure upper picture of rocks. But some minerals are essential nutrients that we need in our diet. The minerals we discuss today are found in many foods that we enjoy every day. Minerals give our body structure and help with the various regulatory processes. They’re essential to life. Let’s discuss the definition of a mineral. Minerals are inorganic elements, some of which are essential nutrients that are found in food. Our body requires various amounts of minerals which are described in grams, milligrams or micrograms. They are classified in 2 areas: macrominerals and microminerals. Minerals have the ability to retain their chemical identity and they’re highly resistant to heat, light and oxygen. Unlike carbohydrates, proteins and fats, minerals don’t provide calories for energy.

Science has established 18 minerals that are essential for proper body function. These minerals include the macrominerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. The microminerals include: iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, manganese, fluoride, molybdenum, copper, chromium, cobalt and boron. While minerals are in some foods naturally, fortification of products has increased the availability of many of these minerals in our daily diets. However, some minerals are under consumed despite the fortification of products, such as the ready-to-eat cereals and some fruit juices. Today we are going to examine these minerals of concern in more detail. Since our bodies don’t produce minerals we need minerals in specific amounts. In fact the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 state the intake of foods containing essential nutrients is lower than recommended. This may result in certain concerns for specific minerals, such as calcium, iron and potassium. While zinc isn’t a mineral targeted by the daily Dietary Guidelines for Americans, it’s important for many functions and we’ll discuss this mineral in our module today. Also the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend nutrients to reduce in your diet such as sodium. Many foods we consume contain added sodium and may lead to an increased risk of certain chronic diseases. While all minerals are important we will review only these minerals to reduce and those of concern

03:20

CALCIUM

During the next few slides we’ll learn about the specifics of calcium. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body mostly found in bones and teeth. Some of its important functions include bone development and growth, density and strength and muscle contraction, nerve function and blood clotting. Adequate intake of calcium throughout the life cycle may help reduce the risk of osteoporosis, osteomalacia and bone fractures. It’s important for prepubescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and post menopausal women to consume the recommended amounts of calcium. Establishing adequate calcium through early childhood stages has been shown to help decrease the risk of developing osteoporosis. Through childhood and puberty we peak out our bone mass development. Adults generally reach peak bone mass around the age of 30. With greater bone mass the risk of developing osteoporosis lessens. Calcium intake has also been shown to assist in weight maintenance. Some studies show that increasing dietary calcium intakes may help to lower body weight or lessen weight gain over time.

Calcium is found in many different foods. Primarily dairy foods such as low-fat milk, yogurt and a variety of cheeses contain the majority of dietary eaten calcium in the American diet. Other sources of calcium rich foods include fortified orange juice and calcium fortified soymilk, dark green leafy vegetables such as kale, collard greens and broccoli as well as almonds, soybeans and tofu. Calcium is also available in some fish with soft bones that are small enough to eat, such as salmon or sardines. Calcium from foods may provide more benefits than calcium from supplements. Varying the choices of calcium in your diet will help to promote the functions of calcium.

Calcium intake and absorption is crucial during infancy, childhood and early adult stages. As adults we absorb approximately 30% of dietary calcium. It’s important to maintain calcium consumption throughout adulthood. Some foods and factors can help to enhance calcium absorption. These include vitamin D, hydrochloric acid or stomach acid as well as lactose. The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. A low intake of vitamin D or sunlight exposure can reduce calcium’s absorption. This is important for older adults whose ability to produce vitamin D through sunlight exposure lessens with age. Some factors can inhibit calcium absorption such as oxalic acid, which is found in food, such as spinach, rhubarb, chard and beet greens. Phytic acid or phytate which is found in seeds, nuts and grains including wheat bran, flax seeds, sesame seeds, beans and other high-fiber foods. Oxalates and phytates are insoluble and bind to the calcium to inhibit absorption. Excess dietary fiber may decrease calcium absorption. However, this is only concern for those individuals consuming more than 50g per day or for those who are strict vegetarians and consuming high fiber foods.

02:26

CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY

When we become deficient in calcium, we may not see the results quickly. Over time however, the lack of adequate calcium intake may result in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis or brittle bone disease is characterized by the deterioration of bone tissue to the point the bone cannot sustain ordinary strains. It results in markedly increased risk for fractures. There are 2 types of osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis or age-related osteoporosis is distinguished by sex, the age at which the fractures occur and the type of bone involved in the diagnoses. Primary osteoporosis may occur in adults over the age of 70. Generally women are more susceptible however, men may develop primary osteoporosis. Secondary osteoporosis or estrogen-androgen deficient osteoporosis occurs when a known drug or disease process causes the loss of bone tissue. This type of osteoporosis may occur in post menopausal women due to the loss of bone tissue and the decreased production of estrogen. An adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D helps to prevent the development of osteoporosis. Additionally being physically active between weight bearing exercises also helps.

The increased risk of developing osteoporosis can include risk factors such as inadequate calcium or vitamin D intake, being over the age of 60, cigarette and alcohol use, associated risk for post menopausal women, amenorrhea or women who have missed periods due to excessive exercise, family history, being Caucasian or Asian, lack of weight bearing exercise, certain medications such as cortical steroids, lasix and biocide diuretics. It is important to include a variety of a calcium rich foods to aid in the prevention of osteoporosis.

While calcium toxicity is rare it may occur from excessive use of supplements that are high in calcium and vitamin D. This may lead to hypercalcemia where excessive amounts can lead to the build up of calcium in soft tissues, such as the kidneys. Complications and side effects associated with high intake of calcium include constipation, kidney stones and interference with the absorption of minerals, such as iron, zinc and manganese. Consuming the recommended intake of calcium will help to promote health benefits.

02:36

IRON

Iron is a nutrient that is essential for life and it plays many important roles for daily functions. Iron is part of many proteins and is important for the following: oxygen transportation and the regulation of cell growth, brain development, nerve function and healthy immune system. Iron may help to prevent iron deficiency anemia and other certain types of infections.

There are 2 types of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Animal products, such as red meat, fish and poultry are rich in heme iron. Plant sources, such as grains, vegetables and fruits are excellent sources of non-heme iron. As well as fortified foods, such as ready-to-eat cereal, oat meal and bread. While both forms are absorbed in the intestine, heme iron is more readily absorbed. Roughly 15 to 30% of heme iron is absorbed compared with non-heme iron, which is only absorbed at about 2 to 20%.

Eating a variety of foods that are high in iron will help to promote many bodily functions. The best sources for heme iron include beef, poultry, seafood and certain organ meats. While seafood, tuna, oysters, shrimp and clams are especially high in iron, legumes, dried fruit like raisins, spinach and tofu are naturally rich in non-heme iron. Non-heme sources, such as oat meal, breads and breakfast cereal have been fortified with iron and provide additional sources of foods that are rich in iron. Remember to include a variety of iron rich foods in your daily diet. It’s best to include lean sources of protein and limit high-fat foods in a healthy diet.

We are able to absorb iron more efficiently if it’s pared with the right foods. Foods rich in vitamin C when combined with an iron source help to promote iron absorption. This can be important for vegetarians who are combining vitamin C with non-heme foods. Here are some other ways to improve iron absorption. Cook in an iron skillet, small amounts of iron from the skillet can be incorporated into the food being cooked and be absorbed into the body. Remember that coffee, tea and calcium rich foods can lower iron absorption. Tannins found in tea and coffee can lower iron absorption, so try drinking coffee and tea between meals and not with iron rich foods. Calcium rich foods when combined with iron rich foods may decrease the availability of iron to be absorbed. Try to avoid consuming calcium rich and iron rich foods at the same time.

02:09

IRON DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the United States, especially among children, adolescents and women of childbearing age or who are pregnant. There are 2 stages of iron deficiency: iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency is when iron stores are low or depleted, but hemoglobin levels remain the same. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when iron levels are depleted and affect the level of hemoglobin in the blood. The decrease can limit oxygen that is delivered to cells, which can result in a person feeling fatigue and weak and having decreased energy and immunity. Iron deficiency anemia may be a result of low dietary iron intake, inadequate iron absorption or excessive blood loss.

Generally iron deficiency anemia is more prevalent in certain populations, such as infants, adolescent girls, pregnant or childbearing age woman and the elderly. Female athletes participating in high-endurance and high-intensity sports can display decreased iron stores in the body. Especially female athletes with athletic amenorrhea or the lack of ministration. The link for why this occurs has not yet fully been researched but providing adequate dietary iron intake for these people at risk is crucial for proper development and function.

Iron toxicity may be of concerns since very little iron is excreted from the body and can accumulate in body’s tissues and organs. There are few cases when iron toxicity may be of concern, such as the overuse of supplementation and individuals suffering from hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis is genetically inherited and results in individuals with the disease absorbing up to 3 times more iron. It’s important to keep iron supplements away from children since the ingestion of iron supplements in large doses may be harmful to them. If you suspect your child has consumed excess iron, immediately call your physician or poison control center. Side effects of iron toxicity may include constipation, diarrhea, vomiting and nausea.

04:41

ZINC

Zinc is an essential mineral that is needed for many metabolic processes. It’s important for tissue and bone growth as well as tissue and bone repair, wound healing, metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fat. The body also uses zinc for DNA and RNA synthesis and stabilization and normal system functions. Many different foods contain zinc. However, the foods highest in zinc are of animal origin. These can include oysters, meat, liver and seafood. Other non-animal products containing zinc include whole grain products, wheat germ, black eyed peas and nuts such as peanuts, pecans, almonds and walnuts.

Zinc deficiency doesn’t often occur in healthy populations However, deficiency may result in many different types of manifestations which can include growth retardation in children, delayed wound healing, eye and skin lesions, immune deficiencies, alter tastes and appetite, delay sexual maturation and other behavioral disturbances.

Toxicity from zinc is very rare. However, excess zinc intake may interfere with copper absorption and cause gastrointestinal irritation. Symptoms of zinc toxicity may include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea and headaches.

POTASSIUM

Potassium plays an important role in fluid electrolyte balance, nerve transmission, hypertension and muscle and heart contraction. Diets with proper potassium intake may help prevent diseases, such as hypertension and stroke. Potassium can help lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and contribute to decrease bone loss.

Potassium can be found in many different types of foods, such as avocados, bananas, grapefruits, orange juice, apricots, corn, asparagus and sweet potatoes. Other foods such as whole grain breads, dairy products and fresh meat, poultry and fish are naturally rich in potassium. Recent studies showed that American diets lack an adequate intake of dietary potassium and could benefit from an improved intake from all the food groups, especially fruits and vegetables. By eating a variety of healthy foods we can maintain a proper potassium balance.

Deficiencies and toxicity of potassium are rare and occur generally for individuals who take some diuretic drugs, steroids and strong laxatives. Signs of deficiency in potassium may result in extreme muscle fatigue. Toxicity in healthy populations rarely occurs. It is generally associated with the high intake of potassium supplements and can be due to some disease treatments. When there’s an excess of potassium the kidneys accelerate their excretion. This may be a concern for individuals with kidney disease who need to regulate the amount of potassium in their diet.

SODIUM

The minerals we’ve discussed today are minerals that we need to increase. However, in the American diet we consume too much of 1 mineral - sodium. Sodium, which is often confused with salt or sodium chloride is a mineral that’s needed to aid in many cellular functions. Sodium is important for water balance in and out of cells, regulating blood pressure, nerve impulses and muscle and heart relaxation. While essential, sodium isn’t linked to the prevention of any known diseases.

It’s important to limit the amount of sodium we include in our diet. It’s recommended that we take in less than 2300mg of sodium per day. If you’re 51 and older or you’re African American or have hypertension, diabetes or chronic kidney disease you need to reduce your intake to 1500mg of sodium per day. Most protein foods naturally contain sodium. Vegetables and grains have minimum naturally occurring sodium. A major source of sodium in most diets is in the form of sodium chloride or table salt. Increased sodium consumption may lead to a condition known as hypertension. Processed foods, foods that contain flavored salts, fast-food products and prepared sauces may contain sodium chloride. Cutting back on processed and prepared convenience foods may help to decrease added salts in our diets. Deficiencies and toxicity rarely occur with sodium. However, low sodium levels in the blood may result in hyponutrinia. This condition may be a concern for individuals with kidney disease and taking diuretic medications. Please consult with your doctor for specific sodium needs.

01:52

SODIUM-RELATED CONDITIONS

High intake of sodium in a diet may result in the development of hypertension, which is also known as high blood pressure. Hypertension is caused by a consistent increase in the force of blood pressure against the walls of the arteries. Over time, this pressure can damage the artery walls and can increase plaque formation. Individuals with an increased risk of hypertension are at a greater risk for heart attack, stroke, kidney disease and blindness.

Individuals who have hypertension or those who are at risk for hypertension may have risk factors including having a family history of the disease, excessive salt intake, being an African American descent, lack of exercise, being overweight or obese and a history of smoking or excessive alcohol intake. There are certain medications that may cause a rise in blood pressure, such as birth control, over-the-counter decongestants, hormone replacements and migraine medicines. If any of these signs are visible, consult with your physician.

CUTTING BACK ON SODIUM

Since we consume high amounts of sodium in our diets, it’s best to cut back on the amount of salt we use in the foods we eat. There are several steps for cutting back on salt. Purchase and choose fresh, frozen or no-salt-added foods. Eat less convenience foods, such as fast-food, restaurant food or frozen TV dinners, prepare more meals at home, buy low-sodium or sodium-free versions of your favorite foods, cook with less salt, try substituting herbs or spices or cut the salt in half for most recipes, store the salt shaker in a cabinet, not on the counter or table. Condiments are usually high in sodium. Limit the condiments you use, such as mustard, ketchup, soy sauce, tartar sauce or horseradish.

01:55

SUPPLEMENT USE

Many adults in the United States take one or more dietary supplements. However eating a variety of healthy foods is always recommended and can help individuals reach recommendations for all minerals. Some individuals may benefit from and eat multivitamin mineral supplementation. Let’s examine who might need to take supplements. Women who might become pregnant should get 400mg a day of folic acid from fortified foods or dietary supplements to reduce the risk for birth defects of the brain and spine in the new born babies. Pregnant women may benefit from iron supplementation due to their increased iron needs because of the increased blood volume in exchange with their growing baby. The other minerals discussed in this module, such as calcium and zinc are important during pregnancy for the fetus and its growth and development. Breastfed and partially breastfed infants should receive vitamin D supplements of 400 international units a day, as should non-breastfed infants who drink less than about 1 quart per day of vitamin D fortified formula or milk. In post menopausal women calcium and vitamin D supplements may increase bone strength and reduce the risk of fractures. People over the age of 50 should get the recommended amounts of vitamin B12 from fortified foods and or dietary supplements, because the might not be able to absorb enough vitamin B12 which is naturally found in food. Remember, most minerals are stored in the body and are not excreted. Over time they can accumulate. People on certain medications and those with certain conditions should be aware that this accumulation may interact with their treatment. Let your health care provider know if you’re taking any form of supplement and consult with your health care provider before beginning any type of supplement.

00:27

SUMMARY

This concludes our module on minerals. During this module we discussed the definitions, functions and food guidance of minerals in our daily diet. We specifically looked at calcium, iron, zinc, potassium and sodium. In addition we examined the food guidelines, sources and deficiencies and toxicities for each mineral. Thanks again for choosing Nutrition For Beginners.

Section 7: Water, Alcohol & Other Beverages
00:46

INTRODUCTION AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

During this module, we will review water, alcohol and other beverages. We will first review water and then move on to alcohol. The remaining beverages are divided into 2 subcategories: agriculturally derived beverages and manufactured beverages. Agricultural beverages include milk, juice, coffee, tea and cocoa. Manufactured beverages include carbonated soft drinks or soda, sports drinks and energy drinks.

03:11

WATER, A NUTRIENT

Water is considered to be the most important nutrient as its absence results in death rather quickly. A person can survive only a few days without water. The total daily intake of water is mostly from water and other beverages we drink. About 20% of the daily intake of water comes from the food we eat. Foods, such as fruits and vegetables are high in water and contribute to the nutrient's intake.

Water serves many purposes in the body. Because our cells contain water, it serves as a building material. Water serves as a solvent for enzymes and other chemicals associated with metabolism. Water helps to circulate oxygen and other nutrients throughout the body. It regulates body temperature, which we’ll talk about in more detail later. Also water is main a constituent of the fluid that cushions joints and helps to serve as shock observers during activity, such as walking or running.

Water balances are maintained when water intake matches output. As mentioned before, our source of water is mostly from the beverages we drink with some contributions from the food we eat. Thirst is the primary mechanism for controlling water intake. Water output from the body occurs through urination, perspiration, respiration and defecation. Hormones and other body chemicals help the kidneys maintain water balance by eliminating water in the form of urine. Perspiration or sweating can result in large amounts of water loss especially during prolonged activity and very active breathing results in water loss. Even the colon helps with water balance. It is recommended that people drink plenty of water in order to avoid constipation.

Dehydration can occur when water output exceeds water intake and the body is no longer able to maintain proper hydration. Some people are especially vulnerable to dehydration including infants and the elderly. Also anyone who can’t communicate through thirst or obtain water or other beverages can easily suffer from dehydration. This includes children who might be too busy playing to ask for a drink. Some people with chronic diseases are those who take certain medications may have an increased risk for dehydration. Besides these populations, anyone can become vulnerable to dehydration when water intake is insufficient for any reason. Examples of when this could occur include during bouts of diarrhea or vomiting or when sweating profusely.

It is difficult to say with certainty exactly how much water a person needs each day. Needed water intake is dependent on an ambient temperature and humidity levels, the type and duration of physical activity and/or exercise, gender, age and life stage, such as pregnancy or breast-feeding. In general adults need about 2.5 to 3.5 liters of total water each day from food and beverages. Forcefully drinking water or other beverages beyond thirst can result in water toxicity. Although this is rare it can occur when well-meaning coaches or parents force someone to drink too much liquid. Water toxicity can be fatal.

02:28

ALCOHOL

Although there are several types of alcohol today we’ll be discussing the form of alcohol found in beverages, which is ethanol. Excessive alcohol use is the 3rd leading lifestyle related cause of death in the nation.

Alcohol is not a nutrient. We’ve included alcohol in our Nutritionist Central Series because it contributes calories to the daily eating plan. In fact alcohol contributes 7 calories for each gram. Those who are trying to lose weight may need to try to consider the caloric intake of their alcohol choices. Alcohol is a drug that affects the central nervous system.

Because alcohol is a drug it has the potential for abuse and/or addiction. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is not recommended. Drinking alcoholic beverages increases a pregnant woman’s chance of giving birth to a child with certain birth defects and increases the odds of having a poor birth outcome. Alcohol consumption can increase the risk of having certain kinds of cancer. Alcohol should not be consumed when taking certain medications. It can exacerbate some medical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension. Alcohol increases one’s risk for accidents including motor vehicle accidents. Alcohol should never be consumed by someone under the legal drinking age.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans do not recommend drinking alcohol. Instead the guidelines recommended if you’re going to drink alcohol that you do so in moderation. Moderation is described as one drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men. Carryover, which is to say not drinking at all during the weekdays and binge drinking on weekends is not the intent of these guidelines. Moderation is described on a daily basis. A serving of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor. Remember, alcohol adds calories to the daily eating plan. The 12 ounce serving of beer has about 150 calories, 5 ounces of wine has about 100 and 1.5 ounces of hard liquor has about 100 calories as well. People who consume alcohol in moderation may see health benefits related to cardiovascular health and cognition. Those who drink more than moderate amount of alcohol don’t benefit from these health properties. In fact, drinking alcohol beyond the recommended moderation levels is deleterious to your health. The health properties of alcohol when consumed in moderation are being studied by research scientists

01:38

AGRICULTURAL BEVERAGES - MILK

Now that we’ve discussed water and alcohol, we are going to address other beverages. Beverages can be agricultural or manufactured products. Milk is an agriculturally derived product. It’s represented on the food guidance system MyPlate as part of the dairy food group. Milk is a nutrient rich beverage that adds calcium, vitamin D, potassium, protein and other nutrients to the daily eating plan. The daily recommended intake of milk is 2 cups for children who are about 2 or 3 years of age, 2.5 cups for children who are between 4 and 8, and 3 cups for those who are over the age of 9. Infants less than 12 months of age should not be having milk bu they should instead drink breast milk or formula. Whole milk is also recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 2 years.

It is generally recommended that people drink non-fat or reduced fat milk. Whole milk contains more calories and saturated fat than non-fat and reduced fat milk. For those who have difficulty digesting lactose or milk sugar, they should try the lactose-free varieties of milk. Flavored milk is also available. Often, flavored milk has added calories from the added sugars. Flavored milk can be offered to children occasionally, but be consistent with the concepts of moderation. Vegetarians and other may choose not to drink milk. Instead, they may select products such as fortified soya milk and select soya beverages that are fortified with those nutrients generally provided by milk. Compare nutrition facts labels of milk-like beverages with milk to make sure you’re not compromising your nutrition intake.

02:32

AGRICULTURAL BEVERAGES - JUICE

The MyPlate food group fruits and vegetables includes 100% juice products. Juice often contains vitamin C and sometimes potassium depending on its source. However, some juice-like beverages are marketed as juice and may be even located in the juice aisle alongside a 100% juice. Juice drinks can contain little or no juice. Juice drinks are sweetened with added sugars which add calories to the eating plan. The best way to differentiate between 100% juice and the juice drink is to read ingredients information on the nutrition facts label.

Juice is no longer recommended for babies under 12 months. Once a child has reached his or her 1st birthday you can begin to offer juice from a cup. Don’t put juice in a bottle. Children 1 to 6 years of age can have up to 6 ounces of juice, which is about 3 quarters of a cup. Children and teens should limit daily juice consumption to no more than 1.5 cups per day. Although juice has nutritional value, the recommendation to limit juice consumption is to avoid consuming too many calories at the expense of other more nourishing foods and beverages.

AGRICULTURAL BEVERAGES - COFFE, TEA AND COCOA

Next we are going to discuss other agricultural beverage products, such as coffee, tea and cocoa. These beverages have been consumed for centuries. Coffee, tea and cocoa add antioxidants and flavonoids to the eating plan. Although they are not nutrients, antioxidants and flavonoids may have health promoting properties. Research is being conducted on the health properties of antioxidants and flavonoids. While coffee, tea and cocoa don’t contain calories, when sugar and/or milk are added to these beverages, they do. Adding milk to coffee, tea or cocoa can increase the daily milk intake as well as those nutrients found in milk. Some research suggest that moderate intakes of coffee, tea and chocolate have favorable effects on cardiovascular health, however any health benefit vanishes with heavy consumption of these beverages. Herbal teas aren’t actually teas but infusions of boiled water with dried fruits, herbs or flowers.

Coffee, tea and cocoa naturally contain caffeine. Coffee is the major source of caffeine in a eating plan. Caffeine is a stimulant and affects the central nervous system. Caffeine is an additive that can be found in other beverages and some medications. It’s recommended that healthy adults limit their total daily caffeine intake to no more than 300mg. This is the amount of caffeine in about 2 cups of coffee.

02:58

MANUFACTURED BEVERAGES - ENERGY DRINKS

Energy drinks are advertised as a quick source of physical and/or mental energy. Unlike sports drinks, energy drinks are classified as a dietary supplement and therefore aren’t regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Energy drinks don’t have to prove their effectiveness or safety when going to market. Energy drinks contain added caffeine and herbs, which also have caffeine. Often the added herbs may have biochemical properties or toxicities that have not been properly researched.

Energy drinks can exacerbate some medical conditions such as hypertension and attention deficit disorder. Also caffeine intake can interact with some medications.

The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend the consumption of energy drinks by children or adolescents.

01:09

SUMMARY

This module reviewed the nutrient water. Alcohol, while not a nutrient, was included in this module series because of its caloric contribution to the eating plan. Beverages can be divided into 2 groups: those beverages derived from agricultural products and beverages that are manufactured. Milk, juice, coffee, tea and cocoa contribute nutrients and/or other health components to the eating plan. Carbonated beverages are the largest source of sugars in the American diet. Sports drinks have their purpose, but shouldn’t be consumed as a general beverage of choice. Energy drinks, because they aren’t regulated and therefore don’t have to document their effectiveness or safety, aren’t recommended.

When considering beverage choice, it may be best to serve milk with meals and water with snacks and limit fruit juices. If adults choose to drink an alcohol they should do so in moderation. Sports drinks should be consumed only when appropriate for rehydration. Caffeine should only be consumed by healthy adults and should be limited. More research is needed to determine if energy drinks are effective and/or safe.

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Kevin O'Brien, E-Learning Provider

Kevin O'Brien is a Professional E-Learning Creator

Kevin has been been working online since 2012 and Occasionally breaks (and fixes) computers. Not necessarily in that order!

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