Anatomy and Physiology
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Anatomy and Physiology

An Introduction to the Human Body and its Systems
4.2 (39 ratings)
Instead of using a simple lifetime average, Udemy calculates a course's star rating by considering a number of different factors such as the number of ratings, the age of ratings, and the likelihood of fraudulent ratings.
506 students enrolled
Last updated 7/2016
English
English
Current price: $10 Original price: $40 Discount: 75% off
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Includes:
  • 5 hours on-demand video
  • 8 Articles
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
What Will I Learn?
  • Develop a vocabulary of appropriate terminology to effectively communicate information related to the anatomy and physiology of the following body systems: integumentary, skeletal, nervous, and muscular.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the chemical, cellular and tissue levels of organization of the human body.
  • Understand, identify, and describe the basic anatomical structures associated with cells and tissue, and integumentary, muscular, skeletal, and nervous systems.
  • Describe how all parts of the human body contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis.
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Requirements
  • System requirements: PC, laptop or mobile device (with Udemy app) and broadband connectivity.
  • Course requirements: There are no pre-requisite or other course requirements.
Description

Anatomy and Physiology is a self-paced online study guide that offers a low-cost and comprehensive introduction to the human body and its systems. It combines professionally-produced video with the free, open-source, peer-reviewed textbook "Anatomy & Physiology" from OpenStax College.

The course is divided into eight sections and addresses everything students can expect to learn in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course, whether taught at a high school, college or university.

  1. An Introduction to the Human Body
  2. The Chemical Level of Organization
  3. The Cellular Level of Organization
  4. The Tissue Level of Organization
  5. The Integumentary System
  6. The Skeletal System
  7. The Muscular System
  8. The Nervous System

Anatomy and Physiology can be adopted for use as a complete online course, a quality textboook replacement for existing courses, or as a homework and test preparation tool for students.

Who is the target audience?
  • Anatomy and Physiology faculty looking to adopt low-cost, media-rich supplemental materials for their students.
  • Students currently enrolled in (or considering enrolling in) Anatomy and Physiology classes .
  • Practitioners in health and related fields (e.g. public health, health literacy, nursing).
  • Anyone with an interest in the human body and its systems.
Students Who Viewed This Course Also Viewed
Curriculum For This Course
73 Lectures
05:24:29
+
An Introduction to the Human Body
5 Lectures 19:32

READINGS

Download the PDF below and READ Chapter 01

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

*******************************************************************************

KEY TERMS

After reading the textbook assignments and watching the video, you should be able to identify and explain the significance of the following:

anabolism

anatomy

catabolism

cell

differentiation

gross anatomy

homeostasis

metabolism

nutrient

organism

physiology

reproduction

systemic anatomy

tissue


To test yourself on this Chapter visit the Learning Pod:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 1 Learning Pod

Preview 01:45

Introduces the human body as a dynamic and magnificent machine. Poses the question, "How is it possible for the human body to do what it does?" Explores the concept of the whole being being made up of smaller, component parts, with each playing a very specific and critical role, and all arranged in hierarchical structure. Goes beneath the surface to reveal the component parts that make up the active human being, moving from systems to organs, to tissues, to cells, to organelles, to molecules to atoms.

Download the transcript for this lecture below:

Preview 04:01

This clip looks at metabolism, a term which refers to all chemical reactions that take place in an organism. Cellular metabolism includes the use of nutrients to build new cell material, break down substances, and make ATP.


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Cellular Metabolism
04:37

This clip introduces the concept of balance, and trying to maintain a state of dynamic equilibrium as conditions change. Biological homeostasis is defined and described. Homeostatic imbalance is explored, including the serious consequences that can occur when normal homeostasis is thrown into homeostatic imbalance—as with glucose imbalance.


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Homeostasis
06:08

The need for increased precision drives the use of specialized terms and language in most technical fields. The need for terms and labels that provide spatial orientation is especially critical in anatomy and physiology.

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Anatomical Terms and Directions
03:01

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section.

Check Your Understanding
10 questions
+
The Chemical Level of Organization
8 Lectures 29:11

READINGS

Download the PDF below and READ Chapter 02

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

********************************************************

KEY TERMS

After reading the textbook assignments and watching the video, you should be able to identify and explain the significance of the following:

acid

atom

atomic number

base

bond

catalyst

compound

covalent bond

electron shell

electron

element

enzyme

ion

matter

molecule

neutron

pH

periodic table of the elements

proton

valence shell


To test yourself on this Chapter visit the Learning Pod:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 2 Learning Pod

Human Chemistry
01:47

This clip provides an overview of the composition of matter, focusing on elements, atoms, and atomic structure. It also focuses on the most abundant elements in the human body and the roles they play.


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Composition of Matter and the Human Body
04:26

This clip provides an overview of how molecules and compounds are formed, including the difference between them. The term "macromolecule" is explained as a very large molecule that includes the four conventional biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles.


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Molecules, Compounds, and Macromolecules
03:29

This clip provides an overview of chemical bonds, explaining that a chemical bond is not a physical structure but an energy relationship that involves interactions between the electrons of the reacting atoms. The clip also discusses the various types of chemical bonds (ionic, covalent and hydrogen).


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Chemical Bonds
03:44

This clip introduces the role of basic chemistry in everyday life. It focuses on enzymes as biological catalysts which increase the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed themselves. Enzymes don’t change the destination, just the time it takes to get there. Moving from everyday examples to the human body, the clip looks at how enzymes catalyze millions of reactions every minute.


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Enzyme Function
03:36

This clip focuses on how enzymes catalyze reactions, and also provides the chemical equation for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The clip notes that enzymes are not consumed in the reaction, that only the rate is affected, not the equilibrium. The clip also examines enzyme-substrate interaction, explaining that enzymes lower the reaction barrier. Finally, the clip looks at the environmental effects of enzyme activity.


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How Enzymes Catalyze Reactions
04:01

This clip focuses on inorganic compounds commonly found in the body, focusing primarily on salts. It also explores the atomic structure of salt, and looks at parts of body in which salts are commonly found.

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Salts and Other Inorganic Compounds
02:21

This clip provides a description of acids and bases, including discussion of acids found or produced in the body, strong vs. weak acids, and strong vs. weak bases. pH and the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids are also discussed.


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Acids, Bases, and pH
05:47

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section.

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10 questions
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The Cellular Level of Organization
13 Lectures 48:07

Download the PDF below and READ Chapter 03

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

********************************************************

KEY TERMS

active transport

anaphase

cell cycle

cell membrane

concentration gradient

cytokinesis

cytoplasm

diffusion

endocytosis

exocytosis

interphase

metaphase

mitochondrion

mitosis

nucleus

organelle

passive transport

prophase

selective permeability

stem cell

telophase

vesicle


To test yourself on this Chapter visit the Learning Pod:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 3 Learning Pod

Cell Function and Types
02:02

This clip explains signal transduction--a signal pathway by which a cell moves a signal or a stimulus from one side of the cell to another through a series of biochemical reactions.


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Signal Transduction
03:51

Introduces membrane transport, focusing on selective permeability. The clip covers a number of key terms, including solution, solvent, solutes, intracellular fluid and interstitial fluid.


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Membrane Transport
02:45

This clip examines passive transport processes, which include various forms of diffusion, as well as filtration.


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Passive Transport Processes
03:16

Explores active transport processes, in which integral proteins move molecules across the plasma membrane against their concentration gradient.


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Active Transport Processes
03:07

This clips looks at transport mechanisms other than passive or active which enable certain substances to penetrate the plasma membrane.


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Transport Mechanisms Other Than Passive or Active
04:21

Introduces the notion of specialization and compartmentalization, first in a non-biological context, then, as it applies to the cell-the smallest unit and building block of all living things.


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Cell Organization and Specialization
03:42

This clip covers cellular respiration: the intracellular reaction of oxygen with organic molecules to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy in the form of ATP.


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Cellular Respiration
03:37

We learn the human body follows a specific menu for conditions like embryo development, intense exercise, healing from an injury, or growing taller. For each condition that our bodies experience, there is a specific menu to respond to that situation, known as gene expression, a form of signal transduction that takes place much more slowly than many others.


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Gene Expression
02:37

Every cell in a living organism contains instructions for every structure ( protein) and process in the body. These instructions are contained in DNA, which is essentially the cookbook for the entire body. DNA has a specific recipe (gene) for each protein. The number of “servings” of each protein is determined by the amount of mRNA made in each cell. For example, during an organism’s development from an embryo to an adult, the correct combination of genes must be expressed at the right time to allow the embryo to develop properly.


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Gene Expression-DNA and RNA
02:21

This clip examines interphase: the first major period of the cell’s life cycle, in which the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities. This phase includes DNA replication.


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The Cell Life Cycle: Interphase
03:33

Explores the two events comprising cell division: mitosis (division of the nucleus) and cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm).


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The Cell Life Cycle: Cell Division
04:17

This clip focuses on the challenges facing scientists doing stem cell research and working on the development of effective stem cell therapies.


Featured Experts

Adams, Gregor, Ph.D., University of Southern California

Barsky, Lora, Flow Cytometry Core Facility, University of Southern California


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Clinical Application: Stem Cell Research
08:38

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section.

Check Your Understanding
10 questions
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The Tissue Level of Organization
5 Lectures 34:01

Download the PDF below and READ Chapter 04

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

********************************************************

KEY TERMS

adipose tissue

basal lamina

chondrocytes

collagen fiber

connective tissue

cutaneous membrane

ectoderm

elastic fiber

endoderm

endothelium

fibroblast

hyaline cartilage

lacunae

mesenchymal cell

mesoderm

myelin

reticular fiber

tissue


To test yourself on this Chapter visit the Learning Pod:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 4 Learning Pod

Tissue Types
01:34

All body parts are constructed of four types of tissue: the epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue.


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Overview of Tissues
03:46

Of the four tissue groups, epithelial tissues are found virtually everywhere in the human body. This clip illustrates the types, function and general characteristics of epithelial tissues.


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Epithelial Tissues
06:54

Connective tissue is the most diverse and abundant of the tissue groups found virtually everywhere throughout the human body. This clip illustrates the types, function and general characteristics of connective tissues.


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Connective Tissues
11:33

The human body has a remarkable capacity to repair itself, in large part, because some cells can take on the characteristics of other cells. However, there are inherent limitations. Tissue engineering is a growing field in the scientific community that focuses on the replacement, repair, maintenance or enhancement of tissue function.


Featured Experts

Roger DeFilippo, M.D., Children’s Hospital Los Angeles and The Saban Research Institute

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Tissue Repair, Regeneration and Engineering
10:14

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10 questions
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The Integumentary System
6 Lectures 29:30

Download the PDF below and READ Chapter 05

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

********************************************************

KEY TERMS

albinism

basal cell

dermis

eczema

elastin fibers

epidermis

hypodermis

integumentary system

keratin

Merkel cell

melanin

melanocyte

melanoma

metastasis

papillary layer

reticular layer

stratum basale

vitiligo


To test yourself on this Chapter visit the Learning Pod:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 5 Learning Pod

The Skin and It's Layers
01:39

This clip explains that skin is the largest organ in the human body, accounting for 7% of our body weight. The clip also explores what skin does (provides protection from sun, desiccation, and infection; regulates body temperature--thermoregulation; excretes water and heat; produces vitamin D; keeps us aware of conditions at the body's surface).


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What Is Skin and Why Do We Need It?
04:07

The 3 pigments that contribute to skin color are melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Of the three, only melanin is actually made in the skin. The clip also notes that geographic distribution of skin color is not random; populations of darker-skinned people tend to be found nearer the equator (where greater protection from the sun is found), while those with lightest skin tend to live closer to the poles.


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Pigment and Skin Color
04:41

This clip explores changes in skin, hair, and nails over time, tracing the typical succession of changes decade by decade.


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Skin and Aging
04:29

This clip looks at pigment-related skin problems. Despite melanin's protective effects, excessive exposure to the sun can eventually damage the skin, including altering the DNA of skin cells and potentially leading to skin cancer. In addition, alterations in skin color (including redness, or erythema; pallor, or blanching; jaundice; bronzing, e.g. Addison's disease; black and blue marks, or bruises) can signal certain disease states and, in some individuals, emotional issues.

Featured Experts

Duplechain, J. Kevin, M.D.
Gardner, Jackie, Vitiligo Support International
Lee, Han, M.D., University of Southern California
Lipson, Elle, Director "The Beholder: Beauty Through the Eyes of April Mitchell"
Lutronic Inc.
McGowan, Mike, The National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation
Mitchell, April

Pavilades, Stella, American Vitiligo Research Foundation

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Pigment-Related Skin Problems
06:59

This clip notes that skin cancer is on the rise due to excessive sun exposure. It follows a patient being treated for a form of skin cancer called a basal cell carcinoma.

Featured Experts

Lee, Han, M.D., University of Southern California

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Case Study-Skin Cancer
07:35

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section.

Check Your Understanding
10 questions
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The Skeletal System
11 Lectures 51:31

Download the PDF below and READ Chapters 06-09

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

********************************************************

KEY TERMS

abduction

appendicular skeleton

axial skeleton

ball-and-socket joint

bone

cartilage

central canal

clavicle

femur

flexion

humerus

lacunae

lacrimal bone

ligament

metacarpal bone

occipital bone

osteocyte

sacrum

vertebral column

tendon


To test yourself on these Chapters visit the Learning Pods:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 6 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 7 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 8 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 9 Learning Pod


Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
02:56

Like the wood framework of a building, the skeletal system provides support and protection. In some places, bones (which are actually organs with bone connective tissue—compact and spongy) cover and protect delicate organs.


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Skeletal System Functions - Support and Protection
01:55

The skeletal system is well known for its ability to provide support and protection, as well as to enable movement. But it also serves two additional purposes that are perhaps less widely recognized, yet still very important. One is blood production known as hematopoiesis. The second is the storage of essential minerals like phosphorus and calcium.


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Skeletal System Functions - Storage and Production
04:20

This clip looks at the lever as a principle component of biomechanics--the application of the principles of motion to the movement of the human body. Essentially, the bones of the skeletal system function as levers. The clip explains the three basic classes of levers, each of which has an equivalent in the human body.


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Biomechanics of Musculo-Skeletal System
04:43

This clip examines the remarkable structural properties of bone: light, strong, capable of adapting to diverse functional demands, and even able to repair itself. The clip also explores the layers and components that comprise bone.


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Structure of Bone
05:41

This clip discusses intramembranous ossification, the formation of flat bones and endochondral ossification to form long bones.


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Development of Bone
05:59

This clip explores the function of bone as a storage mechanism for calcium and other minerals the body needs. The clip explains the role of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone or "pth" in maintaining the proper calcium balance between bone and blood, noting that this balance is based on a homeostatic mechanism known as negative feedback.


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Function of Bone - Storage
04:11

This clip discusses the skeletal system movement: biomechanics, types of levers, mechanical advantages and disadvantages; attachments for speed vs. power.


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Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton
06:42

This clip examines different types of fractures, intercut with a clinical case study of an individual recovering from a fracture.

Featured Experts

Fraipont, Michael, M.D., Orthopedic Surgeon

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Case Study - Fractures and Bone Repair
06:01

Much like everyday objects, such as see-saws and cranes, the skeletal system enables movement through a system of levers and fulcrums. The bones are the levers and the joints are the fulcrums. Along with the muscular system, the skeletal system enables movement.


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Skeletal System Functions - Movement
05:38

Synovial joints are the most common joints in the human body. They are capable of a wide range of different movements.


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Movements of Synovial Joints
03:25

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section

Check Your Understanding
12 questions
+
The Muscular System
11 Lectures 47:04

READINGS

Download the PDF below and READ Chapters 10-11

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

*******************************************************************************

KEY TERMS

actin

action potential

aerobic respiration

appendicular

axial

cardiac muscle

dorsal group

excitation-contraction coupling

extensor

flexion

glycolysis

myofibril

myosin

rotator cuff

sarcomere

smooth muscle


To test yourself on these Chapters visit the Learning Pods:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 10 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 11 Learning Pod

Muscle Tissue and the Muscular System
02:15

This clip looks at the three broad categories of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. It also examines muscle tissue functionality, including: excitability, conductivity, contractility, and elasticity.


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Introduction to the Muscular System
07:54

This clip explores contraction--the basic action of any skeletal muscle--noting that it takes place over a series of steps initiated when the brain sends a nervous impulse called an action potential. In addition, the clip looks at the composition of skeletal muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers or "myofibers."


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Excitation Contraction Coupling
03:51

This clip examines the interaction of actin and myosin, two types of protein filaments involved in the muscle contraction process.


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Power Stroke Cycling - Interaction of Myosin and Actin
04:53

This clip looks at the process by which the central nervous system controls skeletal muscle contraction. It focuses primarily on neuromuscular junctions--the point in nerve cells at which action potentials stimulate muscle fibers.


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Neuromuscular Junctions
02:00

This clip examines cardiac muscle tissue, pointing out similarities and differences with skeletal muscle. In both cases, the muscle tissue is striated with sarcomeres composed of actin and myosin. However, unlike skeletal muscle, the source of calcium for cardiac muscle tissue is not limited to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.


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Excitation Contraction Coupling - Cardiac Muscle Tissue
02:28

This clip explores both the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue. It notes that, unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle lacks striations, because actin and myosin are not arranged in a sarcomere pattern. However, like skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle cells do rely on crossbridge cycling between actin and myosin to develop force.


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Excitation Contraction Coupling - Smooth Muscle Tissue
02:51

This clip examines the role of adenosine triphosphate, or "ATP," in muscle contraction. The clip notes that ATP is not a storehouse of energy set aside for some future need. Rather, it is produced by one set of reactions and almost immediately consumed by another. There are three metabolic systems that provide ATP for muscle contractions: the phosphagen system, the anaerobic system, and the aerobic system.


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Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism
06:09

This clip explores muscle fibers. It notes that while color was at one time the primary manner by which such fibers were categorized, today they are more commonly categorized according to their "twitch" capabilities.


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Types of Muscle Fibers
05:41

This clip looks at the three distinct phases of every muscle twitch: the latent period, the period of contraction, and the period of relaxation. It also explores "incomplete tetanus," when a muscle produces tension during rapid cycles of contraction, as well as "complete tetanus," when the stimulation rate is increased to the point at which the period of relaxation is eliminated entirely.


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Muscle Twitch Properties
02:40

This clip provides an overview of muscular dystrophy or "MD." It describes the major forms of the disease, and explains that muscular dystrophy is a group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive damage and weakness of facial, breathing, limb, and heart muscles, which affects more than fifty thousand Americans.


Featured Experts

Mishra, Shri Professor of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California

CureDuchenne

Kaneff Productions

Muscular Dystrophy Association,Inc.

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Case Study: Muscular Dystrophy
06:22

Let's Review! Take this short quiz and check your knowledge for this section


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10 questions
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The Nervous System
14 Lectures 01:06:56

READINGS

Download the PDF below and READ Chapters 12-16

OpenStax College. (2013, June 19). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology.

Retrieved from the Connexions Web site:

http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/

*******************************************************************************

KEY TERMS

amygdala

axon

brain stem

central nervous system (CNS)

cerebellum

cerebral cortex

cerebrum

dendrite

ganglion

glial cell

hippocampus

hypothalamus

myelin sheath

neuron

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

resting membrane potential

somatic nervous system (SNS)

spinal cord

synaptic cleft

voltage-gated channel


To test yourself on these Chapters visit the Learning Pods:

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 12 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 13 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 14 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 15 Learning Pod

Anatomy and Physiology Ch 16 Learning Pod

Nervous Tissue and the Nervous System
03:32

This clip provides an overview of the nervous system, including the central nervous system, which is comprised of the brain (functioning as the body's control center), and the spinal cord, (serving as the main communications throughway of the nervous system). The clip also explores the peripheral nervous system, with its elaborate network of nerves that relay messages back and forth to the brain and every organ of the body.


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Introduction to the Nervous System
04:09

This clip examines the organization of the nervous system, focusing on three primary functions: sensory input, integration, and motor output. The clip notes that, because the human nervous system does so much and has so many different parts, it is classified both structurally and functionally.


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Organization of the Nervous System
04:24

This clip focuses on the six phases of action potentials-- the electrical signals transmitted across neuron membranes that make possible rapid communication throughout the nervous system.


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Action Potential Generation and Propagation
04:19

This clip explores neural transmission, the process by which the nerve cell, or "neuron," transmits information within the nervous system by electrical and chemical signaling. The clip includes a discussion of neurotransmitters, chemicals which diffuse across the gap between the pre-synaptic transmitting axon and the membrane of the post-synaptic cell.


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Neural Transmission
04:17

This clip focuses on the structure and function of the spinal cord--the soft, rope-like structure responsible for transmitting electrical information between the brain and the rest of the body.


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Spinal Cord Structure and Function
05:33

This clip explores the brain--the three pound, spongy mass that regulates, controls or otherwise directs nearly everything we humans do. Along with its explanation of brain function, the clip also looks at the structure of the brain, explaining where each major section of the brain is located and what it does.


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Brain Structure and Function
07:39

The brain stem, which some refer to as the old reptilian brain, exists in all mammals. It is engaged in activities that regulate the body and its basic survival responses. The limbic areas are involved in generating emotion, motivation and social relatedness. Daniel Siegel demonstrates the location of each of these brain areas.


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Lower Level Brain Structures
01:46

This clip examines the somatic nervous system--the part of the peripheral nervous system that allows the brain to consciously monitor environmental stimuli and regulate response activities. The clip notes that, while most muscle movements controlled by the somatic nervous system are voluntary, some are not. Known as reflex arcs, these reflexive movements are triggered in response to certain stimuli, such as touching a hot surface.


Featured Experts

Siegel, Daniel, M.D. University of California, Los Angeles


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Peripheral Nervous System - The Somatic Nervous System
04:50

This clip looks at the autonomic nervous system--the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for activities that are carried out without conscious effort. This is the system that keeps the heart beating, allows us to digest food, or cool down after strenuous exercise. The clip notes that the autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic nervous system, and the parasympathetic nervous system.


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Peripheral Nervous System - The Autonomic Nervous System
07:36

This clip is a case study concerning multiple sclerosis, or "M.S.", an auto-immune disease that attacks the central nervous system by targeting not only the myelin sheath that surrounds the cell's axons, but the axons themselves. The clip points out that, while there is no cure for "M.S.", there are treatment options available that help manage symptoms, in some cases delaying or even preventing patient disability.

Featured Experts

Hartley, Gail, MSN, NP, Multiple Sclerosis Certified Nurse


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Nervous System Case Study - Multiple Sclerosis
08:15

MRI scanning verified that Karen was experiencing an aschemic stroke in which a blood clot blocked blood flow to a region of the brain. The clot buster tPA was administered. This opens blocked blood vessels and restores blood flow to threatened regions of the brain before irreversible injury can occur. The window for intervention is very brief, no more than six hours after the initial occurrence. The first reports about Karen were guarded. Not enough blood was getting through so the surgical team tried angioplasty to increase flow. But during that first night in ICU it became obvious that the clot dissolving medication did limit damage from the stroke.

Featured Experts

Saver, Jeffrey, M.D. Neurology Director, UCLA Stroke Center


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The Story of Karen: Use of the Clot Buster
03:43

Dr. Bruce Dobkin illustrates the adaptability of the brain in a series of fMRI scans done just after the stroke and then at periodic intervals. The brain develops new pathways in supplementary areas if the primary functional area such as the motor cortex is damaged.

Featured Experts

Dobkin, Bruce, M.D. UCLA School of Medicine


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The Plasticity of the Brain
02:47

Connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain is a large bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Little was known about this section of the brain until neurosurgeon Joseph Bogen cut the corpus callosum to relieve patients with symptoms of severe epilepsy. People who had this surgery gained relief and appeared normal, but could not name an object placed in their left visual field. These tests confirmed that in most people the left hemisphere is more verbal and the right hemisphere excels in visual perception and recognition of emotion. Damage to the right hemisphere can produce inattention, neglect, emotional instability. Both hemispheres often work in concert to produce integrated behaviors.

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Bogen, Joseph, M.D. University of Southern California
Gazzaniga, Michael, Ph.D. Dartmouth College
Koch, Christof, Ph D. California Institute of Technology

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Splitting the Brain
04:06

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