Evolution of the human circulation
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Evolution of the human circulation

Basic science model of blood as an electron-delivery circuit
4.0 (18 ratings)
Instead of using a simple lifetime average, Udemy calculates a course's star rating by considering a number of different factors such as the number of ratings, the age of ratings, and the likelihood of fraudulent ratings.
924 students enrolled
Last updated 9/2016
Price: Free
  • 43 mins on-demand video
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
What Will I Learn?
  • describe the circulation of blood as a polar-switching electron-delivery circuit and relate this to the topological transformation of the closed one-way circuit from single-looped (fish) to double-looped (human)
View Curriculum
  • ● There are 21 lectures, split into four sections, that step through the logical development the model and its application. Each lecture is only a few minutes long. The total course length is approximately 60 minutes. It can be taken in one sitting or at your own pace.
  • ● In the course, animated and physical models are used to demonstrate key mechanisms in the translation of form and these can be easily reproduced by students after the course if desired

If you have an interest in human biology, then in taking this course, you will gain an insight into a bio-physical model that maps evolution of the human circulation and that you can use for your own further observation and discovery

This course addresses evolution of the clrculation from fish to man through the physics of the redoxing blood circuit.

There are 21 lectures, split into four sections. Each lecture is only a few minutes long, the entire course less than 60 minutes. It can be taken in one sitting or at your own pace.

In the course, animated and physical models are used to demonstrate key mechanisms in the translation of form and these can be easily reproduced  after the course if desired

In the first section, the circulations of blood in humans and fish are represented as double and single-looped polar-switching electron delivery circuits 

In section two, we see how an oxygenated shunt in the single-looped circuit of fish sets up a loop-in-loop, reptilian transition to a double-looped human circuit

In section three, a polar co-ordinate algorithm that describes the loop-in-loop relationship of the adaptive, closed circulation model is described

In the final section, we review how this geometric model tracks embryological, anatomical and evolutionary form, from fish to man, and what drives the change.

There are some details in the latter part of the course for those with knowledge of human embryology and anatomy. This level of knowledge is not a pre-requisite for taking this course or understanding its general content, but it does serve to validate the bio-physical model. 



Who is the target audience?
  • ● This course is best suited to those with an interest in biology in general or in evolution or embryology particularly
  • ● This course is not well suited to didactic learners or those without any knowledge of basic sciences
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Curriculum For This Course
Closed circulation of blood in vertebrates
5 Lectures 08:17

Introduction to the circulation of blood in vertebrates as a closed one-way redoxing circuit 

Blood as a one-way circuit – the basics

The human blood circuit is represented by a double-looped continuous tube. Unique physical properties relating to the convoulted, spatially complex redoxing circuit are highlighted through a model demonstration.

Double-looped human circuit

The fish blood circuit is represented by a single-looped continuous tube and comparisons are made to the redoxing, double-looped circuit

Single-looped fish circuit

In this lecture, we will see how the continuously flowing, polar-switching blood creates opposed magnetic moments in the single and double-looped circuitries

Physics of the redoxing blood circuit

Review the theory of evolution, from fish to man and question how a double-looped circuit can arise from a single looped circuit

Closed circulation of blood as an archaic architectural trait
Mechanism of action - single to double looped circuit transition
4 Lectures 09:19

We start with the single-looped circuit, identifying how a shunt can exist and the path it takes

The single-looped circuit and the oxyhaemoglobin shunt

The establishment of a pulmonary passage is key in the transition to a double-looped human circuit. This lecture establishes the mechanism of translation of the pharyngeal capillary bed from gill filaments to alveoli as the double-looped circuit develops. 

Reptilian transition - establishing a pulmonary passageway

In this lecture, the conceptual single-looped, axially rotated circuit is translated to the structural anatomy of the fish circulation. 

Vertebrate model of the single-looped circuit

Relating the loop-in-loop to extant anatomic arrangements, we see how an anatomic shunt arises and how the transitionary polar-switching circuit maintains a homeostatic balance in the geomagnetic field.

Vertebrate loop-in-loop circuitry interdependence in the geomagnetic field
Developing a geometric algorithm to describe the transition
2 Lectures 03:33

The loop-in-loop spatial relationship of the transformative circuit is best understood by first developing a physical model to capture its pivoting and precessing actions

Loop-in-loop spatial relationship

In this lecture we define a polar co-ordinate algorithm that describes the spatial relationship of the interdependent central loops in translation

Geometric representation of the loop-in-loop relationship
Relating the geometric transition to extant anatomy, from fish to man
9 Lectures 20:17

We start with the loop-in-loop dynamics in the pharyngeal arches and expose the mystery of the disappearing 5th arch...

Pharyngeal arches and the oxy-haem loop-in-loop

In polar translation, as the central loops pivot toward perpendicular parity, the aortic arch and great vessels are derived.

Aortic arch transformation

This lecture highlights how the pulmonary passage develops in polar co-ordination with the involuting pharyngeal filaments.

Interposed pulmonary passageway

The separate atrio-ventricular trajectories of the double-looped human heart are derived geometrically from the single-looped fish heart and the balance of flows between the serialiised loops is considered

Divergence of the pivoted ventral (ventricular) hoops

In this lecture, we equate spiralled dynamic flows into the dorsal aorta with maintaining a bi-segmental  somatomeric perfusion pattern and use the clinical condition of dextrocardia as a case-in-point

Spiraled aortic perfusion and pentagraphic somatomeric re-distribution

In the geometrical transformation we see how the dorsaly-located cardinal veins are levered apart and re-purposed as the spiralled aortic line develops

Great veins in translation

In this lecture we will see how the atrio-ventricular angle is retained in translation from a single to a double-looped-circuit and also ponder why the angle of ejection is this sharp reflection on itself. 

Retention of the angle of ventricular ejection

Here we put the entire sequence together, tracing the transition from fish to human, through our blood, and see how the allantoic vein is an accelerated source of the oxygenated loop-in-loop shunt in gastrulation 

Gastrulation and delivery of the double-looped circuit to air

The loop-in-loop is an oxygen-driven system and here we review animal evolution against environmental oxygen levels the past 500 million years

Influence of environmental conditions
1 Lecture 01:40

As an observation, the polar-switching haem electron-carrier circuit mirrors vertebrate evolutionary progression and cardio-morpho-genesis.  

Review of the biophysical model and its limitations
About the Instructor
William S. Peters MD
4.0 Average rating
17 Reviews
924 Students
1 Course
Theoretical Human Biology and Evolution

Dr William Peters is a serial inventor, surgeon-scientist, academic and cardiovascular thought-leader based out of Auckland New Zealand. With a Doctorate of Medicine (Monash), Dr Peters has over 25 years experience in clinical and preclinical research, covering surgical correction of congenital and acquired heart diseases, heart and lung transplantation and mechanical circulatory support. Dr Peters has invented dozens of devices and methods to allow key-hole cardiac surgery and this technology is commonly used in hospitals across the world. Dr Peters also invented and developed an implantable non-blood contacting heart assist device for treatment of chronic heart failure and mentored first-in-man surgeries in Australia, USA, Canada, Germany and England. He has scores of issued patents, published manuscripts and book chapters regarding key-hole heart surgery and heart-assist devices. In 2015, Dr Peters published his first book, 'Per Sanguinem Nostrum', regarding a unique view of the circulation as an adaptive electron-delivery circuit bounded by the geomagnetic field. A thesis was subsequently peer reviewed and published in Human Genetics and Embryology in 2017 (click on the 'globe' icon to download the open-access PDF). The basic science model describes the evolution of the human circulation from the fish circulation via a reptilian transition. Dr Peters’ seminal thesis positions the topologically-organised redoxing haem circuit with vertebrate mitochondrial energy production and body-wide cellular expression, inviting a deeper, more connected understanding of human genetics and embryogenesis. A world-first VR computer animation demonstrating the evolution of the circulation from fish to man will be released in late 2017. Dr Peters is currently an honorary senior lecturer in surgery at the University of Auckland, New Zealand and previously was the inaugural clinical research fellow in minimally-invasive cardiac surgery at Stanford University, California.