Lectures to Accompany Wheelock's Latin Chapters 1-15
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Over the years of teaching Latin from the excellent and justly renowned textbook "Wheelock's Latin," I have created a series of lectures designed to help students to learn Latin online and get the most of this magnificent book. In them you will find guidance to some of the more perplexing concepts of grammar -- English and Latin -- that often comprise an insuperable barrier to progressing in Latin for modern-day students. The lectures will not replace the Wheelock text. They will only, I hope, make your on-ramp smoother. To that end, the lectures track exactly with the chapters of the textbook. This will give you "context sensitive" help when you need it.
You will not find answers to the exercises or anything that is copyright protected by the publisher of the Wheelock book. To get any benefit from these lectures, you must have the Wheelock text.
A typical college-level class will cover the first 15 chapters in the first semester; a high school class will cover them in the first year.
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|Section 1: First Things|
We don't know exactly how classical Latin would have been pronounced, but some conjectures are better than others. In this lecture, I quickly go over the basic agreements of reconstructed classical Latin. You may wonder why we should bother. It's a dead language. True, but trying to pronounce the Latin in front of you really does speed up your mastery. And conversely, over the years I've discovered the truism that those who don't pronounce Latin out loud don't learn it. Fact.
Tips on establishing a healthy study routine (i.e. how not to waste time). Sorry about the noise at the beginning. I was adjusting the mic.
|Section 2: Chapter 1: The Basics of Verbs; The First Conjugation|
Latin verbs change their person and number by adding suffixes to the stem. These suffixes correspond to English personal pronouns. Verbs can also show commands and infinitives by changing the ending.
Latin verbs are divided into conjugations depending on the vowel that ends the verbal stem. A verb whose stem ends in ā is a first conjugation verb; a verb whose stem ends in ē is a second conjugation verb.
The lecture focuses on the issue of translation. We have three ways to translate a present tense from Latin: the simple present, present emphatic, and present progressive. You'll be able to tell me what each of these means and how they're constructed in English.
We review the new concepts and forms in this lecture.
|Lecture 7||3 pages|
The "Forms and Concepts" file for each chapter helps you get a clear idea of what's been covered in the chapter: new forms and new concepts. As you record your new forms, be sure that you include all long marks. Express the new concepts and terms in your own words. These two together -- forms and concepts -- will provide you an invaluable resource for drilling and for reviewing.
|Lecture 8||3 pages|
The "vocabulary list" file for each chapter gives you a convenient place to record new words and to review them later on. Each word has three columns: dictionary entry, translation, and English derivatives (if any). To review, you can cover up any one or two of the columns and try to produce them from what you can see.
I've add links to two websites: one to the Quia site for drills, and another to the official website for the Wheelock books, where you can hear the chapter vocabulary pronounced correctly.
Please note that after you click on the link, you also have to click on the far upper right on the little box with the arrow to go to the site:
There is a comprehensive, chapter-by-chapter set of exercises at the end of the book called "Self-Help Tutorials." These excellent drills give you the chance to review and test your knowledge of the chapter material, and yet many student skip over them.
In my lectures on the Self-Tutorials, I help you get started in the exercises my reviewing the major concepts of the chapter and doing a couple of the sentences for you. Please don't hurry through these chapter reviews or pass them by altogether. They are time very well spent.
Class 7: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read for YouPreview
|Section 3: Chapter 2: Nouns, Cases, and the First Declension|
|Lecture 12||3 pages|
|A review sheet for the new vocabulary.|
|Lecture 13||3 pages|
|Review of the first declension nouns and the concept of cases.|
Class 4: Self-Tutorial Exercises Discussed
Class 5: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read for YouPreview
|Section 4: Chapter 3: The Second Declension; More about Adjectives; Apposition; a Note about Word Order|
|More about nouns and adjectives: agreement.|
Case endings give Latin a very flexible word order by our standards. Generally, however, a Latin sentence will be constructed thus: Subject -- Object -- Verb.
|Lecture 19||2 pages|
|Review of second declension nouns and endings.|
|Lecture 20||3 pages|
|Review sheet for the new vocabulary.|
Class 6: Discussion of Self-Tutorial Exercises
Class 7: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 5: Chapter 4: Second Declension Neuters; Adjectives; Present of Sum; Predicate Nominatives; Substantives|
A word in the nominative case need not be the subject of a verb. It may be linked to the subject via a linking (aka, copulative) verb, such as "to be." A nominative thus used is called a "predicate nominative."
As in English, an adjective in Latin may be used as a noun: the wealthy, the poor, etc. When used thus, the syntax is called a "substantive" use of an adjective, or we may say that the adjective is being used as a substantive.
|Lecture 27||3 pages|
|Review of neuters, "sum, esse," predicate nominatives, and substantival use of adjectives.|
|Lecture 28||3 pages|
|Review of new vocabulary.|
Chapter 04: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 04: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 6: Chapter 5: First and Second Conjugations: Future and Imperfect; Adjectives in - er|
|The Imperfect and Future Tenses|
Just as there are nouns belonging to the second declension whose nominative ends in -er, so also there are first and second declension adjectives that use the -er termination in the masculine nominative singular.
|Lecture 33||3 pages|
|Review of future, imperfect, adjectives in -er, -a, -um|
|Lecture 34||3 pages|
|Review of new vocabulary|
Chapter 05: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 05: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 7: Chapter 6: Sum and Possum; Complementary Infinitive|
|Lecture 38||3 pages|
|Review sheet for sum, possum, and concepts|
|Lecture 39||3 pages|
Chapter 06: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 06: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 8: Chapter 7: Third Declension Nouns|
|Third declension nouns|
|Lecture 43||2 pages|
|Review sheet for third declension nouns and new concepts|
|Lecture 44||3 pages|
|Review sheet for new vocabulary|
Chapter 07: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 07: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 9: Chapter 8: Third Conjugation: Present System|
|Present system of the third conjugation|
|Lecture 48||2 pages|
|Review sheet for the present system of third conjugation verbs|
|Lecture 49||3 pages|
|Review sheet for third conjugation verbs in the present system|
Chapter 08: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 08: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 10: Chapter 9: Demonstratives Hic, Ille, Iste; Special - īus Adjectives|
|Demonstratives; mixed declension; UNUS NAUTA|
|Lecture 53||4 pages|
|Review sheet for demonstratives and new concepts|
|Lecture 54||3 pages|
|Review sheet for new vocabulary|
Chapter 09: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 09: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 11: Chapter 10: Fourth Conjugation and - iō Verbs of the Third|
|Lecture on fourth and third i-stem conjugation verbs|
|Lecture 58||2 pages|
|Downloadable review sheet to help you review 3rd -stem and 4th conjugation verbs|
|Lecture 59||3 pages|
|Downloadable sheet for new vocabulary|
Chapter 10: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 10: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 12: Chapter 11: Personal Pronouns and idem, eadem, idem|
|Discussion of personal pronouns and the demonstrative is, ea, id|
|Lecture 63||2 pages|
|Downloadable review sheet for pronouns and new concepts|
|Lecture 64||3 pages|
|Review sheet for new vocabulary|
Chapter 11: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 11: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 13: Chapter 12: Perfect System (Active)|
|The perfect system (active) for all verbs|
|Instructions how to use a synopsis for review|
|Lecture 69||4 pages|
|Download form to help you review the new ideas and forms|
|Lecture 70||3 pages|
|Downloadable form for the new vocabulary|
|Lecture 71||3 pages|
|Downloadable synopsis sheet for your practice|
Chapter 12: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 12: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 14: Chapter 13: Reflexive Pronouns and Reflexive Possessive Adjectives|
|Lecture on reflexives: pronouns and possessive adjective suus, -a, -um|
|Lecture 75||5 pages|
|Downloadable form to help you review the new forms and concepts|
|Lecture 76||3 pages|
|Form for new vocabulary|
Chapter 13: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 13: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 15: Chapter 14: Third Declension i-stem Nouns; Ablative of Manner and Means|
|Lecture on third declension i-stems and a couple special uses of the ablative case|
|Lecture 80||2 pages|
|Downloadable form to help you review the new forms and concepts from this chapter|
|Lecture 81||3 pages|
Chapter 14: Self-Tutorial Discussion
Chapter 14: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
|Section 16: Chapter 15: Ordinal and Cardinal Numbers; Genitive of the Whole; Ablative of Time|
|Lecture on the new forms and material from this chapter|
Dr. Lugosch taught all areas of classical studies at the undergraduate and graduate level, and published scholarly articles on Sophocles, Plato, Aristotle, and Homer. Recently retired, Dr. Lugosch still leads small private tours to Italy, Greece, Turkey and France that explore artifacts of classical antiquity.
These lectures help support his money-losing hobby farm in Kentucky where he raises organic pigs, grass fed beef, pastured chickens, Californian rabbits, and all manner of vegetables.