You could see the world as nothing but randomly appearing stimuli (i.e., events you experience) and responses (i.e., your own behaviors), but you don't. How do you learn that one stimulus is associated with another (classical conditioning)? How do you learn that your own behavior can make something in your environment change (operant conditioning)? And how do classical and operant conditioning change the way you behave? As it turns out, these two forms of learning--and what they tell you about the predictability of your world--can change your behavior in surprising ways.
These videos are the ideal study tool for AP Psychology courses, CLEP Psychology test preparation, and any college-level Psychology of Learning course.
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A summary of the first lecture, focusing on a definition of learning and why it might not be what you'd expect it to be.
To explain learning phenomena, we need theories. To test theories, we need experiments. Why?
Briefly, another simple form of learning.
A relatively simple, non-associative form of learning.
Why does lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus sometimes produce sensitization, and sometimes produce habituation? And is that even the right question to ask?
How can the consequences of repeated exposure to a mild stimulus be explained? There are numerous theories, but mostly they look like opponent-process theory.
Slapping stimuli together is always classical conditioning, even when nothing spectacular (or even noticeable) happens. But to study animals, it's convenient to slap certain stimuli together--ones that will produce clear, obvious behaviors. This video will reinforce what you've probably already read about the basic Pavlovian procedure, and address a few common errors people make in thinking about Classical Conditioning.
Classical conditioning comes up in real life in significant ways.
Well, not all the details; just three little things allow you to predict two little things (and to get a sense of how the model works).
The Rescorla-Wagner Model in action (so to speak).
Mono. Bi. Mono. Bi. Mono. Bi. Mono. Bi. Mono. Bi. Mono. Bi. Decaf?
What sort of association gets learned during classical conditioning?
So,...if you eliminate the response to the US, the CS2 will...what?!
Substitutes. Signals. Substitutes. Signals. Substitutes. Signals. Substitutes. Signals. Substi...
Looks pretty simple, but...
Sometimes can be better than all the time.
Maybe pigeons are smarter than they seem.
Probably not, but maybe.
Everybody s-t-r-e-t-c-h now!
I know what feels good and I know what feels bad. Oh, wait a minute...no, I don't.
Needs and arousal.
Avoidance isn't avoidance.
And they were looking so good.
Two hard. One easy. Questions?
What's going to happen?
At the risk of repeating myself, prior learning influences current learning.
Dr. Sharpsteen has been a professor of psychology for nearly 30 years, specializing in topics related to social psychology and personality. He's the author of REA's CLEP Introductory Psychology, a test preparation guide for introductory/general psychology courses.