Adding highlights and shadow to the eye

Jaysen Batchelor
A free video tutorial from Jaysen Batchelor
Illustrator & Designer
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Lecture description

In this lecture you will be learning how to detail out the eye drawing by adding highlights and shadows. The first step is to determine where the light source is. Once we know that we can determine where our midtowns, core shadow, and highlights will be.

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English [Auto] In this lecture we're gonna be learning how to detail out an eye and add highlights and shadows and textures and all that good stuff. So let's go ahead and get started. So the first thing we're gonna do is we need to decide what direction our light source is coming from. And in this case I think I'm gonna have our light source coming from above and kind of at this direction just kind of like that. The reason why we need to know our light sources is one so we know all the highlights and shadows are gonna be and two because we need to know where our actual reflection in the eye is going to go. So since the light source is coming from this side the reflection is going to be over here on this side so we can go ahead and draw it in. Now we can draw a reflection in as basically anything we want. The reflection is just a reflection of the light source so let's say that we have a round light source. We could just go ahead and draw around light source on our eye like that and we could even have multiple eyes light sources in the eye but in this case we're just gonna have one. So something like that looks fine. All right. And it also looks pretty good if we have it kind of overhanging onto the pupil a little bit that always looks a little bit better. Now when you're drawing the highlight it's important that you have dark shadows behind it. And the reason why you need dark shadows behind it is because the shadows will always be behind the highlight. So let me show you what I mean by this. So I'll move this drawing out of the way for a second. Right here I have a ball and in our drawing we only have one light source so I get to go ahead and turn off one of my lights. So now I only have one light source and it's coming from this direction so the same direction that our eye light source is coming from. Now as you can see because this ball is cone caved the shadow is on that side. And the highlight is on this side of the inside of the ball. We flip it around so it's round kind of like an eyeball. You'll see that this top area gets all the highlight and the shadow is now on this side. We also see that we get all the reflections on that side. So that's why we want the reflection on this side. When we draw our eyeballs so if we bring her back over here we put the reflection on this side just like over here. But the thing to understand about the iris is that the IRS is actually concave. So rather than being round like this or flat it's actually concave a slight bit. So as you can see we get shadow up here. So we always want whenever a highlight or a reflection is we want there to be shadow behind it. So the outside of the eye the clear part is round like this or we get the highlight there. But then the IRS the colored part is actually concave underneath that. So we get shadow up here. So there should always be shadow beneath that reflection. So let's go ahead and let's start adding that in. So first I'll start by sort of darkening in this iris outline and then we can go ahead and just start shading in up here. So I want to start out pretty dark so I'm pushing pretty hard not pushing with full pressure but I'm getting pretty close to full pressure. So I wanted to be nice and dark up here. And another reason why it gets nice and dark up here is because this if the light source is coming from above which usually is the eyelid is also going to be casting and the eyelashes are going to be casting a shadow across the actual eye. So we want to make sure that we darken it up here as well for that reason make sure you don't fill in your reflection. So we've got a shadow right there from the eyelid but then our light source coming from there so basically all of this area right here and over here that all needs to be in shadow because just like our ball or concave ball we have all the shadow right in there let's go ahead and slowly let that start to fade out do the same thing up here let it slowly fade out Now another thing we can do is right here the pupil that's actually a hole. So the IRS is a muscle that opens and closes the pupil makes it bigger and smaller. And since it's a hole it actually kind of gets wrapped around. So the IRS comes around and it wraps around into that hole so we can kind of create more of that illusion by leaving a little light edge around this side. So on this side we would actually be getting a dark shadow on that edge but on this side will actually get a lighter edge. So we want to leave a little white space right around there just like that. Sometimes there's a little bit of kind of actually if you're looking at it from the side it kind of goes like this and lumps up and then wraps around into the IRS. And so we can actually kind of darken some shadow in right here just a slight bit just to kind of show that surface right there. Then let's go ahead and continue to fill this in. So we want to fill this all in with a kind of a midterm grade just so it has some value All right great. Now let's go ahead and let's film the pupil now. If you have a drawing pencil set you can go ahead and grab a darker pencil to fill this in with. And that way it just will appear a little bit darker if you don't that's fine just go ahead and fill it in with a or fill it up with the same pencil just push harder to get a darker value. So right now I'm using a five B and I did all this other lighter stuff with a B pencil. So that just makes it have a little bit more contrast remember to leave this little white space around this edge over here like that. And that gives a nice dark pupil. So now we can go ahead and come back to our B pencil. We don't need anything else to be really bad dark yet. And let's just go ahead. Let's kind of smooth some of these values together a little bit more now let's go ahead and let's start adding some definition to the muscle of the IRA. So like I said it's a muscle and if you look at your own I will see that there's a lot of sort of February lines kind of going like this moving out from the center of your eye. So let's go ahead and add some of those m and we kind of get some of these story looking ones kind of coming off the center like that and they might not finish all the way across. Now everybody's eyes are kind of different. So there's a lot of different muscle variations but this is the basic gist you can make an eye look like an eye by doing this method of just drawing these lines coming out but we want to you can look at reference of eyes and try to copy their muscles. Sometimes people have more squiggly type things in them eyes come in all different types of shapes and sizes and there's many differences in them but in general to draw generic I just doing these sort of mostly fiery lines coming out. This will help it look pretty good. Another thing we can do is we can go ahead and take if any racer says something with kind of a sharp edge and we can just go ahead and kind of erase out some of this a little bit that now we just add a little bit more definition to the iris muscles can even come up here into the darker area and get some of that out like that. Perfect. Next let's go ahead and let's kind of darken in these edges around the eye the edges of the eye sometimes tend to be a little bit darker and it just kind of creates a little bit more contrast sometimes it's just because of the coloring of the eye other times it's just because of the highlights and shadows. Let's go ahead and darken that just help it the contrast a little bit better the more contrast we can incorporate it into our drawings the better they always look all right then let's go ahead and let's soften these edges. That's a mistake a lot of people make is they'll make the edge of their iris so crisp and such a hard line. But in reality there's actually kind of a soft blend between the White of the eye and the IRS so if we can just kind of lightly soften that up a little bit that'll help it look just a little bit more realistic All right great. We're going to darken over here around the highlight a little bit more just to create more contrast. All right so next let's go ahead and work on the white of the eye now. Why did the eye is the sphere of the eye. And so just like shading the sphere we need a shade and an eyeball. The same way. So over here quick let's just draw a circle and let's just do a quick recap of how we shade a sphere. So if our highlight is coming from there or or light source then we're going to have a highlight here. We're going to have our midtown shadow kind of wrapping around and curving like that and we're going gonna get a little bit of a darker shadow which is our core shadow wrapped around like this and then we're gonna get our bounce light down here from the surface sitting on and if it's not sitting on the surface then it'll just all be caught shadow on that side just like that. And then there is probably a highlight somewhere here which would be that highlight right there. So this was an eyeball. Let's say we leave out the IRS then let's go ahead and let's draw in the shape of the eye. And that reflection actually approached again a little bit lower down but that's OK. So let's say the reflection is right there and as you can see that part of the eye you still get a little bit of shading here and over here. So we want to make sure that we shade the white of our eye just like a ball. So let's go ahead and do that and go any race. This guideline real quick because you don't really need that anymore. Now let's go ahead and start shading. So our light source coming from here so this side is gonna be a lot darker not too dark but darker than it will be on that side. So we still want to keep it pretty light. I'm also using cross country lines to shade this in kind of curving with the eyeball a little bit kind of helps it look a little bit more have like a little bit more form and like I said earlier in the course at the very beginning it's a mistake that a lot of people make is a lead the eyes white because they think it's the white of the eye but there's actually some shading in there to make a look around. So if you just leave it white it's going to look really flat and really fakes you wanna make sure that you add some of the shading and then just like that then we're also going to get a little bit of shadow on the white of the eye from the island. So just like up here on the IRS part we're gonna get a little bit of shadow here but because the white of the eye is pretty light compared to the IRS it's not gonna be as dark of a shadow. We'll keep it a nice soft shadow like that do the same thing over here. All right. Perfect. All right. So now we have the white of the eye done. Let's go ahead and let's move on to the eyelids and the tier ducts so for the tier duck let's go ahead. It's round that out a little bit more and then we can go ahead and just kind of start giving some more definition that it's got a few sort of round pieces in here in the tier duct and those will very often have a little reflection on them if they're wet sort of shaded in something like that and leave a few highlights in there. If you reflections and then since the light source is coming from up here that means that this bottom part of the eyelid right here is gonna be shaded in and we can just kind of let that blend into the White of the eye a little bit. Sometimes when you're drawing letting values blended into each other even if they're separate parts can sometimes look pretty good. So we'll just let that happen. Let those blend into each other. And then as this comes around we'll start to lose the edge of the eyelid something like that. All right let's go ahead and move on down here to this bottom eyelid. So the bottom eyelid is facing the opposite direction as the ledge of the upper eyelid. So this is in shadow. But this is going to be the opposite it's going to be in highlight. Go ahead and darken that and just a slight bit like that. And so we want to lead this and highlight. But right underneath it if we're looking at the eye from the side if you remember the bottom eyelid comes out like this. And it kind of curves down like that. So this is the ledge right there that we see right here. When me finish drawing this eyes you can see a little bit better. So this right there that's this ledge right here. We're looking at it from the sides. You can really see it. And then this part of the eyelid down here is this part here and as you can see it's curving downward so it's actually going to be in shadow. So let's go ahead and let's just add some shadow but as it comes down it kind of curves back up into the cheek. And so then it's gonna come out of shadow. So we only want to bring the shadow down to. About there and then it'll fade and highlight and then over here the eyelid kind of breaks into two pieces like that. So we want to make sure that we include that in their will go ahead. She the same and over here as it wraps around over to the tier duct it actually is gonna be a little bit less because it's curved down over on this side but as it kind of comes around it kind of flattens out a little bit more over here by the tier duct so we can start to lighten up the shading a little a little bit more shed on that ledge that hangs over and we can also add a little bit of shadow up here on this ledge from this part of the upper eyelid that's hanging over the bottom part. So just like that all right. Perfect. So now let's go ahead and work over here on the tier duck side so the tier duck side kind of has sort of a if you can imagine sort of a noodle shape that's kind of smoothed out kind of wrapped around the tier duct. It's kind of like that but then we need to shave that. And so this top surface right here is going to be getting hit by light. We're gonna get a little bit of shadow on the underside of it because it's sort of a round type of shape. And as it comes around here we're actually on this underside gonna get some shadows. It's going to slowly fade into shadow on this underside just like that all right. Perfect. Now let's go ahead and let's move up here and to the eyelid the upper eyelid. So the light source is coming from here so we might be getting a tiny bit of shadow right there but not very much. The main part of light is gonna be hitting right there and then as we start coming around to this side it's gonna start fading into shadow as it starts curving around the island so we can go and let this get darker and darker as it gets over here to this side perfect and then because we have this part of the brow hanging over the top right there we're gonna get some darker shadows as well so we're gonna get kind of a cash shadow being cast over this. So it's going to start a little bit darker slowly fade into a lighter shadow. We can add a little bit more shadow here as well because this is a round object kind of curving like that. So we're gonna get a little bit of shadow that slowly fades into our highlight like that. Then right here where the eyelid and the brow overlap we're gonna get some darker shadowed area like this shadow will continue basically all the way down here curved around with the eye socket can darken in right here where the eye socket gets really where it's gonna scoop in pretty deep into the eye socket so we'll go and darken that and a little bit great then let's go ahead and we can shade in because the eye socket and the brow bone it's not just a hard edge like that it curves around so it's gonna create a nice soft shadow so we're gonna go ahead and smooth this out and just kind of let it fade a little bit more it's just something like that and then we can go ahead and we can define these creases a little bit more in the island. Same with up here Ben all right. Great. I'm going to soften this up a little bit as well. Maybe darken in the shadow on this underside just a bit more. Perfect. All right. So now let's go ahead and let's add in some wrinkles so we're not going to make this a very wrinkled face but you will get very slight wrinkles on the eyelids kind of moving in this direction like that. We're going to keep them super light because we get over here into the shadows. They need to be a little bit darker so that we can see them but just very light shadow or wrinkles like that. Then down here we're also gonna get some very light wrinkling kind of like this so they kind of get bunched together right there as they move out over here. They kind of start moving in the direction of the eye like that. Sometimes we get a few little wrinkles coming from the corner of the eye like that. All right great. Now lastly we need to go ahead and add in some eyelashes. So I already kind of showed you how to do more female like eyelashes. They usually tend to be a little bit thicker a little darker and a little longer. So now let's just do some male eyelashes male eyelashes you want them to be not a second out as dark. You want them to be a little less noticeable so it's going to start on the bottom eyelids like this. And as you can see I just kind of watching them criss cross over each other like that. Sometimes there's a lone one like that but there's very few. And as we start to curve around the eye the ones in the middle are going to be a little bit more straight and the ones out here will be singled out more that way and the ones towards that side will be angled out more that way. That's an important part of making your eyelashes look real. Is it making sure that they're angled out in the right direction again. Don't make these too dark and don't make too many of them energy just kind of noticeable and if they're too long. They're going to look a little bit more feminine. Now another other guys have longer eyelashes and if you're trying to draw a portrait of them it'll probably help to actually make the eyelashes look like their eyelashes. But if you're trying to draw a male eye out of your head you typically want to just keep the eyelashes pretty short and not as thick or as dark. All right let's go ahead and get started up here now with eyelashes. So like down here we started right there on that ledge the outside ledge of our Eilat eyelid. So we want to do the same thing up here. So we want to start the eyelashes up here and they're basically just going to move down and then move back up. So that's a straight on view of one. If we're looking at it from the side over here it's basically going to move down then move out like that. And over here it's going to move down and then move out like that. So if you remember on the eyelash looking at it from the side basically what they're doing is they're swooping down a little bit and then coming back up swooping down and coming back up. And that's why they kind of overhang over the actual eyeball like right there. All right. So let's continue drawing these in those might have a little bit too long. That's OK. I'll try to make the rest of them a little bit. Not as long. Perfect. So there we go. Now we have some eyelashes and we go dark in this upper layer right here same with down here. Just add a few little dark areas where those eyelashes are just to add a little bit more detail a little bit more definition and a little bit more contrast. All right. So there we go. We just drew the human eye. This is a specifically a male eye. So the eyelashes are a little bit thinner. The next lecture we'll be talking about eyebrows and how that helps faces like either more like a man or more like a woman's. So yeah. So there you go. So that's a detail that I. That's how you do the highlights and the shadows that tie you do the reflection. So I hope you have a pretty good understanding of how this is done now. I'll see you in the next lecture.