Installing CentOS from Scratch / CentOS Manual Installation Process

Jason Cannon
A free video tutorial from Jason Cannon
Professional system administrator, consultant, and author.
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Lecture description

In this lesson you will learn how to install CentOS 8 and/or RHEL (RedHat Enterprise Linux) 8.

Learn more from the full course

Linux for Beginners

An Introduction to the Linux Operating System and Command Line

06:17:47 of on-demand video • Updated July 2021

  • By the end of this course you will understand the fundamentals of the Linux operating system and be able to apply that knowledge in a practical and useful manner.
English [Auto] In this lesson, you'll learn how to install Cintas from scratch or how to install CentOS manually. Now this comes in handy if you want to customize your installation or if you're working on physical hardware. Now, if you already have a Linux distribution installed and ready to go for this course, feel free to skip this lesson. For example, perhaps you installed Cintas using a VDI or virtual disk image and virtual box. And so you already have a working system to use this course with. So again, you can skip this lesson. At this point, you should have virtual box installed on your operating system. The next thing you're going to do is download Cintas from Cintas, dawg. Now, what we need to do is find the download link, so here it says Get CentOS now go ahead and click on that. Now, by the way, that may look completely different when you're accessing the Cintas website. Of course, websites can get updated all the time. So just find the download section for CentOS, then scroll down a little bit here. You'll notice that you have two options here. The Cintas Linux DVD ISO is perfect for our needs. It's based on the latest stable RedHat enterprise release. This means it's been well tested, so you shouldn't be in for any bad surprises. The Cintas Stream DVD ISO, on the other hand, is a rolling release. Consider it a development release or a work in progress release. With that said, let's stick to the most stable version and click on Cintas Linux DVD ISO. Here you'll be presented with a list of mirrors and you can simply choose any one of these, they all point to the exact same file. So I'll click on the very first one here and it starts to download. Now, this is a very large file, so it will take some time to download. Once you have the ISO downloaded, you're ready to create a virtual machine. So go ahead and start the virtual box application. Create a new virtual machine for your Cintas operating system installation by clicking on new, you can see that it asks you for a few bits of information, the name, the machine folder, the type and the version. Now I'm going to name the virtual machine Cintas desktop. As I type that in virtual box automatically selected Linux is the type and Red Hat as the version, if it didn't, you could simply use the dropdown boxes and make the appropriate selections. So you would go here first and click Linux and then select RedHat 64 bit. Now, if you do not have a Red Hat 64 bit option, that most likely means that your hardware acceleration features for your computer are not enabled. This means you need to enable the hardware acceleration and or virtualization settings in your computer's bios. Reboot your computer and enter the BIOS and make sure that you have BTX or AMD enabled in your physical computer's bios. Now, if you have an intel processor, you might see and if you have an AMD processor, well, you might see AMD v also. If you see any settings for virtualization technology or virtualization extensions, go ahead and enable those as well. Now this process varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, so you might have to look up the documentation for your specific computer. Again, you only need to perform the steps of going into the bios and enabling those virtualization settings. If you do not see a Red Hat 64 bit option here and the version section of this screen also, you can just leave the machine folder set to the default. Now that you have a name type and version set for your virtual machine, you can continue. So go ahead and click next. The minimum amount of RAM recommended is one thousand twenty four megabytes or one gigabyte. Now I have plenty of ram to use on my system, so I'm going to dedicate about half of my resources to this virtual machine. So I'll use eight thousand one hundred and ninety two megabytes, which is eight gigabytes. Once you've set your memory size, click next, now we need to create a virtual hard drive, make sure that create a virtual hard disk. Now is selected and then click the create button. The default of VDI is fine for the hard disk type, especially if you're not going to be using this disk image with other virtualization software. So just go ahead and click next. You have two choices here. One is dynamically allocated and the other is fixed size. If your primary concern is about preserving disk space or using as little disk space as possible, choose dynamically allocated. However, if you're looking for better performance, use fixed size. If you're not sure which one to choose, just go ahead and use the default of dynamically allocated. Now click next to continue. Here is where you can set the size of your hard disk. I'm going to specify one hundred gigabytes for my hard drive size. Although 10 gigabytes or so is sufficient to install Cintas to now, I wouldn't recommend anything less than 20 gigabytes. But again, I like having some additional space, so I'm going with this larger size of one hundred gigabyte. So now we can click create to create the virtual machine. Next you need to install Cintas, so we'll just power on the machine by clicking on the start button at the top. Immediately, virtual box asks you for a virtual optical disk, a file, of course, you're going to use the Cintas ISO file that you downloaded earlier. So click on the folder icon. And this opens up the virtual media manager window. Click on Add and navigate to where you downloaded the ISO file. This will probably be in your downloads folder. Already have my downloads folder here selected. And as you can see, I have my ISO file, so just click on that and click open. Now click choose. And the last step here is to click start to boot your virtual machine. You'll notice that you have three options. The test this media and install Cintas Linux eight is highlighted. It's kind of hard to tell what's highlighted, but that is what is highlighted. What this will do is make sure that the image that you're using isn't corrupted. Now, I recommend going with a default here, so go ahead and just press enter to start the installation. You'll see the system start to boot and perform a check on the media. If for some reason the ISO got corrupted during the download, this will alert you to that fact to interact with the VMD. Click inside of it. This allows the virtual machine to take control over the mouse and keyboard. So anything that you type or any mouse movements you make are going to the virtual machine at this point to give control of the mouse and keyboard back to the host system, you need to press the host key, which is a special key reserved for virtual box actions. The default host key on a Mac is the left command key, while the default host key on Windows is the right control key. Even if it's something different, you can always tell what the host key is by looking in the bottom right of your VM window. I'm on windows so you can see the words right RL, which stands for the right control key and that is displayed in the bottom right of the VM window. Also, if this is the first time you've done this virtual box will give you some information about this, more or less. It's telling you the exact same thing that I just told you. So I'm going to go ahead and click on captcha to let the virtual machine take over my mouse and keyboard. So now we're inside of our virtual machine. And the first thing we need to do is select the language. As you can hopefully tell, I speak English, so I'm going to use the default of English. Once you've selected your language, click continue. There are many selections you can make here on this installation summary screen. Most of them are optional. However, anything with an alert symbol next to it requires your attention. Let's start by clicking on the installation destination since it has an alert icon next to it. The only thing you have to do on the screen is to simply click done Cintas is forcing you to make sure that you are installing it to the right disc's. This virtual machine only has access to one virtual disk and it's already selected. So now I'm just going to go ahead and click. Done. And by the way, if it wasn't selected, you can go ahead and click it and you'll see a checkmark indicating that it is selected. So again, I'm going to click done. Now you can see that the alert icon has disappeared. We want to enable networking for our Cintas installation. So next click on Network and Hostname. If you see the word disconnected next to the interface name, go ahead and click the on off switch. The network interface status should go from disconnected to connected now click on Don. The final thing we need to do on this screen is to change the software selection, so click on software selection. On the left hand side, click on workstation now on the right hand side, click on Development Tools. If you don't select development tools, you won't be able to install something later called a virtual box guest editions and we'll be talking about those guest editions in a little bit. So just make sure that there is a checkmark next to development tools. Those are the only changes we need to do on this screen. So let's go ahead and click done to return to the installation summary screen. If you want to make any other adjustments at this time, go ahead and do so. The only additional items you should change are the ones on the left under localization. We've already configured the software and systems section, so we're going to leave those alone at this point. So let's say you might want to set the date and time. So you would click here and then choose your date in time, either through the menu system or perhaps just clicking on where you're at in the world. So I use mine as America's New York now clicked on. So at this point, you're ready to start the installation, so click begin installation. Now it's time to set the password on the route account. We'll be talking about the route account later in this course. But for now, just click on Route Password and choose a password. And very important, be sure to remember that password. And if you can't think of a password, then I'll suggest one for you. It's admin user. So I'm going to enter that here admin user and I'll re-enter it here. As you can see, there's a little message at the bottom of the screen, and if Cintas considers the password that you've chosen to be weak, it's going to require you to press done twice to confirm that password. And so this particular password is weak. This is a virtual machine that no one but me will have access to. So I'm not really concerned about a strong password here. So go ahead and click done once. If you have a strong password or twice if you have a weak password. Now we have the option of creating a user and we want to go ahead and do that. So click on user creation. Here is where you'll enter your information for your personal account on this system. So here I'm going to enter my name. Of course, you would enter your name. Next, make sure to click make this user administrator. Now, that will make it easier for you to do things on the system, such as install software or other types of administrative tasks that will be covering later in this course. So now we need to supply a password. So I'll go ahead and enter my password here. And again, if Cintas thinks you are using a weak password, you'll have to click done twice. From here, you'll have to wait for Cintas to complete the installation process. Now that the main portion of the installation is done, we need to go ahead and reboot the system to finish up the installation. So go ahead and click on Reboot now. If Cintas was not able to detach the ISO from the virtual optical drive, we'll have to do it manually. So if you see the Sentosa installation screen again, like we do here, don't worry, go to the devices menu. Now we need to hit the host key to get control of the mouse and keyboard. So I'm going to hit right control since I'm on windows again. Just look in the right hand corner and you'll see the host key that you need to hit. So from here, what we want to do is go to the devices menu and then the optical drive submenu and you can see a checkmark here next to the file that is actually connected. But what we want to do is remove the disk from the virtual drive. So we'll go ahead and click on that. Now, as you can see in the background, I've spent enough time here where the installation is starting over again. But don't worry, it's not writing anything to your virtual disk. It's just starting up. So, again, no need to be concerned. So Virtual Box thinks that Cintas is still using the ISO, so it asks you if you want to force and mount it and we don't want to install CentOS again. So performing the force unmount is exactly what we want to do. So we'll go ahead and click Force Unmount. Now go to the machine menu and click reset machine and reset. From here, click on Reset, what this does is powers the virtual machine off and back on again. Now we're presented with the normal installed Cintas boot screen. Here's syntheses is asking us to accept the license information, so I'm going to click inside the virtual machine to capture the mouse and keyboard. Then I'm going to click license information and then click, I accept the agreement. Now go ahead and click. Done. And finally click on to finish configuration. Now that the system is booted up, I'm going to go ahead and log in as myself by clicking on my name. And next, I'm going to enter the password that I chose during the installation process for my account. Now, this might be different than the root password. Again, this is for your personal account. Now, of course, you are going to be clicking on your name and using your password. So this will look just a little different than what you're seeing here on the screen. I can either hit, enter or click sign in. Right after you log in, you'll be asked to confirm your language. English is my language and it's already selected. So I'm going to click on Next. Here is the keyboard, and again, the default works for me, so I'm in the click on Next Again. If you don't want location services enabled, click the on off switch. Personally, I'm fine with location services being enabled, so I'm going to accept the default here and click on Next again. At this point, you can connect your online accounts. I'm going to personally skip this process now. You can also skip it and always do this later if you decide you want to. So go ahead and click on Skip. Finally click on start using Cintas Linux. So what you see here is actually a tutorial for the desktop, which is called GNOME, of course these are optional to watch, but the tutorials are short and worth watching. Once you're done with the tutorials, click on the X in the top right of the window to close the screen. So our job will be completely done right here. If we were running Linux directly on physical hardware such as a desktop, a laptop or a server. However, since we're using a virtual machine, we can optionally perform one more step that will help Linux understand the virtual hardware that it's working with. That step is to install a piece of software called Virtual Box Guest Additions, the main benefit of installing virtual box guest additions is that the Linux desktop will conform to the shape of the virtual machine window. So, for example, now if I change my window size, I'll just drag it over here. We'll see that the Linux desktop doesn't expand or conform or stretch out to fit the window. Now, if you're happy with how CentOS looks now, you can go ahead and stop here. You can also adjust the display settings by going to the view menu. Then the virtual screen one submenu there, you can select a scale to make the display appear larger or smaller. So let's scale it a little bit to one twenty five here. All right. And let's go back and scale it back down. Now, if that scaling feature is good enough for you, then again, there's no need to install the guest editions. If you're still with me and want to attempt the installation, then just know that I'm about to ask you to do some complicated things that we obviously haven't covered in this course yet. So if you start to feel uncomfortable or unsure, just stop and continue with the next lesson. In this course, you can always install the guest editions later once you start feeling comfortable working on the command line. So if you're still with me, go ahead and click on activities in the top left of your screen. Next, click on the terminal icon that's near the bottom of your screen. Now, type escudo, pseudo DNF space, install space dash y space elf utils e l f UTM less dash Leyb elf which is Elai blf dash devel which is divi e l. Now it's very important that you enter the command exactly as shown. Make sure every letter is in lowercase, make sure that you spell everything correctly, make sure that the hyphens are exactly where they're supposed to be, make sure the spaces are exactly where they're supposed to be, because if you make any typing mistakes at all, the command will not work. So go slow and check your typing when you're sure the command looks the same on your terminal as it does on mine. Go ahead and press. Enter when you're prompted for a password. Enter the password for your account. What this command does is installs a package that is required by virtual box guest editions. It's a dependency. If you see complete at the end of this installation process, then the installation of that package was successful. As you see here on the screen, if you see a message such as unable to find a match, then there is a typing mistake in your command. So let me demonstrate what that looks like. So I'm just going to hit the up arrow key and let's say I accidentally added an extra L to the end of my command. Now I'm going to hit enter and I get an error back that states that it was not able to find a match. So if you see that, then try the command again. But correct any typing mistakes. Also if you happen to install it twice. So let me fix my typing installation. You'll actually get the same complete as your status back as well. So that's fine too. Now that the dependency is installed, it's time to insert the guest edition code image to do that first press the host key, which is the left command on a Mac and write control on Windows that lets your host system take back control of the mouse and keyboard. Now go to the devices menu and click insert guest edition's. Click here, insert guest edition's CD image. Now you'll see a pop up that asks you if you would like to run the software that is on this image, and we do so click inside the virtual machine to give back control of the mouse and keyboard. XM and hit do not show this message again, because I understand how this works, so I click on Capture and then I'm going to click on Run. Now, again, you're asked for your password, so go ahead and enter it here. Again, this is the password for your account, not to the rude account password, just in case if they're different. So go ahead and click authenticate. Now, the guest editions start installing the guest edition software requires that the development tools are installed. So if you remember earlier when we selected the software for the installation, we added the development tools by clicking on it and making sure that there was a checkbox next to the development tools name. So if you're having problems installing guest additions, you need to make sure that development tools were installed during the installation. Once the insulation is completed, you'll get a message telling you to press return or enter to close the window. So go ahead and press enter. And now what we want to do is reboot the virtual machine to show you what happens when the guests editions are successfully installed. So click on the far right corner and the URL here and click on the power button and click on Restart. So I'm just going to log in. So now what should happen is if I resize the virtual machine window, the Linux desktop should resize appropriately. So let me go ahead and just drag it over here, let it go. And now the Cintas desktop expands to fill the entire window. OK, well, that ends this lesson and wraps up the manual installation of CentOS.