Where did the Bible come from?
A free video tutorial from Bob Graham
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Bible History and its foundations.
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Learning the foundations of the Catholic Faith
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English [Auto] In this lecture we're going to talk about the history of the Bible before we can quote from the Bible we should have an understanding from where it came from and our story begins in the city of Alexandria in the third century B.C. city of Alexandria is a city founded by Alexander the Great and it's located within Egypt. Well the city has a library and the library is considered one of the greatest libraries of ancient times. It's filled with gardens lecture halls meeting halls. It has a museum attached to it. And it's also filled with a number of papyrus scrolls. So many come from throughout the Mediterranean to study there. Unfortunately many of the papyrus scrolls are written in Hebrew the official language of the Mediterranean at the time is Greek. So these scrolls are useless to many while the king of Egypt summons seventy 72 Jewish scholars and assigns them the job of translating over those Hebrew manuscripts into Greek. And what we get from this is what's known as the Septuagint set to Agent being Latin for the number 72. The number of scholars that were chosen and what the Septuagint is it becomes the Greek Old Testament. Now we don't know how many books were actually translated at that time. We do understand that the Torah was translated at this time the first five books of the bibles the books of Moses the Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers and Rahmi. But historians say that after those five books several others were translated later on and added to the Septuagint. Now the number of 72 of Jewish scholars actually comes from the king was said to have picked six scholars from each tribe 12 tribes given you 72. However many historians argue with the validity of this story saying that a pagan king would never choose Jewish scholars to translate over Hebrew skr Scripture. It just wouldn't happen. So that story is up for debate but what's not up for debate is the end product. There was the Septuagint. It was the Greek Old Testament and it did come from Alexandria. Now by the time Jesus comes along the Septuagint is the standard of scripture that's being taught from among the Jews throughout the Mediterranean. Jesus quotes from the Septuagint as well as the Apostles and New Testament writers. There are over three hundred Septuagint quotes in the New Testament. Now after Jesus dies the Apostles and the early church fathers are teaching from the Septuagint. But a number of manuscripts start showing up over time. Stories about Jesus letters from the apostles and we start seeing that the early church fathers start teaching from these new manuscripts and adding them within their sermons or liturgies during the week. So over time by the time Constantine comes along. There are literally hundreds of new manuscripts that are being taught throughout the churches throughout the empire. And after Constantine takes over and makes it the official Church of Rome we start seeing that the bishops and popes start narrowing the number of books that can be used and should be used within your church. These short lists come from all over. And they are considered well. These are the books that a certain bishop thought were divinely inspired or a Pope thought were divinely inspired. In the year 382 A.D. pope Pope Francis the first commissioned St. Jerome to start translating many of the books into Latin this would be the Latin Vulgate. Now it's important to note here though that the Bible is not official at this point. There is no official Bible and there is no one officially saying which books should be used and which books are divinely inspired. Well St. Jerome while he is doing his translating is actually adding his own opinions and putting them as prologues to the books and a number of old testament books he believed were not divinely inspired. There were seven of them. He believed these books were not divinely inspired mainly because there was no Hebrew text found from these books. Those being the books such as wisdom Tobit and Maccabees 1 and 2. So he his opinion was that those books were not divinely inspired. But again it was not up to him to decide which books were divinely inspired in the year 393. There is a council Council of Hippo and they were given the job to decide which books were divinely inspired. They were given the short lists from the popes and bishops and said hey which books are these should we teach fun teach from which books are divinely inspired. After the council of Hippo another council convenes and that is the Council of Carthage in 397 this council is given the same job take the books of the lists and figure out which books are divinely inspired to be included within a Bible. Shortly after these two councils there is still debate going on as to which books are divinely inspired. However in the year 4 or 5 A.D. Pope St. innocent puts his foot down on all debate and closes the Bible Canon officially now no one can add or take away from the Bible and it becomes official now this Bible that He closes the Canon actually becomes used as St. Jerome actually finished his translation into Latin. At the same year four or five. So this Bible becomes used for a thousand years a thousand years later. Martin Luther opens up the canon of the Bible again. He has no authority to do so but he does not believe in a church authority. So he opens up the canon of the Bible and wants to make some changes. He believes a number of books are not divinely inspired. And the books that he comes up with that are not divinely inspired are the books that St. Jerome had opinions about. Also when he started translating over to Latin these being the books of the Old Testament the wisdom the Judithe Tobit these seven books they believed were not inspired to add to this. Martin Luther also saw there were four books of the New Testament that were not divinely inspired. Those being Rev. James Jude and Hebrews. Now these four books of the New Testament he did keep in his bible however he moved them and put notes saying that these books were not highly regarded. The seven books above from the Old Testament he actually just took out completely. So from this we get two different Bibles in the fifties in the 1700s the Bible separate among Christians. Protestants have 66 Bibles. Catholics have 73. Seven is 66 books. My apologies. While the Catholics have 73 books and that is still going on today there is two different Bibles with different amount of books.