Stick Figures - Very Important

Neil Fontaine
A free video tutorial from Neil Fontaine
Art Instructor, Professional Painter, Writer
4.4 instructor rating • 17 courses • 80,764 students

Lecture description

This is the second most important lesson in the whole course. Please don't skip it.

Learn more from the full course

Anatomy for Figure Drawing: Mastering the Human Figure

This is what you need to learn in order to draw figures like a pro and land that dream job.

64:56:58 of on-demand video • Updated August 2020

  • To learn anatomy for the human figure.
  • Learn the skeleton.
  • Learn the muscles and where they attach so you can draw the figure from imagination.
  • Learn all about how to draw breasts and their mechanics, how they squish, attach, etc.
  • Learn to draw skin and fat, where fat builds up.
  • Learn to draw, heads, faces, hands, and feet.
  • Putting it all together. Learning specific parts of the body on motion, to better understand some more difficult muscles.
English Right, so before we move on to doing the form of the human figure, cuz that's really important to understand the form. We need to come up with some sort of simplification process of, that we started with in the beginning. Remember in the beginning of the course we went through this very simple simplification process and now this process should make a whole lot more sense, what they're representing. What the you know, why I chose these lines to represent the human skeleton. We're going to see that quickly laid out lines. And before we continue on, with you know, the simplification process, let's just do a quick reminder of how it works cuz it's been a while since we've gone through that. And what we're gonna do, we, we'll use the same system and method as we used last time except this time we're gonna draw a female skeleton. Because it's not the muscles will, will be the same. So you add the same muscles but you add them to the female skeleton. But as you add them to the female skeleton, you'll see those things that are different. You'll know, like for example, the you'll make all the muscles thinner, the whole woman's thinner. And just know the overall shape of the female. We'll also get to the overall shape of the female, too, but if you can see the shape in the female as far as the muscle structure goes, then from there it's pretty easy to kind of imagine. What the female looks like when you add all the muscles on it. Cuz it's the skeletal structure that makes the difference. So, just like before we'll start like this and then we'll have this halfway dividing line here. And then we'll go in and divide that line again. And I'm just gonna use this over here as a guide just for I make sure I get it on, you know on, make sure I get the halfway points really good here. I don't wanna goof up at all. In fact, I'm just gonna transfer these lines all the way over. I gotta have a half way point there but, guess that's the halfway point I guess. I didn't have that totally perfect, even though I was looking right over at it. That's the ankle area. Right, so we just wanna make sure all this stays, stays the same. Right and the first thing we did is we drew the head. And the head was like you take a square basically, you know, a perfect square, well, it's not a perfect square but you take a perfect square and then you reduce it down to a rectangle. So this part you should be able to do without having to do any sort of measurements at all. You should, you should have a good feel for the head to where you don't have to do anything. Then we know that we have the collar bone area. We can get the collar bone for a girl is a some, a slight difference. We can kind of make it come up. So make it come up a little bit and then kind of bend down like this so it kind of has more of a bend like this, kind of comes up and. Actually first kind of draw it like a very light straight line like this. I want to zoom in to do this. It's kind of hard to do it far away. Kind of come up and kind of bend it so it's a little bit higher than the line. And before we do that, [UNKNOWN] far out it's going to go. Let's go ahead and The female isn't going to be quite as wide. I mean, technically, a realistic female would be almost as wide as her, as her head is here. So you take the head and you kind of come out with pretty much that same width on each side. But I want to make it a little bit thinner, cuz it's, it's a little bit more ideal. And, and, and typically if you look at some photographs of women and stuff you will see that their shoulder length, or from shoulder to shoulder it's at the most, it's gonna be a head length for, for majority of women. And it's gonna be a little bit, probably a little bit thinner than their actual head length. So we, we kinda don't want the same rectangle we have over there. We kinda want it a little bit smaller than that. So let's go ahead and make it just a little bit smaller than the male. So, these main differences that, that we're gonna be doing, is what's gonna translate the whole difference, as you add the muscles on and of course you add the breasts on. And you add the fat in different, in different areas. But it's the shape of the, hips that are gonna really change the, pretty much the whole, female figure. All right, we're gonna cut this in half, or pretty close to half. And that's how far out you wanna go. Just a little bit past. [BLANK_AUDIO] So when you do the collar bone, you're gonna come up and come a little bit past, that line there. [BLANK_AUDIO] Like so. Then you draw the circles outside, just like we did before. They're gonna be a little bit outside of the, kinda like, well pretty much under the outer part of the collar bone like this. Remember the measurements were, were pretty simple. You had a little bit below the central line was the bottom of the pelvic bone or crotch. A little bit above the pelvic line was the, where the bottom of the wrist would lie, that's how the wrist would lie. So now you know the overall length of the arm, at least down to the wrist. So, let's go ahead and draw the overall length of the arm down to the wrist. Then we know we divide this line in half and that's where we get our middle joint there. Then we have our wrist in here, and we have our hands. When you do it by this measurement enough times, it's gonna, like I said it's going to embed into your brain. The overall shell will make her hands a little bit longer. It's going to make the overall shape of the figure that much better. So that when you draw it, it'll be accurate. Right now if you remember, once we had this down, we had how long the arms are, with the formula, and we know, you know about the middle point where the elbows are. Okay for some reason it's not letting me draw, it's more like an eraser for some reason. Right we know where the halfway point is, you pretty much know about how far the rib cage goes down now. We know the rib cage goes down to about this, this far. Here is another difference between the female. So the rib cage, so it's these little details that we're learning right now, these little differences, that make the female look like the female. The slightly altered way you attach the muscles. You still attach the muscles to the exact same areas, it's just now they're being attached to you know, a slightly, a slightly different muscle. Or, or a skeletal structure and because of that. Alright so this one kinda comes the female ribs cage is kinda shaped more like that. Where it comes down, the whole, the whole rib cage is, is smaller. Whereas the man rib cage has a, kinda comes down like this. So it's kinda opposite like the female has the curve at the top there, the widest part at the top. Whereas a man's rib cage comes down like this, and you know, has a little bit wider at the bottom. So. Built different in structure there. Right, it's also narrow here, so the whole, the whole thing's narrow and it has this narrow thing here. Then we remember before where the belly button was. Remember, the belly button, if you remember where the, how, how to find the area of the belly button. One way to kinda remember where the belly button goes is where the hips were. So, how do we remember where the hips were? Remember, we went, we took the half way line, remember we have this line here, this line here. After I have to make this half way line, there's a half way line between here and here. So you take this line and you just make a halfway point. And remember you take the halfway point, and it's a little bit below the halfway point, that's where you start, your, your hips. Well the, the female hips are, are lower than the male hips. So, an, an easier way to kinda tell, where that belly button should lie, is you can go, okay well about the half way point between the elbow of this part that we're representing as the elbow area the bending joint region and the wrist. Right pretty much halfway in between that area that's where your belly button will go. It's a pretty good indication it's a little bit lower then that sometimes but that's a pretty good place to put it. And so we'll go ahead and draw the belly button in there. Now remember the, the male, top of the male pelvic bones where right up here. They were, you know, they were a lot higher. Bu the female pelvic bone is lower and it's more round so it's you can image it being below the button and it's gonna kinda go like this and it's gonna have this kinda more of a bowl shape like this. So, it's not so much a heart shape as the mans. It's more of a bowl shape like that. And definitely want to draw all the way out to this line over here. In fact, yeah you definitely want it to be a little bit wider than. Make sure, if you draw a straight line down from the widest part of the rib cage. That your pelvic bone is coming out a little bit farther than that. The legs are the same, they attach to the same area. You can draw your little, ovals there. Draw the line come out. Draw your other ovals, and these ovals actually angle in just a little bit. Might as well make it accurate representation of what the bones are representing. But now you should, things should be starting to click, and the simplification process should start to make sense. Now, at this stage here you might start developing your own simplification process. A simplification process that works for you, that way when you're laying out your quick stick figures. You know, because at first you want to draw your stick figures every time. Your simplification of the bones. And then that way, you know where your muscles are supposed to attach, and all that kind of stuff. Let's draw an entire line. Like we did last time for the leg first. All this remains the same for the female as it does for the male. So a little above this halfway line, well right at the halfway line, you have bottom of your, or the, you can call it, the top of your tibia then you have the bottom of your fibula. And so you just represent that as two ovals. So now you know why we represented it this way. And if you want you can represent you know, the kneecap there but there's no point. You just know the knee cap's there. Right so then you have your little hose at the bottom here. This skeletal structure should make a lot more sense now as to why we drew the figure this way. Or why, why in the beginning we have this simplification process. You know, you've learned the skeleton, memorized it, now you know what it's representing, the parts representing. So it's that iliac crest that I like to focus on. The reason why I like to do it that way is then, okay, my love handles are gonna go above this, on a female. And the female love handles are typically more smoothed out, they're not as, they have more fat around them than a male. And then this is where the part where it's gonna pinch in. Right? So I know that's the pinch-in part of the female figure. I know my breast, not my breast, but the breast. Here's a little trick you can do. Imagine a triangle coming out from that, from the collarbones, like this. Pretty much a perfect triangle, and that's gonna kinda give you an idea where the nipples and stuff will lie. Now, remember, we learned the, the muscle structure, and so we know the nipples are gonna go right in here and right in here. This is what we'll, we'll understand when we add the skin. We haven't added the skin yet to the human figure, but we will do that after we learn the form of the figure first. I think it's, I think it's more important to learn the form of the figure, that is the shape the figure makes before we get into the skin of the figure. But nonetheless, we'll just kinda, just gonna do a quick female here. The breasts are like, remember, how's, how, here's a good place, a good, a good way to match the breasts, and we'll get more into this, like I said, when we get into fatty tissues and the, and the skin and everything. And then we will get a dialect pose dynamite poses like that. But first imagine there are holes here in the figure even though there is not. Just imagine it. And imagine that is where the breast attached to. They attach to the smaller oval shape, and then they kind of hang down. This is the main, this is where they are attaching. So imagine they're like, they're kinda like balloons, and the balloons are glued. And the surface of the balloons are touching the rib cage all right here. But where it's hanging off, this, all this here, this is all hanging off of, hanging off. It's not actually glued to the ribcage. If you think about it that way, it'll help you draw your breasts much better. And then nipples will go right about here. We'll get into breast anatomy and stuff, and kinda think about it as a, something that's a three dimensional object, when you add it on there. So that the breast, you know, come and they hang, and they rest on top of the ribcage. And again, can imagine the three-dimensional shape they have and place the, that's why you do that triangle that helps you place where the ni, nipples would be at the edge of the triangle. Right, so here we go. We know we have the neck in here. We'll make the neck a little bit thinner than a male neck. Make the chaps a lot smaller, barely visible in the back. Shoulders will come out thinner. And I'm just doin' a quick demonstration so you can kinda see the difference with the male and female body. And we'll go through again, and, and we'll, we'll attach the muscles to the figure. And you'll see like when we, when we attach the muscles to the figure, to this skeletal structure, how it's kind of the same thing. So, a man's legs, they come up higher. They have this, a man's legs have this higher V-shape to them like this when you draw a man's legs. Female legs, because the hips come out wider like this, they have a shorter distance. And I might of actually, you know, made, I probably could have made this a little bit more, not so, round. That could have probably come up a little bit like this. Come up a little bit higher like that. Had a little bit more of an angle. Then, so we have like a dip, and then it kind of comes out like this, and we have here, back here. We have that other muscle, comes out and remember it comes in and out. You have another muscle that comes down that way. You have your knee that fits in here, and everything. That's there, you have this, it comes down, the lower calf muscle and so forth. And so you can see if you have a basic skeletal structure, and you know where the muscles attach to the figure, it makes it easier to draw the figure. So now you know why I have that we should, it kind, it should make sense why I have the hooves there cuz the hooves are easy to turn into the, into the front facing foot like that. And so that would be a basic female figure. Again, this isn't stylized at all. This is, you know, more of just the average, realistic female figure. Right, and when we add, you know, they have, you know, slightly shorter legs and stuff like that so. Then we can stylize it by elongating the legs a little bit more. And, you know, you can like make the breast whatever size you want. But you can also pinch this in more, so the shoulders are pinched in more if you wanted to, even smaller than we've made them now. Keep in mind this is just a skeletal structure over here. So if we add you know, the bulkiness of a man to this, you can kind of see how it changes the overall structure of the, of the man but also, I think I pinched those before last time. In the beginning, was more of a female skeleton and I was kinda showing some of the differences there and you don't have to pull this hips down this far with a female. That is, this line can be a little bit higher, if you want it to but just remember their wider that's the main point but typically, they're down farther like this. But I like to what I like to do, is we'll change this a little bit here. I like to have my hips kinda start to almost just as high as the guys but wider, so that basically, the hips are going to be wider than the ribcage but I'm still going to have, I'm going to have a dip right here but I'm still going to have that kinda look like this but not quite as high and sometimes, I'll even, I'll still draw it way high like that. I'll just draw it wider than you know, still have that up and down look to it like the man's legs but I'll have it higher or wider, this way you know, than a man's. So the difference then, if I would draw like kind of the underwear version is the man is going to be more like this and this'll be his legs and the female is gonna be more, oops, like this. So you'll still have that kinda high part but the, why, it's wider this way than their, the ribcage will be shorter than that. So gonna erase all those lines. Just back step a little bit here. Just do it that way, instead of erasing 'em. [BLANK_AUDIO] Remember with the, with the female figure, [BLANK_AUDIO] just like with the male, remember we have the when you have the, let's go down here to show you. So when you have the okay, I'm trying to get rid of all of this for you to see. We have this crest here that we're working with. The love handles, remember, fit on this top part here. So the love handles are going to fit in this area like this. The man's love handles, and then his legs are going to come off of here and so it's gonna, watch and we'll see that love handle and there's the love handle. See, so it fits right in. So the leg fits onto this bottom part. That's why, so when you draw that kinda heart shape, remember the legs attach to this bottom part and the love handles are attaching to the top part, all right? Same thing with the female but with the female because the skeletal structures formed a little differently, you get the love handles coming up here and they're kind of formed more like that and then, the leg attached into this part and the love handles are typically a little bit, a little bit wider too. I'm just going to erase some of this here. Like the shape of here and we'll see why when we add the fat to the, to the figure, why females' love handles look different and then also, the widest part of females should be right around this area here, cuz you have more fatty tissue that collects in that area and so, this is just kind of like a little bit of a preview. As we continue this simplification process, we'll learn the fatty tissues. We're not doing that yet but we will learn them. [BLANK_AUDIO] All right, so it's kind of, remember those muscles we learned? Now I'm kind of representing them as more simple lines. Let's kind of make that a little bit wider. You can see how doing the stick figure like that, you can actually see where the knee should be just by doing these two little ovals. Kinda makes the knee fit perfectly where it's supposed to be. [SOUND] That's one of the benefits of doing that stick figure that way it just lays out so much anatomy for you and it's an easy way to lay it down quickly. Right, so that'd be kind of how the female figure starts to develop and then, I like to kinda fill out this in more. Make it a little bit more curvy. [BLANK_AUDIO] All right, and so typically, what you're going to have at the, with the female figure then, if you imagine this part here, kind of coming down like this, where the rib cage will come down. You can do, you can do more of a stylized body, too. So this is the shape kinda come down, so you have the rib cage. Then you can kind of imagine you know, where the, you might be able to see some of the rib cage here coming up, you'll see a little bit of it there. Muscles coming down, belly button, all that, abdominal muscles. I'm just gonna kind of hint at it a little bit. If you imagine this triangle here, I think this helps kind of see the figure the way you probably should be seeing it. All right, so I'm not going to go through it you know, and draw the whole, the whole female figure here but just wanted to give you a quick glimpse of how we're gonna work, work in the you know, let's just go ahead and let's get a little bit crazy here. Remember, as boobs get larger, they get heavier, so they hang down more, right? Must have had like a boob job, then they might still be up a little bit but they're still going to hang down. They're cover a lot more of the rib cage. [BLANK_AUDIO] Which means the nipple area is still going to come down too. [BLANK_AUDIO] Remember, this up here, that's where you have your, as your hips come out here, your crescent and it, and it you know, comes around you know, behind, so you have that part that comes around behind and over here. There's a bone of the iliac crest that comes out as, so as this comes around, there's this bone right here's where, is where it kinda stops and then it kinda goes like this, remember when we learned the hip? This is important to remember. So this is one of the I guess what's the right word I'm looking for? Landmarks to look for in the female figure. That's a good word. We'll run with that, works. Right, so that landmark right there, if they're thin enough, you'll actually be able to see that little bone and if the lighting is hitting it right you know, you'll see a little drop shadow next to it. So like little, almost like little dimples in. If you look at some photos of some, especially, of like supermodels especially, and then, then this is also where you get. Let me show you something else here. It's kinda interesting there, it's an interesting landmark. So you have the crotch area and a little line that kinda comes up like that and that would be like you know, where a lot of people wear their swim suits now up here and some of them wear them low down here like this you know, the lower ones. Anyway, you get this kind of shape of the leg right here, right? It's kind of shaped like that and what's cool about memorizing that kind of landmark is when the female's sitting down, we have the legs coming out at us like, like this and they're being foreshortened. Let's say like this. They're being, they're being very foreshortened cuz they're almost coming straight out at us. You're gonna have this kinda look in the legs like this and we'll get into this when we get into different poses but just remember that, that's an important thing to remember. All right, so now let's go ahead and learn the simplification process of the, of the figure from like the side view and stuff like that and how it's going to look. So for now, I'll go ahead and get rid of this but before we continue on, I want you to really get familiar with the female, the simplification of the female skeleton for the front view. So draw it several times from reference and then several times from memory, until you get used to it. It shouldn't take you too long because you already have the figure down well by this point and so it shouldn't take you too long just to learn those few differences. And also, it shouldn't take you too long to start making up your own differences, like giving it really long arms to make it look more like a gorilla and then you know, make em have long legs, then their waist, start stylizing it and we'll get into more like, about stylizing the body too, which gets all into cartoon figures and anime and comics and what not. It's all about stylizing. What to, just like in the human head figure, if you've seen that. It's what to exaggerate, what to minimize or minimalize and what to. There's really, there's mainly like, I guess, maybe like three things I like to focus on. What am I gonna exaggerate, what am I gonna minimalize and what am I gonna flat out distort? And then, of course, there you know, there's also what can you just flat out make up but that's really, I kinda consider that part a distortion. All right, so let's do a, a side view of the skeletal structure and this is basically, going to be you know, how can we simplify the side view of the skeletal structure? And just in case, you haven't thought about it yet, you can see the power of learning the stick figure. A quick simplified stick figure and you can even simplify it more than this, if you want to. You can like get rid of the knee caps area and stuff like that, if you want to but really that helps when you have the knee coming out and you know, you have the bone from the side view and the other bone coming in. This helps you understand the shape the knee takes from the side view and when it's bent and stuff. So I really recommend sticking with that for a while before you get rid of it, if you decide to get rid it but you can see the power of the stick figure is when you wanna draw quick gestures. So now, when you're drawing quick gestures, you're focusing on either someone, a photo you're looking at or a live model, or whatever, or from your imagination, you can just go, okay, so the figure is gonna be kinda like doing this bend over thing. You can simplify it greatly and there's the collarbones, they're kind of bending out toward us and then, arms are kind of coming out like this. This arm's kind of coming out like this and by just doing a stick figure version, they might want to add a little bit of weight to it just for you can see, you know, some meat part of it here. Just so you can start to visualize how it's gonna look. You can see how then, I'm gonna have my spine kinda curving around in back like this. You can see a little bit, then you can see some of the kips here and then, you'll see the leg coming out here and the other leg coming out there and then, I don't know, let's say cuz it's kinda coming from a side view here. So this will be like the side of the leg here let's say the leg is kinda like this and then like this. Boom, right. And this leg is kinda coming thin and bam. So by, you can quickly get a gesture, so if you saw some of that, either, either from your imagination or you're looking at a photograph, you can quickly, or a live person, you can quickly gather the gesture of just the skeletal structure underneath and because you know anatomy now, this is why anatomy is so powerful, you can start to go, okay, so I know this is my, this is my collarbone and actually, the collarbone is gonna kinda come out like this. I know the scapula back here is gonna kinda be like this. So in a simplified top view of a skeleton, you have kind of a shape like that and that shape gives you the understanding of you know, okay, I know that the deltoid attaches to the back part of the scapula here, to that, to that ridge of the scapula, comes down connects to the humerus bone, comes around and connects to this part, half way part of the front part of the, of the clavicle or the collar bone, however you want to call it and it come like this and so you kind of get a feel for the muscle there. Then you know okay, you have the trapezius and I know attaches to the back of the neck and it kind of comes up this way and I know it attaches partway here, like that, and then that's what gives you that gap we talked about when we were learning the neck. Right, then you have, comes about right about there, then it kind of comes back and we know that you know, it kind of has this, cause it, Well, what we're learn it from those different views but this is like one view, for example, we'll kind of learn it from, kind of have the bumps like that you know, those are, those are the muscles in between there, the teres major and minor and stuff and you have the pecs and we know the pecs attach to the collarbone and then they come down they attach partly to the sternum, which we're only seeing part of. It's being very foreshortened because he's coming at us and then it comes down, it comes up here and we know it connects to the arms. So by knowing it connects to the arm,, we know it has to stretch from here under the deltoid, all the way over here. So we can already tell how much of the pec we'll kinda be able to see that it connects up there to part of the collarbone. So we can tell, the arm's way over there, the pecs being stretched way over there, right? So we're gonna have this elongated muscle now. So you have to use logic, you know? It's a stretchy material but it can only stretch so much, so you know it has to change the shape. It can't like be all blocky and stuff still. It's gotta change its shape cuz it's being stretched way over there, since the arms are out. Then you know you have the, that latissimus dorsi or the wing muscles and they also attach here to the humerus bone and they come and they you know, it comes back around to the back and it also, comes around to the front a little bit and then we have the side muscles that attach here, that come down here. So I'll be see little bit of that and all of this is being foreshortened. And so you know you have the hip, you'll have the belly button somewhere in here, you'll have some wrinkles. Because even if he's skinny he's still bending over. So you'll have some wrinkles right there. A little bit of that. Then we have the love handle attached to the top part of the iliac crest. And so we have the love handle over there, as well, coming up. Then all of this is going to be shadowed, to show that you know, it's all being bent over. Then we know that we have our leg muscles and everything. This is more of a, you know, a side view. So you might actually be able to see little bit of the buttocks maybe, and then the, you know, the leg coming like this. And leg, knee, so forth. [BLANK_AUDIO] So I just wanna show the power. Quickly here, and this actually might be more like that. And it's kind of hiding, this is the center line here. And so it's kind of hiding that leg. So that leg will probably be going back over there, more like that. So as you see, as you come down and you develop the muscles this way, you know where the muscles attach. I'm just going to do kind of a simple shape here for now. Cuz we'll get more into dynamic poses, and then, then doing the muscles like this, this is a, you know, quick preview of what's, what's to what's to come when, when we, when we deal with this. But you can see how you can quickly capture just a skeletal structure, and then keep that in Notepad, and you can visit it later without having to look at any model, you know. Let's say you're, you're just capturing some quick motion of someone standing in a mall or something. So boom, you captured it, you got the stick figure. It was really easy to. Get that simplified stick figure down took, took maybe 39 seconds to 60 seconds. However long it takes you. And when it's done, and you could take that stick figure knowing anatomy, and you got to remember the person's body structure, you can fit on all the muscles and where they attach and stuff and, and using logic and figure out kinda how the person's gonna look in that pose. This person you know looks a little bit off balance just so you know. Almost like he is falling so it's not like a pall pose more like he is falling forward and stumbling or something. Like he is drunk. Let's go ahead and cut that. So that's the power of the simplification process. And then also to simplify the form of the body and then we'll also just learn the form, subverted form and the simplified form like the mannequin form. And then we'll see how powerful that is because you can kinda see how. Came in useful there when I had the, that front view, I can kinda see the front view happening here. And so simplified shapes helps me kinda see that front view better without having to draw much information so I can quickly lay down some information and then I can add the muscles in there. And then also we'll do the actually form of the muscles, that is, what does the form of the body look like with muscles, and what does the form of the body look like with fatty tissues. And we'll, we'll get into the fatty tissues where they develop, the different kind of, the different kind of I wanna say, I'll just call it overweight people that you can have. You can have, you know, really, really overweight, but there's different kinds of overweight people that can give you different shapes. So, let's say, some, someone weighs 200 ov, pounds over what they should be. There's different body types of that, of what that might look like. And so, we'll, we'll, we'll see that the main fat builds up and the, the main types of [UNKNOWN] stuff like that. So we have still a ways to go before we're, we're really getting down to mastering human anatomy but then after all that is good, then we'll start learning the, what I think is the really fun stuff. How to develop your style. How to stylize the human figure, to come up with really cool cartoon characters and, you know, anime characters and [UNKNOWN]. Or, or manga characters kinda, you know, anime or be, moving, just basically, Japanese cartoons and manga is Japanese comics. Right so let's go ahead and figure out now the simplification, of the skeletal structure from the side view. All right so let's zoom in here a little bit so we can kinda see this whole thing. To save time, I'm gonna just do like I did last time, we'll just draw these lines straight across here. I recommend you actually do all the measurements yourself from beginning to end again, same way you did the front view. You know, so start with the, a line coming down the center, pop the head. Except now when we pop the head, the head is not gonna, you know, we can start with that same kinda head shape, but now we know the head is gonna look a little bit different. The chin is still going to be the same length down here. But what's going to happen is you're going to kind of have this kind of shape here. We're going to kind of come like this. And we'll get more into the anatomy of the head, again, I'm not going to get into the same amount of detail I get in my head course. For that you'll just, you know, get the head course. So if you really want to match the head and the style and character, Styles, it has like how to draw cartoons, all that good stuff. That, you know, what it deals with the head. But we'll still go thru the anatomy of the head in this course. And we'll go thru the anatomy of the hands, everything. All right, so that's like the simplification. And then, the simplification of the skeletal structure from the side is, remember it kinda, kinda has this curve. So we wanna, we wanna retain that curve. And the same thing's gonna happen. Since come down to this halfway line here. And so, what I want to want, what I want to represent here is the back here, where, like, the butt's gonna be. And I wanna represent that shape right there. So it kinda comes out like this. Kinda fir, first it kinda comes a little bit in for the neck and then it comes out here. Comes down. So this is the main shape. I want to memorize this shape right here. Kinda has a shape like that from the side. This is going to help you draw figures from the side so much better is having that spine. That simplification of the spine. And this would be where your coccyx comes way down there. Sacrum then coccyx and that's what, you know, forms your butt, oops, in that area. So go ahead and take the time cuz this might take a little while to memorize. This is, this is pretty new you, you've memorized the skeletal structure for this side view but we didn't spend so much time on the spine. And so, kinda get familiar with this, with this arch here. And actually I would even curve it more. So remember the pelvic bone is a little bit below, so the, the crotch is a little bit below the halfway point and the wrist will be a little bit above. So we, we can still have those same measurements. Those still apply. All the same measurements still apply for the side view. But I'm gonna kinda bring this out here a little bit more. And then kinda curve up like this more. [BLANK_AUDIO] All right, something like that. We'll leave it like that for right now. The next thing is the hip bone. How does the hips look like from the side view? Well the hip stay, the the same from the side view, so this is still gonna translate the same over. So that remains the same, the same measurement. So for the guy, you know it's a little bit higher. You start from right about here. Remember it's about the same length this is up and down. This is down from this line. The bellybutton is a little bit below that line so the bellybutton will be somewhere around there and a little below that you pretty much have the top of the hip. For simplification for the side view we are going to have it shaped like this. To keep it simple. Cuz the whole point is here, is to be able to draw this stuff very quickly to capture a pose. Then we could add our muscles and everything onto it with the simplification. That's the main, you know, shape we wanna pay attention. You want, we don't like care about all this, this shape down here. It's just that curve, that's the important curve. It's the iliac crest that's important curve. Now it comes down like that, so that's the part you wanna, that's the part you wanna memorize. So notice down here at the bottom here, we have the two ovals. The ovals stay in the same area as before, but from this view they kinda overlap each other. Right like that. From the side view, your leg kinda bends like this. Kinda has this curve to it. And that, this one kinda has a back curve to it, like this. At the bone itself doesn't have too much of a back curve, but I like to put that in there in my simplification process, so that when I draw in the muscle shapes and then the knees and everything, I remembered to pop that calf out because it does do this. If you see someone standing straight at attention, you'll see it does that. So, let's 's go back to the simplification of the skeletal structure. And then, for the side view, we're just gonna kind of have. It comes out of each side of the. Like that's a kind of like a triangle wedge for the foot. The next thing we're gonna do is like the collar bone and the scapula, so, remember it's still in the same area, a little bit below the neck, that's where it starts, and from the simplification from the side view remember the scapula kind of has a shape like this from the side view, kinda comes round, that's where you have the ball socket kinda comes round like this. Comes up, it's not that high, it has that little part that comes up like this, wraps around to the collar bone, and round to the front. The main thing that we want is just that arch. That's the arch that we want from the side view. So it's this arch right here that's important to us. Like that, boom. Then we know that arm, socket, is gonna fit right in here, from the side view. Like that. And then you can have it be however you want. For now we're going to keep it out of the way, we're going to come back this way. So remember when you draw it straight down it's easy. Because you know it's going to be like this. That's will be like the wrist area, where you know wrist area is right about here that's where the wrist is going to start and the hands going to come down here. Well what you can do. What if the arm moves up or down? Here's a cool little trick. You can imagine a circle that goes all the way around, and this being, this being the center point. So the arm, that being the center part of the circle, and it coming around and it touches the wrist area. If you imagine it like that, then you know. How the arm has to fit in on it from any direction. And it'll be the same length. And so, let's go ahead and test this out really quick. I'll make a new layer here. I don't know if I centered the circle or not, so I, I. It looks pretty centered but it might not be completely centered. Well, we'll find out how centered it was. But this pretty much works. That's a pretty good guideline. I mean, you know, obviously you can just kinda tell if it's kinda off anyway. Now we'll grab let's see, this line tool here. Make a new layer. Now we'll draw the distance from here to here. Now that, now that, since that's a new layer, we can put it here, we can rotate it. And you can see it stays the same length. So I, I did a pretty good job there. I got a little off centered over there, but you know. That's how you figure out how, the arm would stay the same length, obviously, no matter where it was on that pivot. So that's a little trick you can use to figure out, you know, where, how far your arm would be. You kinda imagine that circle you know, coming around the person, and then you can draw your arm within that area. So we're gonna kinda draw the arm back like this. That's where the wrist is gonna be, now you know your hand's about as big as the. His face right here, that's about how big your hand is. So you don't want it to be too big, you don't make the hand too big. And I'd like, I like doing those two shapes. And then you'll maybe even a little part where the thumb might start to come off and if you want to draw a little line there where the thumb would come out, you can too, but no point in having all the information and sometimes I'll leave the hands out completely, unless I kinda want to capture the gesture of the hand, here cuz I don't want to forget, let's say. So I'm just looking at inspiration of something I don't want to forget it. Now remember, the rib cage from the side view is gonna actually attach to part of this here. You know the rib cage does come out a little bit further than the spine, but it kind of comes down like this. And you still have that same gap between the bottom of the rib cage and the top of the pelvic bone. All right, I'm actually just probably going to come in a little bit further, like that. And basically there's going to be a straight line between here and here. Those two kind of meet up, so that's one thing to keep in mind. Little, little tips like that helps. The rib cage kind of comes out. Like this. So this is like, you just wanna kinda, the basic shape is what you're looking for here. As long as the basic shape is correct, then it kinda comes up like that, from the side view. As long as the basic shape is correct, then that's gonna help you tremendously when you're drawing. [UNKNOWN] the spine goes behind this part of the [UNKNOWN] and then comes back out over here like that, comes down. So we have that curved down really good there. Again, on top of the line here, we wanna draw our shapes. The shapes are the same [INAUDIBLE] for now. Just two little ovals, cuz we're trying to do this quickly. These are, you know, fast sketches. We wanna make sure we can do this quickly without having to waste much time. The, from the side, from the absolute side view, the other arm is gonna be on the same pivot. And so, we know it's gonna come, you know, to follow that same kind of circle, unless we want it out over here somewhere. So that's the straight line, then remember you want to divide it, and that's how you know your division part. Another circle can be drawn around, that part, in that area [UNKNOWN] in that area, and that, you know, gives you that same ribcage. So it kinda stays in that same arch. So we come out here. We know our wrist, and then. Our hand coming out and then shade the thumb area like that. So remember, part of the arm is being blocked here and so it might appear shorter, so when you do the length of here to here, you want the halfway point to be between this point and this point here. Right, so, right about there. Fall on that same circle. So that's how, that's the simplification of the side view. And again we are going to get into the simplification of the muscles as well. That is a muscle map, a simplification muscle map, but first we have to learn the skin. It's what part of the muscles are visible. When there's skin and fat tissue there. And we're talking about someone with low percent body fat then we get to more and more body fat more higher and higher percentage of body fat how that changes the structure of the figure and stuff like that. From this you can take the knowledge that you've memorized so far and hopefully you memorized a lot of knowledge so far about where muscles attach, and because you know where muscles attach you can start figuring all this out. You know where the sternum is in this area. You know, you have your neck and everything. So you know you have the, you know, your ear somewhere around in here. And then you have that muscle that comes out here. And remember, it comes and attaches to the front of that part of the collarbone right there. Then you have the side part of the neck here. And you have the back muscles, and then we have muscles attached to the back fo the head and the trapezes come out. And they kinda come like this and then part of the trapezes comes out this way. Remember it attaches, so you have the, it attaches to the part of the, of here and here, so the collar bone attaches to part of the collar bone in the front a little bit. So it kinda comes like that, and it attaches, you know, not too far over there, more like that. And then, it attaches over here to this part and so you can see part of that of muscle, right? You'll see a little bit of the ribs like that with that muscle hanging over cuz you have to think about foreshortening of the neck. And you have part of the trapezius muscle and that neck muscle coming down like that. Or rather more like this. [INAUDIBLE] You might, you might not even wanna over lap it that much, just a little, over lap the lines a little bit just so you can see the trap muscle there. [NOISE] You know the pec muscles attach to the humerus bone. [INAUDIBLE] They come out and they have, they have three different areas they attach to and they come out in those areas. They attach here to the collarbone and then we know we're only seeing a, you know, side of the pec muscle. Well, we know it attaches to the sternum. Comes down. And so remember from the side view, how we draw the pec. It kind of attaches to the arm, comes down and has this kind of shape to it. Almost like a teardrop shape to it, right? But right now it's not going to have a total teardrop shape to it like that. Because it's being stretched cuz the arm is being pulled back like that. So you kind of think about how it's going to stretch and pull the shape of the muscle. And the deltoids. Remember the deltoid, from this area we're not seeing. You know from the side view we're not seeing this rounded part of the deltoid like that. Where then we see the part of the chaps come in there. We're not seeing that, what we're seeing rather. This is why it's important to know this arch right here from the side view. This arch right here. That's representing part of the scapula and then the collarbone. We know the deltoid wraps around and connects part of the collarbone at the clavicle, and it comes back here around to the back and attaches to part of the scapula. And so what we're going to be able to see, and it's going to kind of stretch because the arms are going back and attach to the humerus bone, so it's going to kind of take a shape like this. [BLANK_AUDIO] Then like okay then you know you have your triceps and they you know the different parts of the triceps attach and all that, and just know from that, at this point that you don't have to get all ten [INAUDIBLE] you know, know the general area where they attach. And, from this point, it's, like, so you know that you have your bicep attaching. From this point, you know, don't think about, you don't have to necessarily go, okay, it exactly attaches at this part of the humerus bone. You don't have to memorize all that. Just know, hey, it, it goes underneath the deltoid, and it attaches up in this area. And just know that it attaches up the area and it comes down. And attaches down to that area. You know, down to the, after this, more to the like, ulna radius area. And note just the general idea where it attaches. Then you know you have your. Bracialus, and it comes down part way, and then you have the braci radialus, and it attaches a little bit lower than that, and it comes around, like this, and it comes around, remember it attaches to the front with a wire system to about the thumb area. Then you have like your elbow system, you'll be able to see back here, and then that or muscles that come from behind and so you're just you're just thinking about the different muscles you have here. And the one that are visible and where they're attaching. And now you can take that skeletal structure and you can turn it into a very muscled figure without skin, well then what you will do is you can also go okay when we start learning the mannequin and the form of the mannequin. That is when, the form means that you give three dimensionality to an object you light it up with light, or some people call it shading. It's all the same thing. You might represent it with simple shapes, you know, like this, and then a simple shape here, and another simple shape. And, you know, this is like a click mannequin. What this allows you to do is quickly lay down a 3D character and with foreshortening, get foreshortening down, that's the point of it. How to de, so, how to develop. First, first how did it develop. How did the simple skeletal structure develop? Why did people start simplifying the skeleton? Well one, it would take you forever to draw the skeleton in any sort of detail where you're like, okay, I've got to draw this bone coming down here, then I've got, you know, to draw all the details here. That would take so long to do all that. You know, to draw that kind of detail out, it'll take you forever to capture a pose with the skeleton, and then later on you can add the muscles because you know where they all attach and stuff. That's ridiculous. Why would you want to take that long to draw something? So, okay, naturally it makes sense, that's come up some sort of quick way I can lay down a pose real fast, not wasting time. Just in case I don't like it, it doesn't look right, I wanna tweak something, I only have to do this. You know, that's an arm. If I don't like how it looks I can just simply tweak it and go what if kind of came up more like this, you know? And I can, you know what if I want it to kinda be more like this? I can just simply tweak it very quickly by just very quick strokes. And then if i wanna go, well how's the foreshortening going to look. So why is it that the basic mannequin we're, we're gonna learn a basic mannequin figure and you could, you could end up developing your own mannequin figure just like you could develop your own skeletal figure. I recommend using this basic structure first and then you can simplify it later on your own and come up with your own system but I recommend learning this system first because it works good. And it's, easy to attach the muscles to, cuz we to all that trouble learning the muscles and where they all attach. So I really recommend doing that. But anyway, why a mannequin was developed then. Why did artists start thinking this was necessary was, well hey, if I'm gonna do, a kind of a complex pose where there's gonna be foreshortening. For example, the person sitting in a chair. So here you have the back rest back there. You have the legs coming forward here. And then you have the back legs back there somewhere, like that. Right? So you have this chair and the focal point is somewhere around he, you know, around here. So we can see a little bit of the top of the thigh. Well, I need to be able to come up with a quick system I can lay this down and go, okay, well the knee's gonna be right about here. And I need to kinda, dial in the foreshortened shape here, and that's about how much of leg I'm gonna see in this point of view when it's foreshortened. And then I'll be able to see the full effect of the calf coming down, cuz that's not being foreshortened, and the foot will be foreshortened a little bit as it comes toward us. And if I have this down, then it's like, okay, that was a quick and easy. So if I messed up on something or I think it needs to be more foreshortened, I can easily erase it and re-draw it again and go, okay, maybe I want the leg. This leg kinda sticking out more, so it's not going to be foreshortened as much, if hardly at all. And then I know the leg's gonna come down here, right? So, it's a quick way of capturing how foreshortening and stuff will look without committing much drawing time. And then it's only after that you're gonna start coming in and going, okay, now let's start getting into the anatomy of the, of the leg and stuff and knowing where it's foreshortened. But still drawing everything as it needs to be. And as it would appear. [NOISE] And so that's when you start adding details to it an okay and then [INAUDIBLE] actually have these legs a little bit closer cause crotch wouldn't be that far apart. You know, have the waist area and love handles and all that kinda stuff and then come out and draw his. The rest of the figure as it's sitting there and anyway, you get the idea. So that's why we're going to learn a mannequin system so I want you to know the reasoning behind it, how it developed and why we're developing our own here. That and what, and also, by developing your own, whether you end up changing it, modifying it later. By developing our own right now. The point of it is it puts this map in your brain. When you invent something. This is one thing I do like about Ribbon Phoenix's course, is that, he has this concept that he talks about when you invent something and it's, it's really true. When you invent something, your brain remembers it more, than if you just think about it as I'm learning something or memorizing something. So if someone's like "Hey, these are the landmarks of the human figure, memorize them." That's a lot harder for your brain to remember, and it doesn't stick as well as if you invent something. When you invent something as if it's your own, your brain remember, your brain remembers it much easier. And you guys think of real life examples where your brain has invented things and how easily it was, how easy it was to remember the information, so that's why we're going through the trouble of, like, basically inventing him in figure from scratch, and where are the muscles attach. But learning exactly where the muscles attach, all that. And intricate detail was important and hm, once you start drawing the figure you can kind of get more lazy with it and just go, I know it attaches in this area and this area and that's good enough if you know that you have these major attachment points to the bicep, you can pretty much figure out how the bicep's going to look whenever it's, however the arm's transitioned. So for example, we can see how the bicep would change if we take that same length here but then bend it up like this. Right? So we, it's you know, maybe the same length, same length, so we want this v to kinda be the same length before we get to the wrist area and then the hand. And the thumb in the last set. Going to just kinda throw in a basic hand there. Might be actually. Yeah it's about, about that size, so, might be a little bit bulkier but you know. I not worried really about it, it's just kind of a quick thing I lay down for I know where's it's gonna look like. So now, when I have the triceps in. The bicep now is gonna go more like this. I know, it's gonna be kinda bunched up, because, all this is being foreshortened here. Not foreshortened but it's being flexed because it's bending up. And I know that, I know the area, so I know it attaches to this bone. And this bone up here are two different bones and since those bones are now, bending. The [UNKNOWN] point causes it a bulk up a little bit, even if you're not flexing. It's still gonna cause it to change it's shape a little bit. [UNKNOWN] [UNKNOWN] and what's interesting about the curve, when we get into, when we get into the curve of arms here. What happens is you have your elbow and everything. When you get to this curve of the arm sometimes this muscle is obviously going to overlap depends on how high it is, and you're going to have this brachialis it attaches over here to the thumb and you're going to have this rolling muscle here. And then it's going to kind of, that part, you know, kind of comes around like that and kind of comes, and then comes over. You might be able to see part of it as it comes over here like that. And then you'll see some of those other muscles that come off as we learned with the forearm. We'll get more into that when we do side views of the arm. Different bends and stuff. But that's why it's important to know. The basic connection points. You don't have to memorize all the exact stuff we went through. The [UNKNOWN] is [UNKNOWN] where you go. The generalization of where those muscles attach. That's enough for you to start drawing the figure from different views and then, kinda figure out how the muscles might look from those views. And just logically think about it. And hopefully, after we go through several poses and stuff, it'll get rid of most of the, kinda things that are harder to figure out on your own. And that'll be enough information for you to take on your own and pretty much figure out any pose from your imagination. And if you ever need help, you know, then you need, you might have to look at some references. But for the most part, you should be able to draw just about any pose you want from your imagination. And keep in mind, when comic artists, draw a pose they've never drawn before and it's really different than anything they've every drawn. Especially if they haven't gone through a course like this. They struggle with it, you know, they have to work it out for a while. They might have to look at references and everything. But after they've drawn a very similar pose, hundreds of time, it's there, it's in their memory banks. So, that's why comic artist can quickly, bust out a drawing. And it's like, wow they don't seem like they needed much under [UNKNOWN] to get that, to get that nice drawing. It's because they've drawn that pretty much same pose thousands of times by then. Right so that's how the, how the side view would look of the, of the [UNKNOWN] basic skeletal structure. Right, next we're gonna get into the back view really isn't something you need to do. Oh, real quick actually before I mention another view, like back or anything. When you're drawing the female skeleton from the side view, the, there's just a few things you change. And everything pretty much stays the same. Even the rib cage from the side view pretty much stays the same with the female. So you still kind of come down with this angle here, comes here, comes up. So that, that all pretty much stays the same. What changes though is this area up here, so let's go ahead and. Erase some of this here. So remember we had this arch. And now what happens is the arch changes and it's a little bit shorter, and it kinda goes like that. It kinda bends down like this. So that shape just changes a little bit. And this'll force you to make the neck thinner. Coming down here, and then this part here will be a little bit thinner. [BLANK_AUDIO] So we're still gonna come down like this, gonna come around to the back a little bit, that kind of arch there, we're gonna come forward to that arch. Like that. And then the hips change a little bit too. Remember the hips are a little bit lower than a man's hips. They still, it's still enough to block you know, part of the spine line before, but the. Arch is more like that. So, it just changes a little bit, it just changes in the, the males' up there, females change like that, a bit lower. That's pretty much, that's the only difference from the side view. Then, of course when we get into the actual skin, skin structure, the fat and tissues and everything, and where things attach and hang, then we'll know kind of like how the breast will look and where it drops in and hangs and rests on the ribcage and everything. But, we haven't gotten that far yet. I changed my mind, we are gonna do the back view. Remember, when you draw the side view, so draw this several times from reference and several times from memory and keep in mind that when you're doing this from memory, to do the same thing from the front view. To draw the line. Okay, I need to kinda divide that in half, and I need to divide that in half. I need to divide that in half, in half, and in half. So get your eight half marks, and after you have your eight half marks, then start to go and go okay so I know my head is gonna fit in this region here, and the jaws gonna come. Down. That's going to be kind of like a side view of the skull. The basic, you know, skeletal structure. Kind of, you know, a glorified stick figure and then I know I'm going to have this shape here and then know that you're going to have your. Now that shape there's gonna come down. And know that, you know, okay, well, let's first figure out where the hips are gonna be. Remember the center line, they're gonna be a little bit below. Little bit above will be the wrist area. And so I know my hip is, you know, for the female, this'll be a bit lower than man. But it's gonna fit right in this area. So they're not, that's how I know when this curve is gonna happen. You know, it's kinda come back and then you have to sacrum and the coxyc coming there like that. You can know that you can, know where you gonna drop your leg muscle, remember it's a little bit in the front more than in the back. So it's not, it's a little bit more like right about here actually. Cause you know, kinda, it just kinda comes out a little bit more like that. And it kinda curve, curves in and disappears under there like that. We have a slight curve to here. And so, when you draw this from memory. Just make sure you kinda do it like this, this way when you're drawing it. [BLANK_AUDIO] We're kinda, just kinda like an oval here. Kinda comes forward like that. So it kinda comes back right here, and it kinda comes forward like that. So you're still using the same measurements and you wanna do that for a while. Use the measurements for a while until you get it down. And then you know, you'll just naturally, basically, what I'm gonna tell you is always use the measurements. Now, what's gonna naturally happen is you're naturally gonna start not having to do the measurements and you're gonna be like, well, I'm not gonna listen to him anymore because I don't see why I have to keep doing that. Because I have it down and it's in your memory, but just still go back and double check and make sure you're not developing bad habits. Right, so let's go ahead and do this, to do the back view. So same thing with the back view, where you gonna use the same measurements. Everything stays the same. Right? So we use the same measurements. But I recommend, you know, not doing what I'm doing right now. I'm just doing this to save time. I recommend actually go through and, and draw the whole thing from beginning, end. You know, dividing yourself and everything. Doing all the measurements yourself. You have to use a ruler with pen and paper, then do that. Just make sure you get the measurements down, it's important. So how it happens is the head. You still have that same rectangle, we did before for the front view. So that, that stays the same. But one thing you might wanna do different here is kinda draw the back part of the skull here. Just to kinda know that that's the back part of the skull and the jaw is gonna fit more in this area here. So you have a basic, basic skeleton. And the, and the spine is gonna connect here. The spine from the back is gonna look pretty straight, so I just kinda draw a straight line. Now, there's a couple different things you wanna change some landmarks that'll help you when drawing figures in the back. And then also, when you think about them from different views. Three-quarter views and stuff you'll know those landmarks to hit with the figure we have the same, below and above here, for the wrist marking and the crotch area. What happens here with the back of the hip bone, the same thing we wanna also draw this box coming down here. Notice the side view, we didn't really have to draw any boxes. It's more you get a feel of how big it is that, you know, it just kinda keep in mind that the person stays pretty much like that. So everything kinda, the head, the back, and the back of this all match up. The front of the face. The rib cage, the front part of that pelvic bone all kinda matchup. So, if you keep that in mind than that's pretty easy. Form the back view is the same as the front view. A head a part on both sides. I can probably make that a little bit wider and then divide that in half. And, then what we're gonna do when we draw the, the hips from the back it's a little bit different. So, you have your highest part as the same as it was before. It's you know, it's way up here for the male. A little bit, little bit lower for the female. But the highest part is right here. Then, and then the mark kinda comes down like this. So the shape you're memorizing now isn't the heart shape. It's more of a shape like this. This is the main shape you're memorizing and then it can kind of come down like this if you want. So, Still kinda of a heart, a little bit different. That's kinda the landmark shape you wanna memorize and then you have your ovals here the same. Everything here stays the same for the legs and then you know the lines still come in and you have your two ovals lines come in, you have your two ovals and then you have the line kinda coming down like that. From the back you just have more rectangles and that represents the back of and it kinda has a curve to it like this. So the if I do it, if I draw it big the curves kinda like that. So if I wanna zoom in you can get more accurate with this. We're gonna kinda draw the curve where it kinda comes like this, and then comes down like that. But you can literally just draw little rectangles when you're drawing super fast. Right? So the, and the other main landmarks you measure from the back view. Still you know where the collar bones are gonna be, so you kinda wanna still have that, but they're in the front. But just still know. You have the collarbones there, so you can still have that kind of shape, but the, the main shape you want to have memorized here from the back. Cuz it comes a little bit over your collarbone and it pretty much falls in line with your head right here. So it kinda starts a little bit outside of that and it comes down. And this right here, this landmark you should now, you should have it known pretty well, is your scapula. And it kinda comes up like that. So that landmark right there, that's kinda what you wanna memorize is that kinda shape, so it kinda comes like this. Kinda went too high on that one. Just wanna barely go up. Come down and then come up. So memorize that shape right there. That's a simplification of the main part of the scaffold. That's important. Then you know that arm attaches outside of that. Then you have, well, remember you just kind lay it down to the wrist line. Oops. Down to the wrist line. I like to add curves to arms when I do the stick figures cause it adds characters to it. And when I add the structure over top of it just adds more character to the structure. I'm just using just basic, divide that by half, divide that in half. That, that halfway point is where your rib cage is. And rib cage in the back is kind of different looking. And it kind of comes up like that. You want it to be almost as wide. A guy's rib cage is pretty much as wide as his hips so you kinda wanna bring it out to that line. And, me, thinking about that and memorizing that helped me correct this mistake I made over here cuz I know it comes out to the hip over there. Right like that. So and actually it comes down a little bit further. So, it's, you still have the same space from the back. From this point here and the lowest point of the ribcage, which would be right about here from the backside, there's that same kind of space that we had before, but it kind of looks like there's more space in the back due to the angles. But anyways, that's how you do that. So if you have that as your basic skeletal structure for the backside it's going to help you with certain landmarks that are really important. So you'll know av, as you roll the arm forward, you'll know that scapula is going to change. So, for example if I wanted to kind of roll this arm forward to the front I know, okay. My scalpel's gonna kinda change. The whole shape of it stays the same cuz it's one solid piece. So this whole thing isn't gonna move, but it's gonna kinda rotate and move toward me. So I'm gonna see more of the blade. So the blade is gonna, be foreshortened. It's gonna kinda come like this. it's gonna come out let's say. And that's gonna move the position of the arm here this bone. And now this bone's coming in front of me over here and I can add it over there. And I have it the hand, elbows, so it's all behind the head. Right? So if I have it more like that then I know, okay, so if its like that, I know this. There's a blade part of the scalpel that comes out like this and I know that there's this curve here, where that's where part of the deltoid is fitting too. So, I know deltoid is fitting partly onto, it's kind of wrapped around the front here. So, it's kind of being changed, but also it's wrapping up here to the arms. So, what happens, the deltoids that kind of goes like this. I only see part of it like that, because it's attaching to the humerus bone, which is going that way and also wraps underneath and around attached to the collar bone so that the collar bone is being pulled up this way too. And so that's how much of the Delta we see. We know it kind of attached to the back. And then we have the bicep and everything. Tricep and all that kinda stuff you will see. Then you'll have this shape right here kinda comes down and pulls up. And that's how you're gonna have that point in the back somewhere where it, cuz it shifts, and just remember, you have that point there, and you can see this in photographs, when guy reaches his arm up, it shifts over, and you can see that little point, and we also know now, up this arm you have the latismus dorsi, and it's gonna come down like that, and then connect. And then we know that, the different back muscles we had, if you kind draw the kite. And then you have the different muscles that fit into this area. We have your, your traps. They come down like that, right? Kind of make that kite shape. And then you have these, the [FOREIGN] which comes like this and it comes around. And it goes over your scapel that comes back over there. And you'll see a little bit of that right. As I make your wing muscles and then you're gonna see the muscles between here a little bit. And then you'll be able to see those kinda. You know flexing like that so it's gonna be like coming around like that [BLANK_AUDIO] There you have that divided, and stuff like that. So, you have the back love handles over here, and you have the back of the legs, and you have the buttocks and all that, but you get the idea. We'll get into the anatomy more, but if you have those as your landmarks for your skeleton, Let me see if I can come all the way back here on my history. It's just gonna make it that much easier to, think about those line-marks and know all that's still there. So, let's see if I can erase all that. [BLANK_AUDIO] And then we'll just come back in here quickly and add, this. This shape. This shape. Okay so, and, and then just remember you have that blade, the blade of the scapula comes like this and comes out above the arm, so if you wanted to add that in there and then your collar comes around this way, so if you wanted to add this shape to something for basic skeletal structure here, you can. So it's gonna look like that. That's the basic representation of it and then that part wraps around the front. That's your color button on the front, connects over there, to the sternum. Alright, so that'll be the skeletal structure from the back view. Alright, next, I think it's really important to have a basic skeletal structure for the three fourths view. And again, I think there are certain land marks that you want to memorize or invent in this case. And, that's going to help you when your drawing the figure a lot. So again, we'll start with this up and down part. We know we have our middle point, we have all the lines there that we need. We have to fit our head in this. In this section, it's kind of, you know, side view and a front view kind of mixed together. So, first we kind of draw a foreshortened shape of the head like this. It's a square. That's hold it for short and then a little bit of the back of the head too. That's also fore shortened. And, that's how you get the basic shape of the three fourths head. We're going to be able to see some of the spine and have a little bit of that curve. It needs to come back over here. So, maybe we'll see a little bit of that curvature coming down. And we'll see a little bit of curvature coming forward and then coming back and it's like kinda come back and hide away from us. And go like that. Remember a little bit below will the be crotch area. Now here's the part you're gonna memorize for the hip bones. So the hip bone is still gonna come up, you know, to that same height for the man and then a little bit lower for the female. And you're still going to have that kind of heart shape, but it's going to be a little bit distorted. So what's going to happen is, well first let's go in and draw our lines coming straight down like this. You're going to have pretty much the same length on each side, but it's going to be a little bit shortened. So what's going to happen, instead of having a full head length, we're just going to go the half head length down. Now on this side over here. We're going to go full head length down so you know the whole body's kinda being for shortened a little bit from, cause remember the, remember look how short the person is from the side view. Their just one head length right. From the front view there like three head lengths. So they, it from the side view it kinda changes to about two head lengths when you measure the total length. So that's you get the general idea, or feel for where everything needs to fit into. The hip structure is gonna come pretty much all the way out to this line over here. So what we're gonna do then is, remember it comes up kind of high, kind of comes out like this. And this is the Iliac crest, so it's that Iliac crest, that's the part that we're pretty much memorizing. That's the important part, then it kinda comes down over here like that. It comes over here and from, remember everything's being foreshortened, so this isn't gonna come all the way out to this line way over here, That, that's where the shoulder will be but the hip doesn't come up that far. There's going to be an ankle to it. So instead, it's gonna come up part way. And that's gonna be right here. So it will almost be, it's still gonna hit pretty much the same height. Oops, I didn't mean to do that. I guess I actually copied a layer by hitting some weird shortcut. And so it kinda have a shape like this so it kinda changes it's shape a little bit so basically what you have here and if you, and if it gets more it will, so having just kinda more of that site you're kinda getting more of a side view. But it kinda goes like this. And it's in a kinda push more like that. And like that over there. That's if you curve it even more, they turn even more around. They turn more around that way, the shape kinda comes more like this. So that's the shape you are kind of memorizing. This is very helpful for drawing three fourths view. Just so, so, helpful and I think you will see why in just a second. Keep in mind you still know your center point. And all this. So I kind of messed up this spine here. What I should have done is drawn it more towards this line here. So it kind of comes down. And it kind of comes out this way more and then comes down and then kinda disappears back behind there and has the [UNKNOWN] and stuff. Okay. If you memorize this curve here, and how kinda has a line going this way, and this curve here from the 3/4 view. And know that you have a lot more space over here, and it touches this line over here and it's about two heads length, and the head fits, you know, sort of in the middle, but more on this side. These little measurements that we did, if you memorize this, everything else falls pretty easy in line. You know, it should dramatically improve your three fourths view. That comes all the way over there to the actual line, the collarbone. This collarbone extends all the way over here as well so it looks longer. This one's being foreshortened. This one looks longer. Still you have the arms little bit outside of that and below. When you, you know that top part of your representation of your humerus bone. Everything still comes down the same, and I'm just going to kind of have the arms boringly to the side here. And remember they come up a little bit higher than the crotch area. [BLANK_AUDIO] Then we add our hands in there. I'm just doing little rectangles for now. Now the rib cage, so you the center point. So the center point is over here with the face. And so kind of draw, in this case you might want to draw the center point of the rib cage here. And break it off and so we come all the way out from this [UNKNOWN] the rib cage is coming out all the way to that line over there. And remember you saw that same, that same distance ration between hip and bottom of the rib cage. So know you have to hit those two points and so wrap it around like that. That way you don't make it to big. And then this side is gonna be bigger, cos we're seeing kind of a side view and a front view of the rib cage. It's gonna come all the way out, to the arm over here, so, it kinda has this, pretty much, actually it's gonna be about the same, and I had the arm come out a little too far. My bad. That shouldn't be out that far. So let's make this line a little bit closer in. It's almost the same length on each side of the head. But this one's a little bit bigger. Not much though. So let's go like that, remember we gotta put the half way points. Right, so anyway the. Ribcage kind of comes like this. There's like a big circle here. And it kind of comes like that. So you want it to be pretty much the same length as the hips. So if I had, i'd have to make the hip a little bit wider too [BLANK_AUDIO] But the shapes are staying the same. Right, so that's how it kinda falls down like this. Now remember the leg is attached on the inside of this hip area. So we're only seeing a little part, of this oval. Whereas this oval, we're gonna be able to see a full oval. And then we will [UNKNOWN] as well, and where they attach, here, they are gonna be more shortened, like that, again, you can draw the whole leg coming down the same, draw that kind of curve coming in, the kind of come out a little bit, draw a few ovals. And remember when you're at a 3/4ths, 3/4ths view. Everything is coming back here to a point, and you have a vanishing point and it's all coming out like that. So what's gonna happen is the knees are going to be a little bit like that. So what's gonna happen is this leg and all of this is gonna be a little bit lower so the whole thing is a little bit lower. So when you wanna keep the perspective in mind with human bodies. So again, I really rec, if you haven't done my, my course on form dynamic lighting and perspective, I really recommend doing it. So all this going to be pushed a little bit lower. That's all going back to that perspective, and that's important. And then you have your triangle for the foot here, and then for this foot this is all being fall on the same kinda point, and there's a perspective line coming way back out there in the space and it's coming out and it's kinda. Come on. Draw. Okay I gotta, click on the mouse to make it work again. I actually did something, then I draw somewhere with this. Okay. Oh, I change colors, I'm not drawing with the same color. Like that and so this foot is coming out further. Alright, cause this is an adult, it's whole leg is coming towards us more a little bit, and this leg is more turned away from us, and because of that, we will actually be seeing more of a side view of that as well, there's that angle to all of this, and then, as you come above the horizon line the angles change and go up this way, right, and it depends on how close the horizon line, so now, this arm right here. And this collarbone might be a tad big higher than this one, because the angle starts coming up and then the features on the face also might change a little bit to where you have, you know, the mouth here, nose here, and the eyes might be at a slight angle when you, when you draw them. Cuz you're at a 3/4ths view. All that's very important and that's what often makes a 3/4ths view look strange is that you don't keep that in mind when you're drawing it. If you have this structure right here down I made everything a little bit too wide so what I would do and I do apologize for that. So let's go ahead and lets take this right here kinda smash it a little bit smaller. [BLANK_AUDIO] I don't wanna have to go re draw it again real quick but we'll be doing at the 3/4's review where we use this. Structure first and then we add the mannequin onto it. So we will be drawing it again, don't worry. But let's just kinda make it a little thinner like that. And then, and then you just go in and you know where your muscles attach so you start attaching your muscles. So you go, okay, I have my sternum in this area here. Just draw like an oval for it or something. And I know I have my main ribcage there. And then I have my collarbones coming up and out over here, up and out over there. And now my deltoid attaches to this part, comes forward and attaches to the humerus bone. Your arms are round. We can't see that wrapping around, but it wraps around. We know it attaches to the back part of the scapula. We'll have a little bit of that, maybe a little of the trapezius just seen back there, a little bit of the neck coming down here. The neck here were you can see it kinda comes attach's to the, collar bone there and you have that muscle that one with the wierd name that I always forget cause it's a huge meticulous name I don't wanna memorize. Little bit of the traps coming down there. The deltoids as it comes down an around connects to the humerous up here comes down connects to the humeus bone. You have the pec muscles remember the pec muscles kinda go like this? You remember those three lines? Because there's two different connecting points over here and they kind of fan out so the first part attaches up here. The second part attaches to the sternum. And the third part attaches to that bottom rib cage and also to the sternum. And that's how you're going to get this kind of shape. And then sometimes you might even have kind of a shape more like this to the peck muscle. And then now you can see how it's foreshortened here. You know it has a tats here. It has tats here. And so you can see how it has to be foreshortened cuz you know the skeletal structure's right. So if you learn how to do the skeletal structure then you know your pec muscle's will be right. Continue that center line all the way down here, knowing that you're gonna have abs over here and you'll have some abs over here. Remember that your belly button is. You know, right line just to make sure you can verify that. And with the guy it's pretty much always in line with the, with the hips there, with the top of that crest. So, we'll put the blade run right in there so it's not with that line but it's a little below the line if I remember correctly. Let's have the biceps come in here. [BLANK_AUDIO] Have a little bit of the triceps being, being visible. We're not gonna get too much into the muscle. Just kinda show you how, when you add the muscles onto this figure really quick, and I'm just gonna just do some basic shapes here, that it's gonna, it's gonna look, it's gonna look correct here. Obviously the, the face should be a lot thinner. When you're drawing it from, this view, and that'll be the center point. Let's go ahead and just shade all of this side. Right it's going to be more centered like that. We can get an idea. Because you can see more of this ribcage, you know you have foreshortening here. And just remember what muscles you can see attaching. You know that you have for example, that we did the Adam. Were the, the I call it the adam the abs. So it's going through all these ones coming down like that. You know you have your love handles wer, we're gonna see a little bit of this one we'll see more of this one we're actually see more of like a, kind of a side view and this ones gonna look much bigger. And [UNKNOWN] kinda comes down like that if you really see [UNKNOWN] sometimes you can actually see that much of it. This one is gonna be four short and we're nearly not gonna see as much of it. You have the crotch area. There's a leg that's attached like way up there so it starts way over there behind us we're we can't really see its kind of being forshortened right? And then you have the inner part of th leg here. And then you have this part of the leg, and you have that muscle, kind of comes down like this. And remember the leg starts way up here as well. So as you begin to attach everything. [BLANK_AUDIO] And just kinda do a basic division for, you know, kinda where the ab muscles would kinda fall in. And you know, you have, you wanna draw some of those cuts in there. Let's draw two, or maybe, maybe three, maybe one more over here. But, typically, it's just a couple. Actually, that's gonna be more like this. Usually, two or three is about how much you, you might be able to see if the cut's like that. [SOUND] You know what actually. [SOUND] So rather you wanna kinda remember the ribs, they kinda come like this. So imagine how the ribs come. And then you have these muscles coming this way, coming around the rib. And attaching, then you have the muscles that are coming down. So you have some muscles coming down, some muscles coming up. This is where we have these muscles kind of coming down like this from this front area with the obliques. So [BLANK_AUDIO] So you have, like, kinda like shaped like that. So they kinda keep that shape in mind and you kind of have that, You know, where you, where you'd have those muscles. And that's, that would be that shape you get, remember, when you draw the lines like this. So that's what we're getting it from. So I'm just, I'm just reminding you how we got that. You got the muscles on the ribs and then the muscles that kind come down off the rib, that wrap up, sorry about that, I was like, I think I was cutting the thing, I was unpausing or pausing when I meant to, I meant to, do this right here. I meant to be backspacing. Alright, so if we remember, we have muscles that attach to the top of the ribs. And they kind of come like this. Alright, so attach the top ribs, kinda come like that, top ribs kinda come like that. So keep that shape in mind. Then you have muscles that come and they, remember, they attach to the, the bottom of the rib. And they kind of come out like that. Right, they come down that way. So I'm trying to think of an easy way for you to memorize this because this area gets difficult. So I'm trying to think of an easier way to break this down and memorize it so maybe. You have the, just kinda erasing the ribcage there a little bit. Alright, so you have your ab muscles in that area. Imagine first that you have muscles kinda coming up at an angle and they're kinda going with the ribs, so, they're kinda coming up like this. So imagine you have muscle coming up like this with the rib and also remember you have your artesius dorsai. That your actually seeing part of [INAUDIBLE]. Called your, also called your lats. Your seeing part of that there, and that, remember that comes up and attaches to the, the arm and it wraps around in the back. Imagine you have these muscles that kinda go like this. This is the, I think this for me is the easiest way to memorize this. They kinda go like this, they're kinda bigger muscles, they're close to the abs but there's a little bit of a gap there. This is our, this, this right here, what, what we'll start get, what, what we're gonna start getting into is, is muscle map. The outside muscle, how the muscles kinda, what, we'll, well, kind of a muscle map, kinda more of a simple location of the muscles. And then when we get to, when we're adding the fat tissue and all that kind of stuff what would be important is when you're drawing the person with like, more natural shade of skin and everything and a little bit of fat you'll--and you, you can kinda, this right here is gonna help you understand when we're drawing the human figure, kinda like from a photo reference or something, you know, be clear. That you have, you'll have these other bumps right here sometimes see on people when it's all shaded in. You kind of have these little bumps right here and you'll know where they come from. Any ways so first you imagine that you have these muscles like this. And then, know you have muscles that come up and they kinda go like this. And they, they come up and they cross and connect to up here, like that. So just kind of imagine it like this, if you get that right there. This kinda shape here. That'll help you when you're drawing the figure. And you. You're not, obviously not going to see all that kind of detail, right? No one's going to have that kind of, that kind of [UNKNOWN] detail, but you kind of see, so you have, first we'll have this part right here kind of back there, you need to have ripples, whatever. You're going to kind of get this, these lines right here. So. And actually, this should be out a little bit further than that. Let's come out, let's make this one come out a little bit further, like this and like that. But this is how you get in that shape. So, first you have these kind of shapes here. And let's do that one more time, sorry. Draw these kind of teardrop shapes coming back like this. And it's following kind of the rib cage, right? Like that. And then you have your lines drawn over them. And each one comes a bit further like that. If you have that understanding, then what's going to happen, is you'll have the spine come up this way, and you'll have a line coming off. Line come up this way, line coming off. Line come up this way, line coming off. And you kind of get that look there, and then I wouldn't worry about all that for right now. Right, so instead you just kind of have this look here. Right like that, so you kind of get that kind of side rib cage look. [BLANK_AUDIO] Let's try that one more time before we end this lesson. And you know, this will be. The simplification of the skeletal structure that we've gone through in this lesson, and then it'll be going through the simplification of the overall bulk of the figure, and in a mannequin form, and then we'll go through the skin, how the, how the, how the. Body looks like with the skin on it and where, you know, how far outside the muscles the skin lies and all of that, and then we'll get into the basic muscle map of the muscles that are, that are visible on a very defined person. Anyways, so let's try this one more time. So basically you have your, your rib cage so we know that went like this. Cam down right. And just kind of know the, you know, how the way the ribs roll, and we kinda know that already. And these muscles then, the, think about them as coming up at an angle from, from, from the abdominal muscle [UNKNOWN]. And so [UNKNOWN] I was coming up at an angle, these muscles. So the, the muscles I was telling you before. It's kinda drawn with tear drops. Kinda draw them up at an angle just a little bit more. And kinda have them, coming like this. Right? So it's more like that. Try to think about them that way. And coming all the way up like that. If you think about these muscles. In this direction like this. Now when you draw the other muscles overlapping them they're gonna go right over them, and that's gonna come right off of here. So you might have you know, right of your latissimus dorsi, which kind of make that a little bit bigger. And these muscles are gonna come across, and they're actually going to cover. Almost go horizontal and they're going to cover up these muscles, like this and they're going to attach to the other muscle. So, you're going to have this look right here. And that's how you're gonna get that look right there. And it's just right there, you only really see it from a three-course view. It's very rare you can see it from a front view unless the person's like, you know, flexing out their, their lats. And then you might be able to see it a little bit, but if they're just kinda standing there, you're not, you're pretty much not gonna see that look. And then you can have, you know we'll get, we'll get into more details about some of these muscles might slightly come into the [UNKNOWN] there and kind of flex into it. And then we'll get into the actual, you know, form and shape and everything, as how we shade. And that all comes down to the form of the human body, we're gonna go into the form of the human body. But that's kind of what you want to memorize as far, and that's almost like a muscle map type of deal that we'll end up memorizing, but there you go. So that's kinda, how I try to look at it, and it helps me get it down right. So that might take a few times, draw it a few times from reference, few times from memory. Just know that these kinda come up at an angle, and these kinda come cross-sideways. So, one comes up in angle this way, and the others come across like this and attach to them. And so the lines you end up drawing, are those lines like that. [BLANK_AUDIO] Then I kind of come off, and so, that's how, that's the shape you get. You know, and that's all flat right now. When we go through the form of the bodies. First we'll learn the muscle, well first we'll learn the form of the mannequin, and then we'll learn the, the basic muscle maps. What we'll, then we'll learn the form of the actual muscles, like, these muscles, this, this kinda look right here. And then we'll learn the human skin, the fatty tissues. And then we'll learn the form of the muscle map, and after we've had the muscle map, we'll learn the form. So, then, when we come in here, we'll actually learn the forms of this. So, how does this actually look when light hits everything, and depending on the light angle. You know, you'll have part of it in, in shadow and this is kinda of a some what of a round shape but it's, you know, you know, it's pretty flat so it's not like a sphere popping out of the butt or anything like that. And it kinda comes in over here it's kinda similar to an abdominal muscle. And maybe just add just a little bit more highlight there, you don't want it to, you don't want to much difference in color cause other wise it'll. In this case too much difference in tone. This whole muscle right here is gonna kinda have its own shape. And this will be a drop shadow. The arm, depends on where the lights at. Like I said you don't want there to be too much difference between the, between the tones otherwise it looks too popped out. So it's versus, kind of, give us more darker tone to all of this here. And then you kind of start doing that. So we'll get into that. We're not doing it right now, I'm just kind of showing you a little bit of what's to come. When we get into the form of the stuff, it's how to make it look 3D, it's how to shade it and get it looking proper. So it looks more like a 3D figure than just like flat lines like this. Right so the three, the three quarters for me, mastering the three quarters view is the hardest thing to master. And, so you should have a decent idea of the three-quarters view, because what we did with the muscle structure, and with the skeletal structure. But in, now, now, what's simplifying that skeletal structure should be a little. Lay down a three-quarters view a lot faster. And then kinda just, you know, start pulling where the muscles would be and everything. And it starts looking more proper. And then also, another thing to keep in mind, I forgot to mention over here at the deltoid. Remember that all this is being fore-shortenened. And so the deltoid actually attaches to the, to the latter part of the collar bone. And so it's actually going like that, and it's kind of attaching to the side. And then come around here, might show a little bit of it. But it's touching, and it's kinda more rolling back away from us. So we're not seeing so much of the Deltoid from this view, but then you know its actually coming down like that. So the Pec is kind of almost you know, overlapping a little bit. Then you see more of the bicep here, kinda coming out like this. Rather than the tricep. You see where the bicep. You might see some, some of the tricep here on the side, because of, getting more of the inside angle of the arm. So the bicep's gonna kinda come like that. That's the part where we're gonna see, we're gonna see a little inside here, coming down, up [INAUDIBLE] that, over there. Anyway, so I'm not gonna get into all the, too much detail over here. But you get the idea. It's the more of the inside we're seeing. I forgot to mention that when, when drawing so. With the three-fourths view, you're seeing the outside part of the deltoid on this side, and therefore you're seeing the tricep and the brachia or the brachialis and then there's the brachiradialis anyway. Then you have your bicep here but from the inside you really see the bicep out here. You're seeing very little of the deltoid because it's being rolled back away from us. We'll see easy ways to do that with like the mannequin view. All right, there's that lesson it's finished.