What motivates employees in an organisation? Why are they having good or bad moods? How can this be improved? To answer these questions we need to combine the fields of Psychology, Sociology and Business Administration - and so Organisational Behavior arises.
Researchers and practitioners provide us with an intense amount of beautiful concepts that allow us to understand members of organization much better. We even have specific concepts on how we should motivate these!
Have you ever wondered how it would look like if you studied this subject at the university? We allow you to do so now! This course is designed after the materials as being taught at Swedish universities. Even better, if you are currently a student of such university course anywhere around the world, we will definitely make your studies easier and more fun.
So what is awaiting for us in the beginning of the course? Of course - interesting introduction to the field.
Organisational Behaviour should be studiet at three levels - individual, groups and organisation wide. Why is it so? We will explore it in this video and that will set the basics for the whole course.
The discipline of Organisational Behaviour is not a single - outstanding discipline. It is more of a mixture between psychology, business and sociology studies. All of these disciplines are adding important dimensions to our field and that is why we review them briefly in this lecture.
Throughout the years, approaches to the management itself has changed. And these changed A LOT. A big role in this shift plays Organisational Behavior as it revealed that human resources are one of the most important aspects that shall be considered while managing an organisation.
Hawthorne Experiments changed the management as we know it some 100 years ago. These helped us to realise that we should focus on people as individuals in our organisations. In this lecture, we will discover the main parts of the experiments and what the outcomes have been.
Mr Parkinson came to British Navy and found that something strange was going on. Even though the number of ships have decreased, the number of managers and officers increased. Ain´t that really weird? In this video, we will give you an answer.
So, did you grasp the basics of the field?
Let´s have a brief overview of section two - the individual in an organization!
"Attitudes" are simple statements through which one can express how does he/she feel about something. However, these are constructed on three different levels. We have some evaluation, feeling and action so let´s explore that!
You can trust me with one simple fact - the attitudes you have are going to strongly influence your behavior. Well, we all know this but is there something more? Yes! There are some moderating variables that are allowing this phenomena to happen and as well we will talk about cognitive dissonance.
How are employees going to behave when they are either satisfied or dissatisfied? There are four main responses that can be classified according to two dimensions.
There is quite a big difference between emotions and moods. the main one is that emotions are very short in duration compared to moods which last for a longer time. Moreover, if we experience several emotions (bad weather, un-nice collegue, broken lamp), these can add up to bad mood.
Researchers have been able to classify basic emotions into one nice and simple graph. Let´s draw it and explore two dimensions according to which can be these emotions classified.
There was a man called Phineas Gage who have been badly injured, but survived his injury. However, he lost the ability to experience emotions. Thanks to this example, we are able to show you what the function of emotions really is.
We experience something called "Emotional Dissonance", which happens when we have to project one emotion, while feeling another. This can be a very serious problem sometimes so let´s explore how we can solve it.
It is called "Big" because it really influenced the decades of management. Thanks to this model, we are really able to characterise ANY kind of personality!
This nice little concept will let us know why we sometimes feel like "nah...this job does not really fit me". Or even at broader scale, person and organization might be in an improper fit.
The environment around us is very complex. When we are perceiving it, through perceptions, we are giving meaning to the environment around us. But of course, this can be influenced by some factors such as characteristics of perceiver, target or situation!
To highlight the importance of perceptions for the sake of our study, we bring on a short video with some nice psychological examples about how can different people perceive reality differently.
We judge people according to their behavior. When we look at how someone behaved we try to "attribute" the behaviour either to internal or external factors that influenced that person. Well, we have an attribution theory over here!
When it coms to the decision making of an individual, researchers have developed three basic understandings herein. Rational Model is the idealistic situation, becoming more realistic in Bounded Rationality and even more practical in Intuition.
We are not perfect. When we make decisions, we are influenced by biases due to which significant errors can occur. Well then let´s find out some of such biases.
And here it comes! The most important and the most crucial concept or organisational behaviour - the motivation.
Probably you have already seen this pyramid shape and heard about the theory of Mr Maslow. However, why is it so relevant for the field of organisational behaviour?
Frederick Herzberg developed a so called "Two Factor Theory". According to him, there are two kinds of factors that add up to either dissatisfaction or satisfaction of employees.
We as humans have three needs when it comes to our behaviour in organisations (according to McClelland). If we focus on the Need For Achievement, we are able to explain why some of us choose the options with 50-50 percent chances and much more!
If we feel like what we are doing is our own choice, not an obligation, we are much more motivated. Self Determination Theroy at least argues so.
Do you think that you are capable to complete this course? If yes, than you are most likely more productive and learning faster! Why? Self Efficacy Theory will give us an answer.
One of the most important concepts in the field of Organisational Behaviour! Employees can feel inequal tretment ina given organisation and because of that become unmotivated or upset. We of course don´t want that and we try to fulfill Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice and Interactional Justice!
What do you expect from your job? Is it financial reward, general satisfaction, social aspect or soemthing else? Expectancy Theory will explain us why are expectations of individuals so important for managers to grasp.
By now you should now how to work with individuals in organisations. Do you?
Brief introduction to section 3 where we discover the wonderful world of groups in organizations!
There are many kinds of groups that can be formed within an organisation. Let´s explora and grasp the basic stratification and characteristics!
Groups are some sort of living organisms - they are born, evolve and even dissolve. Scholars defined a Five Stage model that describes and analyses such "life of a group".
We begin with the first property of groups - roles of its members. We have to "perform" several roles at the same time and occasionally, these can go against each other.
Norms that evolve within groups can be beneficial but at the same time very dangerous for our organisation. Why is it so? We will give you an answer for this in a nice drawn example of two workers.
Status is basically describing how others in a society perceive us - or group that we belong to. But how can we, or our group, get to a higher social status? It is not that easy as you will see.
What is influencing size of the groups? Why are groups growing or decreasing in the number of their members? Is it bad when a group becomes significantly large? We will give you an answer for these!
In this lecture, we will compare the decision making of an individual with the one done by a group. Of course both have certain strengths and weaknesses.
Groupthink is a very, but trust me, very dangerous phenomena for any organisation that is out there. Groups can exert power over an individual and he/she, with the desire to fit the group will conform to the general opinion of the others, even if it is wrong.
Be careful, there is a very big difference between groups and teams. In this lecture, we will explore these differences and introduce ourselves to a wonders of teams.
If we want to construct teams, what are our options? We have several, though our choice should be tailored to our expectations from a team that we are designing.
Can you explain and describe phenomena such as social loafing or groupthink?
And we came to section 4 where we will udertake an organisation-wide perspective!
We all can sort of imagine what power means. But if someone asks you to define it with words, it becomes quite tricky doesn´t it? Let´s try to do it in this lecture.
So once we defined ourselves what power means, where does it come from? There are certain Bases of Power which we are going to describe in this lecture.
When people exert their power over others, they use something that we call a Power Tactic. There are more of them, so let´s list them in this lecture.
Employees may not be very happy with the practice of managers exerting power over them, Especially, if managers do it in wrong and unethical ways.
Impression Management is simply a individual´s attempt to control impression that others hold of them.
Throughout the years, the view of a Conflict has changed. Even nowadays, managers and organisations may perceive conflict differently.
We start with the grand model describing the Conflict Process and in this video we will look at stages I and II. These are called Potential Opposition and Cognition.
What intentions one has when it comes to the actual conflict? This lecture will give us an answer, as it describes the third stage of Conflict Process called Intentions.
The last two stages of Confliict Process talk about the Behavior that one shows and as well the outcomes of a given conflict.
Exertion of power as well as the rise of a conflict are natural in organisations. When either of these happens, the Negotiation must take place!
Let´s assure ourselves that we know what power is and how can we solve conflicts.
Thank You a lot for Your time and attention! We hope that we were engaging and that studies of Organisational Behaviour have been the right choice for You!
Robert Barcik is a co-founder of MeanThat, the educational platform that helped more than quarter million students to learn efficiently. In 2014 he got inspired by KhanAcademy and created his first own videos and after placing them on YouTube he reached a global audience in a heartbeat, all eager to learn! Several universities and as well MBA students from all over the world started to use the videos for their lecturing.
With this, he jumped the educational train and in the upcoming months became a university lecturer and developer of Flipped Teaching with a focus on Marketing, Organisational Theory and Business. Along with that, Robert is a Business graduate and Data Analysis student at Swedish Dalarna University. Here, he cooperates with the educational institutes to promote an innovative ways of teaching.