New CCNAx 200-120 Routing and Switching

Includes everything you will need to fully prepare for your new CCNA R/S certification
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  • Senior Technical Instructor/Network Consultant

    Sikandar has been actively working with data networking as a Senior Network Engineer for over 10 years, and has been working with Cisco routers and switching technology
    Working as a Freelance Cisco Certified Instructor globally for Corporate Major Client’s

    Worldwide delivery of authorized Cisco training courses CCNA to CCIE (R&S, security, service provider) online and Instructor Led training.

    Responsible for updating, supporting and teaching CCNA to CCIE level (R&S , SP) related courses online and Instructor Led training.
    Course Development of Cisco Authorized Course Material. Network Consulting for clients.
    Network Design, Support, Implementation and Troubleshooting of complex Cisco based networks.

  • Lifetime access to 121 lectures
  • 34+ hours of high quality content
  • A community of 21300+ students learning together!
  • 230+ discussions

New CCNAx 200-120 Routing and Switching

Includes everything you will need to fully prepare for your new CCNA R/S certification
64 reviews


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The new CCNA 200-120 exam already replaced the old CCNA 640-802 exam from October 2013 .

In this course you will get introduced to Cisco world of networking with complete new CCNAx 2.0 (200-120)

trained by expert dual CCIE certified with 10 + years of training and working experience in production networks.

The New CCNAx v 2.0 updates includes

  • Troubleshooting Routing
  • Troubleshooting Switching
  • IPv6 Routing
  • DHCP
  • Introduction to WAN technologies like VSAT,MPLS,VPN,Metro Ethernet,
  • external Authentication methods
  • updated software on Cisco routers and switches.

start with very basic network understanding of all technologies and further getting in to more depth as per new CCNAx v 2.0 (200-120) Syllabus

    • basic understanding of Networking devices
    • knowlege of using internet applications
    • Any server knowledge will be an adantage but not cumpulsory
    • Over 121 lectures and 34.5 hours of content!
    • Cisco Evolves Associate-Level Certifications, Redesigns CCNA Routing and Switching Certification to Support Next-Generation Job Roles Certification and Training Updates Meet Market Demand for Networking Talent Aligned With Changing Business Requirements The updates include comprehensive troubleshooting, technologies such as IPv6, and updated software on Cisco routers and switches.
    • Cisco CCENT and CCNA certification candidates or anyone interested in learning networking basics.
    • This course is intended primarily for: Individuals interested in entering a career in network technologies.
    • Individuals seeking to achieve the Cisco CCNA certification


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  • SECTION 1:
    CCNA introduction and understanding basic networking
  • 1
    Discount Details and How to access Couse on Udemy
  • 2
    CCNA introduction by sikandar CCIE (RS/SP) # 35012

    CCNA R/S TOPIC : 01

    Introduction to CCNA and cisco Technologies by sikandar CCIE (RS/SP) # 35012

    this video give an overview of Cisco technologies and specializations on different tracks CISCO provides ..

  • 3
    Basic Networking

    this video give an overview of IP addressing scheme with clear explanation of classes in ip addressing , importance of subnet mask, network ID , broadcast ID

    it also discusses the difference between private and public IP .

  • 4
    Introduction to Basic IP addressing part 1

    PART 1

    This IP addressing is divided in to three parts which discusses about

    IP addressing scheme with clear explanation of classes in ip addressing , importance of subnet mask, network ID broadcast ID

  • 5
    Introduction to Basic IP addressing part 2

    PART 2

    This IP addressing is divided in to three parts which discusses about

    IP addressing scheme with clear explanation of classes in ip addressing , importance of subnet mask, network ID broadcast ID

  • 6
    Introduction to Basic IP addressing part 3

    PART 3

    This IP addressing is divided in to three parts which discusses about

    IP addressing scheme with clear explanation of classes in ip addressing , importance of subnet mask, network ID broadcast ID

  • 7
    Private and Public IP addresses



      ·Used with the LAN or withinthe organization

      ·Not recognized on internet

      ·Given by the administrator

      ·Unique within the network or organization


      ·Unregistered IP

    ·Used on public network ( INTERNET)

      ·Recognized on internet

      ·Given by the service provider ( from IANA)

      ·Globally unique

      ·Pay to service provider ( or IANA )


    Private IP Address

    There are certain addresses in each class of IP address that are reserved for Private Networks. These addresses are called private addresses.


    Class A10.0.0.0 to

    Class B172.16.0.0 to

    Class C192.168.0.0 to

  • SECTION 2:
    OSI model & TCP/IP
  • 8
    Understanding OSI model part 1


    OSI was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and introduced around 1980.

    It is a layered architecture (consists of seven layers) which defines and explains how the communication happens in between two or more network devices within the organization or internet.

    ØEach layer defines a set of functions in data communication.

    Application Layer(Layer 7)

    • Application Layer is responsible for providing an interface for the users to interact with application services or Networking Services.
    • Ex: Web browser etc.
    • Identification of Services is done using Port Numbers.
    • Port is a logical communication Channel
    • Port number is a 16 bit identifier.
        • Total No. Ports0 – 65535
        • Reserved Ports1 - 1023
        • Unreserved Ports1024 – 65535


      Port No.











      Presentation Layer(Layer 6)

        ·Presentation LayerIs responsible for defining a standard format for the data.

        ·It deals with data presentation.

        ·The major functions described at this layer are..

      Encoding– Decoding

        ·Ex: ASCII, EBCDIC (Text)

        ·JPEG,GIF,TIFF (Graphics)

        ·MIDI,WAV (Voice)

        ·MPEG,DAT,AVI (Video)

      Encryption – Decryption

      ·Ex: DES, 3-DES, AES

      Compression – Decompression

      ·Ex: Predictor, Stacker, MPPC

      Session Layer (Layer 5)

      • It is responsible for establishing, maintaining and terminating the sessions.
      • It deals with sessions or Interactions between the applications.
      • Session ID is used to identify a session or interaction

      ·Ex: RPC, SQL, NFS

  • 9
    Understanding OSI model part 2

    Transport Layer (Layer 4)

      ·It is responsible for end-to-end transportation of data between the applications.

      ·The major functions described at the Transport Layer are...

    §Identifying Service

    §Multiplexing & De-multiplexing


    §Sequencing & Reassembling

    §Error Correction

    §Flow Control

    Identifying a Service:

    Services are identified at this layer with the help of Port No’s.The major protocols which takes care of Data Transportation at Transport layer are…TCP, UDP



    • Transmission Control Protocol
    • Connection Oriented
    • Reliable communication( with Ack’s )
    • Slower data Transportation
    • Protocol No is6
    • Eg: HTTP, FTP, SMTP
    • User Datagram Protocol
    • Connection Less
    • Unreliable communication ( no Ack’s )
    • Faster data Transportation
    • Protocol Nois17
    • Eg: DNS, DHCP, TFTP

    Network Layer(Layer 3)

      §It is responsible for end-to end Transportation of data across multiple networks.


      Logical addressing & Path determination (Routing) are described at this layer.

      §The protocols works at Network layer are

    Routed Protocols:

      §Routed protocols acts as data carriers and defines logical addressing.

      §IP, IPX, AppleTalk... Etc

    Routing Protocols:

      §Routing protocols performs Path determination (Routing).

      §RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF.. Etc

      §Devices works at Network Layer are Router, Multilayer switch etc..

    Data-link Layer (Layer 2)

    §It is responsible for end-to-end delivery of data between the devices on a LAN Network segment.Data link layer comprises of two sub-layers.

    1) MAC (Media Access Control)

      §It deals with hardware addresses (MAC addresses).

      §MAC addresses are 12 digit Hexa-decimal identifiers used to identify the devices uniquely on the network segment.

      §It also provides ERROR DETECTION using CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) andFRAMING (Encapsulation).

    Ex: Ethernet, Token ring…etc

    2) LLC (Logical Link Control)

      §It deals with Layer 3 (Network layer)

      §Devices works at Data link layer are Switch, Bridge, NIC card.

    Physical Layer (Layer 1)

    • It deals with physical transmission of Binary data on the given media (copper, Fiber, wireless...).
    • It also deals with electrical, Mechanical and functional specifications of the devices, media.. etc
    • The major functions described at this layer are..

    Encoding/decoding: It is the process of converting the binary data into signals based on the type of the media.

      ·Copper media: Electrical signals of different voltages

      ·Fiber media: Light pulses of different wavelengths

      ·Wireless media: Radio frequency waves

      §Mode of transmissions of signals: Signal Communication happens in three different modesSimplex, Half-duplex, Full-duplex

      §Devices works at physical layer are Hub, Modems, Repeater, and Transmission Media

  • 10
    TCP/IP protocols part 1


    The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suit was created by the Department of Defense (DoD).

    The DoD Model

      ·The Process / Application Layer

      ·The Host-to-Host Layer

      ·The Internet Layer

      ·The Network-access Layer

  • 11
    TCP/IP protocols part 2
  • SECTION 3:
  • 12
    Why is subnetting required ?

      ·Subnettingis the process of Dividing a Single Network into Multiple smaller networks.

      ·Converting Host bits into Network Bits i.e. Converting 0’s into 1’s

    Subnetting helps in minimizing the wastage of IP address

  • 13
    FLSM using C-class example-1

    FLSM: Example—1

    Req = 40 hosts using C-class address network

    2h - 2>= req

    26 – 2>= 40

    64 – 2 >= 40


      oHost bits required (h) = 6

      oConvertednetwork Bits (n) = Total. H. Bits -- req. H. Bits

    = 8 --- 6 = 2

      oConvertednetwork Bits (n) = 2

      oTotal . N. Bits =defaultN bits+ converted N bits=24 + 2 =/26

      oHosts/Subet =2h - 2= 26 – 2=64 – 2

    = 62Hosts/Subet

      ·Subnets = 2n = 22 = 4 Subnets

      ·Customized subnet mask = (/26) =

    Range:2h = 26= 64

    Network ID ---Broadcast ID





  • 14
    FLSM using C-class example-2

    FLSM: Example—2

    Req = 30 hosts using C-class address network

    2h - 2>= req

    25 – 2>= 30

    32 – 2 >= 30


      oHost bits required (h) = 5

      oConvertednetwork Bits (n) = Total. H. Bits -- req. H. Bits

    = 8 --- 5 = 3

      oConvertednetwork Bits (n) = 3

      oTotal . N. Bits =defaultN bits+ converted N bits=24 + 3 =/27

      oHosts/Subet =2h - 2=25 – 2=32 – 2

    = 30Hosts/Subet

      ·Subnets = 2n = 23 = 8 Subnets

      ·Customized subnet mask = (/27) =

    Range:2h =25= 32

    Network ID ---Broadcast ID









  • 15
    Understand how subnets Works
  • 16
    FLSM using B-class

    FLSM: Example—3

    Req = 500 hosts using B-class address network

    2h - 2 >= req

    29 – 2 >= 500

    512 – 2 >= 500

    510 >= 500

    Host bits required (h) = 9

    Convertednetwork Bits (n) = Total. H. Bits -- req. H. Bits

    = 16 --- 9 = 7

    Convertednetwork Bits(n)= 7

    Total. N. Bits = defaultN bits+ converted N bits= 16 + 7 =/23

    Hosts/Subet=2h - 2=29 – 2=512 – 2

    = 510 Hosts/Subet

    Subnets = 2n = 27 =128 Subnets

    Customized subnet mask =(/23)=

    Range:2h = 29 = 512

    Network ID ---Broadcast ID







  • 17
    FLSM using A-class

    Req = 32000 hosts using A-class address network

    2h - 2>= req

    215 – 2>= 32000

    32768 – 2 >= 32000

    32766 >=32000

      ·Host bits required(h)= 15

      ·Converted network Bits (n) = Total. H. Bits -- req. H. Bits

    = 24 --- 15 = 9

      ·Convertednetwork Bits (n) = 9

      ·Total. N. Bits = defaultN bits+ converted N bits= 8+ 9 = /17

      ·Hosts/Subnet = 2h - 2=215 – 2 =32768 – 2

    = 32766 Hosts/Subnet

      ·Subnets = 2n = 29 = 512Subnets

      ·Customized subnet mask = (/17) =


    Network ID ---Broadcast ID
















  • SECTION 4:
    Advance Subnetting (VLSM & shorcuts)
  • 18
    What is /value

    /Value Bits Subnet mask










  • 19
    Understanding VLSM with basic example

    Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM):

    vVLSM is used for proper implementation of IP addresses which allows more than one subnet mask for a given network according to the individual needs

    vLogically dividing one network into smaller networks is called as Subnetting or VLSM.

    vOne subnet can be sub-netted for multiple times for efficient use.

    vRequires Classless Routing Protocols.


    Efficient Use of IP addresses:Without VLSMs, networks would have to use the same subnet mask throughout the network. But all your networks don’t have the same number of hosts requirement.

  • 20
    VLSM using Shortcuts
  • 21
    VLSM for B-class and A-class
  • 22
    Answering Subnetting Quetions (simple)
  • 23
    Answering Subnetting Quetions (Complex)
  • SECTION 5:
  • 24
    Introduction to Cisco routers


    What is a Router?

    Router is a device which makes communication possible between two or more different networks present in same or different geographical locations.

    –It is an internetworking device used to connect two or more different networks

    –It works on layer 3 (i.e. network layer.)

    It does two basic things:-

    –Select the best path from the routing table.

    –Forward the packet on that path

    Other Vendors apart from Cisco

    Many companies are manufacturing Router:







  • 25
    Cisco Routers Hierarchy

    Router Classification



    • Fixed router (Non Upgradeable cannot add and remove the Ethernet or serial interfaces)
    • Doesn’t have anyslot
    • Modular router (Upgradeable can add and remove interfaces as per the requirement)
    • Number of slots available depend on the series of the router
  • 26
    External Ports


    LAN interfaces - Ethernet

    –AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) (E0)– 15 pin

    –10baseT – RJ45

    WAN interfaces

    –Serial interface (S0, S1, s0/0, s0/1 , s0/0/0etc) – 60 pin/26 pin(smart serial)

    –ISDN interface(BRI0 etc) – RJ45( used for ISDN wan connections )

    Administration interfaces

    –Console – RJ45 – Local Administration

    –Auxiliary – RJ45 – Remote Administration

  • 27
    Internal Components



      ·Is a chip integrated on the motherboard which contains a Bootstrap program which tells how to load the IOS

      ·Used to start and maintain the router. Holds the POST and the bootstrap program, as well as the mini-IOS.

    POST (power-on self-test)

    ·Stored in the microcode of the ROM, the POST is used to check the basic functionality of the router hardware and determines which interfaces are present.


      ·Also called the RXBOOT or boot loader by Cisco, the mini-IOS is a small IOS in ROM that can be used to bring up an interface and load a Cisco IOS into flash memory.

      ·The mini-IOS can also perform a few other maintenance operations.

    RAM (random access memory)

      •Used to hold the temporary config , recent packet buffers information , ARP cache, routing tables, and also the software and data structures that allow the router to function.

      •Also called as Running-config

      •The IOS is loaded in to the RAM from the Flash at the time of booting.

    Flash memory

    •Stores the Cisco IOS by default. Flash memory is not erased when the router is reloaded.

    NVRAM (nonvolatile RAM)

      ·Used to hold the router and switch configuration. NVRAM is not erased when the router or switch is reloaded.

      ·It will not store an IOS.

      ·The configuration register is stored in NVRAM.

    Configuration register file

      •Used to control how the router boots up. This value can be found as the last line of the show version command output

      •By default is set to 0x2102, which tells the router to load the IOS from flash memory as well as to load the configuration from NVRAM.

  • SECTION 6:
    Getting in to CLI and Implementing Basic configurations
  • 28
    Understanding Cisco CLI modes and Basic commmands (part1)


    User mode:

    Router >

    Router > enable

    Privilege mode:

    Router # show running-config

    Router # show startup-config

    Router # showflash

    Router # show version

    Router #show ip interface brief

    Router # configure terminal

    (To enter in Global configuration mode)

    Global configuration mode:

    Router (config) # hostname Sikandar

    Assigningip address to Ethernet interface:

    Router(config) # interface </strong> </p>

    Router(config-if) # ip address </strong> (Interface Mode) </p>

    Router(config-if) # no shutdown

  • 29
    Understanding Cisco CLI modes and Basic commmands (part2)

    Assigning console password:

    Router(config) # line con0

    (To enter into Console line mode)

    Router(config-line) # password

    Router(config-line) # login

    Router(config-line) # exit

    Router(config) # exit

    Assigning Auxiliary password:

    Router(config) # line aux 0

    (To enter into Auxiliary line mode)

    Router(config-line) # password

    Router(config-line) # login

    Router(config-line) # exit

    Router(config) # exit

    Assigning Telnet password:

    Router(config) # line vty 0 4

    (To enter into VTY line mode)

    Router(config-line) #password

    Router(config-line) #login

    Router(config-line) #exit

    Router(config) #exit

    Assigning enable password:

    Router(config) # enablepassword

    (The will be password saved in clear text)


    Router(config) # enable secret

    (The password will be saved in encrypted text)

    To encrypt all passwords

    (config)#service password-encryption

    Commands to save the configuration:

    Router # copy running-config startup-config

    ( OR )

    Router # write memory

    ( OR )

    Router # write

    TO erase NVRAM configuration:

    Router# erase startup-config

    ( to erase the NVRAM )

  • SECTION 7:
  • 30
    Connectivity (LAN)


  • 31
    Connectivity (WAN)

  • 32
    What is DTE and DCE



    •Data Communication Equipment

    •Generate clocking(i.e. Speed).

    •Example of DCE device in Leased line setup : V.35 & G.703 Modem & Exchange (Modem & MUX)

    •Example of DCE device in Dial up setup: Dialup Modem

    •Data Termination Equipment

    •Accept clocking (i.e. Speed).

    •Example of DTE device in Leased line setup : Router

    •Example of DTE device in Dial up setup : Computer

  • SECTION 8:
    IP addrress Configuration & Troubleshooting connectivity
  • 33
    Rules to Assign IP address on Cisco routers

    Rules to assign the IP address to the router:

      1.All the LAN and WAN should be in different networks (or should not repeat the same networks).

      2.Router Ethernet IP and the LAN network assigned should be in the same network.

      3.Both the interfaces of router facing each other should be in the same network.

      4.All the interfaces of routers should be in the different network.

  • 34
    Basic IP address configuration on cisco routers

      1.Design the topology

      2.Ip addressing as per the diagram and rules


  • 35
    Troubleshooting Connectivity

    Troubleshooting the connectivity:

    Router # show ip interface Brief

    1) Serial is up, line protocol is up

    ·Connectivity is fine.

    2) Serial is down, line protocol is down

      ·remote device turned off

      ·remote port is in shutdown state

      ointerface on the remote router has to be configured

      ·problem with connectivity

    3) Serial is administratively down, line protocol is down

      ·local port is inshut down state

      §No Shutdown has to be given on the local router interface

    4) Serial is up, line protocol is down

      ·Encapsulation mismatch

      ·clock rate command not given on serial interface ( only applies in lab scenario )

      ·if using PPP , then authentication mismatch

  • SECTION 9:
  • 36
    Introduction to Routing Concepts and Static Routing


    •Forwarding of packets from one network to another network choosing the best path from the routing table.

    •Routing makes possible for two or more different networks to communicate with each other.

    •Routing table consist of only the best routes for every destinations.

    Types of Routing

      1. Static Routing
      2. Default Routing
      3. Dynamic Routing
  • 37
    Static Routing LAB Part 1

    Static Routing

    •It is configured manually by the Administrator.

    •Mandatory need for the Destination Network ID

    •For every destination routing has to be done manually

    •Used for Small organizations

    •Administrative distance for Static Route is 0 or 1.


      •There is no overhead on the router CPU

      •There is no bandwidth usage between routers

      •It adds security because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.

    Disadvantages of static routing:-

    •Used for small network. (It’s not feasible in large networks )

    •Each and every network has to be manually configured

    •The administrator must really understand the internetwork and how each router is connected in order to configure routes correctly.

    •Any changes in the internetwork has to be updated in all routers

  • 38
    Static Routing LAB Part 2

    Configuring Static Route

    Router(config)# ip route </strong> </p>


    Router(config)# ip route </strong> </p>

  • 39
    Understanding the Routing Process
  • 40
    When we need Default routing


    •Default route is used when destination is unknown ( internet )

    •Also can be used at end locations where there is only one exit path for any destination

    •Default routes help in reducing the size of your routing table.

    •If the routers do not found an entry for the destination network in a routing table, the router will forward the packet to its default route.

    •Last preferred route in the routing table

  • 41
    Default Routing LAB

    Configuring Default Route

    Router(config)# ip route </strong> </p>


    Router(config)# ip route </strong> </p>

  • SECTION 10:
  • 42
    Dynamic Routing Introduction

    Advantages of Dynamic over static:

    •There is no need to know the destination networks.

    •Need to advertise the directly connected networks.

    •Updates the topology changes dynamically.

    •Administrative work is reduced

    •Used for large organizations.

    •Neighbor routers exchange routing information and build the routing table automatically.

    •this is easier than using static or default routing

    Types of Dynamic Routing Protocols

    •Distance Vector Protocol

    •Link State Protocol

    •Hybrid Protocol

    Distance Vector Protocol

    Link State Protocol

    Hybrid Protocol

    (Advance Distance vector Protocol)

    •Works with Bellman Ford algorithm

    •Periodic updates

    •Full Routing tables are exchanged

    •Classful routing protocol

    •Updates are through broadcast

    •Example: RIP v1, RIPv2,IGRP

    •Less overhead

    •Easyto configure

    •Works with Dijkstra algorithm

    •Incremental updates

    •Missing routes are exchanged

    •Classless routing protocol

    •Updates are through multicast

    •Example : OSPF, IS-IS

    •Link state updates

    •More overhead

    •Difficult to configure

    •Works with DUAL algorithm

    •Incremental updates

    •Missing routes are exchanged

    •Classless routing protocol

    •Updates are through multicast

    •Example :,EIGRP

    •Also called as Advance Distance vector Protocol

    •Less overhead

    •Easyto configure

    Classful Protocols:

      ·Classful routing protocol do not carry the subnet mask information along with updates

      ·which means that all devices in the network must use the same subnet mask (FLSM or default )

      §Ex : RIPv1 , IGRP

    Classless Protocols:

      ·Classless routing protocolcarry the subnet mask information along with updates

      ·That’s why they support sub networks( VLSM and FLSM) anddefault networksalso

      §Ex : RIPv2 , EIGRP , OSPF, IS-IS

  • 43
    RIPv1 and RIPv2


    •Open Standard Protocol ( Cisco and non-Cisco )

    •Classful routing protocol

    •Updates are broadcasted via

    •Administrative distance is 120

    •Metric : Hop count( least hops is the best)

    Max Hop counts: 15Max routers: 16

    •16 th hop is unreachable

    •Load Balancing of 4 equal paths

    •Used for small organizations

    •Periodic updates and Exchange entire routing table for every 30 seconds

    Rip Timers

    Update timer : 30 sec

    –Time between consecutive updates

    Invalidtimer : 180 sec

    –Time a router waits to hear updates

    –The route is marked unreachable if there is no update during this interval.

    Flush timer : 240 sec

    –Time before the invalid route is removed from the routing table

    Hold down timer 180sec

    –Stabilizes routing information and helps preventing routing loops during periods when the topology is converging on new information.

    –Once aroute is marked as unreachable, it must stay in holddown long enough for all routers in the topology tolearn about the unreachable network

    Convergence time is the time taken by the router to use alternate route if the best route is down.

    RIP Version 2

    •Classless routing protocol ( support default and sub networks )

    •Supports VLSM

    •Supports authentication

    •Uses multicast address

    Advantages of RIP

    –Easy to configure

    –No design constraints like OSPF protocol

    –No complexity

    –Less overhead

    Disadvantage of RIP

    –Bandwidth utilization is very high as broadcast for every 30 second

    –Works only on hop count ( not consider the Bandwidth)

    –Not scalable as hop count is only 15

    –Slow convergence

  • 44
    LAB : Implementing RIPv2

    Configuring RIPv 1

    Router(config)# router rip

    Router(config-router)# network

    Configuring RIP v2

    Router (config) #routerrip

    Router (config-router)# network

    Router (config-router)# version 2

  • 45
    What is Administrative Distance

    Administrative Distance

    •It is the trustworthiness of the information received by the router.

    •The Number is between 0 and 255

    •Least value is more preferred.

    # show ip protocols

    •Default administrative distances are as follows :

    •Directly Connected = 0

    •Static Route = 1

    •IGRP = 100

    •OSPF = 110

    •RIP = 120

    •EIGRP = 90/170

    •IS-IS = 115

  • 46
    Understanding Autonomous System number, IGP and EGP

    Autonomous System Number

    • An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain
    • A unique number identifying the Routing domain of the routers.
    • Ranges from 1- 65535
    • Public – 1 – 64512 Private – 64513 – 65535

    Private AS: used within the same service providers

    Public AS: used in between multiple service providers

    Routing Protocol Classification



    •Interior Gateway Protocol

    •Routing protocols used withinthe same autonomous system number

    •All routers will be routing within the same Autonomous boundary


    •Exterior Gateway Protocol

    •Routing protocol used between different autonomous systems

    •Routers in different AS need an EGP

    •Ex : Border Gateway Protocol

    IGPs operate within an autonomous system

    EGPs connect different autonomous systems

  • SECTION 11:
  • 47


    Cisco calls EIGRP a distance-vector routing protocol or sometimes an advanced distance-vector or even a hybrid routing protocol

    •Cisco proprietary protocol

    •Classless routing protocol

    •Includes all features of IGRP

    •Metric (32 bit) : Composite Metric(BW + Delay + load + MTU + reliability )

    •Administrative distance is 90

    •Updates are through Multicast ( )

    •Max Hop count is 255 (100 by default)

    •Supports IP, IPX and Apple Talk protocols (Obviously we won’t use IPX and AppleTalk, but EIGRP does support them.)

    •Hello packets are sent every 5 seconds ( dead interval 15 sec)

    •Convergence rate is very fast

      •It uses DUAL (diffusion update algorithm)

      •Summarization can be done on every router

      •Supports equal andunequal cost load balancing

  • 48
    EIGRP Metric

    •Metric (32 bit) : Composite Metric(BW + Delay + load + MTU + reliability )

  • 49
    LAB: Verifying Basic EIGRP

    Configuring EIGRP

    Router(config)# router eigrp

    Router(config-router)# network

  • 50
    Feasible Distance & Advertise Distance in EIGRP
  • 51
    Feasibility condition in EIGRP Part 1
  • 52
    Feasibility condition in EIGRP part 2
  • SECTION 12:
  • 53
    7 Stages of OSPF Process


  • 54
    Why OSPF uses a Concept of Areas

      •OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion, which basically means that you can separate the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas.

      •The following are reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design:

      •To decrease routing overhead

      •To speed up convergence

      •To confine network instability to single areas of the network

    This does not make configuring OSPF easier, but more elaborate and difficult.

  • 55
    OSPF Tables
  • 56
    LAB: OSPF using Single Area

    Configuring OSPF

    Router(config)# router ospf

    Router(config-router)# network </strong>area </p>

  • 57
    LAB: OSPF using Multiple Areas

    Configuring OSPF

    Router(config)# router ospf

    Router(config-router)# network </strong>area </p>

  • SECTION 13:
  • 58
    Introduction to Access control list


    •ACL is a set of rules which will allow or deny the specific traffic moving through the router

    •It is a Layer 3 security which controls the flow of traffic from one router to another.

    •It is also called as Packet Filtering Firewall.

    Standard Access List

    Extended Access List

    •The access-list number range is 1 – 99

    •Can block a Network, Host and Subnet

    •All services are blocked.

    •Implemented closest to the destination.

    •Filtering is done based on only source IP address

    •The access-list number range is 100 – 199

    •We can allow or deny a Network, Host,Subnet and Service

    •Selected services can be blocked.

    •Implemented closest to the source.

    •Filtering is done based on source IP , destination IP , protocol, port no

  • 59
    LAB: Understanding Standard ACL part 1

    Three things need to understand before you configure any ACL.

    1)Which router to configure ACL

    2) Identify the Source /destination address

    3)understand and select In /out direction

    Creation of Standard Access List

    Router(config)# access-list</strong> </p>

    Implementation of Standard Access List

    Router(config)# interface </strong> </p>

    Router(config-if)# ip access-group</strong> </p>

    To Verify :

    Router# show access-list

    Router# show access-list

  • 60
    LAB: Understanding Standard ACL part 2

    Three things need to understand before you configure any ACL.

      1)Which router to configure ACL

      2) Identify the Source /destination address

      3)understand and select In /out direction

  • 61
    LAB: Understanding Standard ACL part 3

    Rules of Access List

    •Works in Sequential order (It’s always compared with each line of the access list in sequential order—that is, it’ll always start with the first line of the access list, then go to line 2, then line 3, and so on)

    •All deny statements have to be given First ( preferable most cases )

    •There should be at least one Permit statement ( mandatory )

    •An implicit deny blocks all traffic by default when there is no match (an invisible statement).

    •Can have one access-list per interface per direction. (i.e.) Two access-lists per interface, one in inbound direction and one in outbound direction.

    •Any time a new entry is added to the access list, it will be placed at the bottom of the list.Using a text editor for access lists is highly suggested.

    •You cannot remove one line from an access list. If you try to do this, you will remove the entire list. It is best to copy the access list to a text editor before trying to edit the list. The only exception is when using named access lists.

  • 62
    LAB: Extended ACL

    Creation of Extended Access List

    Router(config)#access-list </strong> </p>

    </strong> </p>

    < destination wildcard mask> </strong> </p>

    Implementation of Extended Access List

    Router(config)#interface</strong> </p>

    Router(config-if)#ip access-group</strong> </p>

  • 63
    Named ACL (Standard and Extended)

    Named Access List

    •Named access lists are just another way to create standard and extended access lists.

    •Access-lists are identified using Names rather than Numbers.

    •Names are Case-Sensitive

    •No limitation of Numbers here.

    •One Main Advantage is Editing of ACL is Possible (i.e) Removing a specific statement from the ACL is possible.

    •IOS version 11.2 or later allows Named ACL

    Creation of Standard Named Access List

    Router(config)# ip access-list standard

    Router(config-std-nacl)# </strong> </p>

    Implementation of Standard Named Access List

    Router(config)#interface </strong> </p>

    Router(config-if)#ip access-group </strong> </p>

    Creation of Extended Named Access List

    Router(config)# ip access-list extended

    Router(config-ext-nacl)# </strong> </p>

    </strong> </p>

    < destination wildcard mask> </strong> </p>

    Implementation of Extended Named Access List

    Router(config)#interface </strong> </p>

    Router(config-if)#ip access-group </strong> </p>

  • 64
    LAB :Restricting Telnet Access using standard ACL

    Restricting Telnet Access To The Router To Specified Networks Or Hosts

    Should You Secure Your Telnet Lines on a Router?

      •You’re monitoring your network and notice that someone has telnetted into your core router by using the show users command.

      •You use the disconnect command and they are disconnected from the router, but you notice they are back into the router a few minutes later. You are thinking about putting an access list on the router interfaces, but you don’t want to add a lot of latency on each interface since your router is already pushing a lot of packets.

      •The access-class command illustrated in this lab is the best way to dorestrict the users who can telnet and who should not

      •Because it doesn’t use an access list that just sits on an interface looking at every packet that is coming and going. This can cause overhead on the packets trying to be routed.

      •When you put the access-class command on the VTY lines, only packets trying to telnet intothe router will be looked at and compared. This provides nice, easy-to-configure security foryour router.

  • SECTION 14:
    Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • 65


      •NAT is the method of Translationof private IP address into public IP address ".

      •In order to communicate with internet we must have registered public IP address.

    Address translation was originally developed to solve two problems:

      1. to handle a shortage of IPv4 addresses
      2. Hide network addressing schemes.

      ·Small companies typically get their public IP addresses directly from their ISPs, which have a limited number.

      ·Large companies can sometimes get their public IP addresses from a registration authority, such as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

      ·Common devices that can perform address translation include firewalls, routers, and servers. Typically address translation is done at the perimeter of the network by either a firewall (more commonly) or a router.

      ·There are certain addresses in each class of IP address that are reserved for Private Networks. These addresses are called private addresses.

    Class A to

    Class B to

    Class C to

    Here’s a list of situations when it’s best to have NAT on your side:

      •You need to connect to the Internet and your hosts don’t have globally unique IP addresses.

      •You change to a new ISP that requires you to renumber your network.

      •You need to merge two intranets with duplicate addresses.


      •Conserves legally registered addresses.

      •Reduces address overlap occurrence. Increases flexibility when connecting to Internet.

      •Eliminates address renumbering as network changes


      •Translation introduces switching path delays.

      •Loss of end-to-end IP traceability.

      •Certain applications will not function with NAT enabled.

  • 66
    LAB: Static NAT

    Static NAT

    •This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping between local and global addresses.

    •Keep in mind that the static version requires you to have one real Internet IP address for every host on your network..


    (Config)# IP nat inside source static <<strong>private IP></strong>

    Implementation :

    (Config) # interfacef0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat inside ( interfacefacing towards LAN)

    (Config)# interfaces0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat outside ( interfacefacing towards ISP )

  • 67
    LAB: Dynamic NAT

    Dynamic NAT

    •This version gives you the ability to map an unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from out of a pool of registered IP addresses.

    •You don’t have to statically configure your router to map an inside to an outside address as you would use static NAT, but you do have to have enough real IP addresses for everyone who’s going to be sending packets to and receiving them from the Internet.

    Syntax :

    (Config)# access-list < ACL-NO> permit <NET.ID>

    (Config)#ip nat pool <NAME> </strong> netmask </p>

    (Config)# ip nat inside source list pool

    Implementation :

    (Config) # interfacef0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat inside ( interfacefacing towards LAN)

    (Config)# interfaces0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat outside ( interfacefacing towards ISP )

  • 68
    LAB: PAT (Port Addres Translation)

    Dynamic NAT Overload

    •This is the most popular type of NAT configuration. Understand that overloading really is a form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address—many-to-one—by using different ports.

    •It is also known as Port Address Translation (PAT), and by using PAT (NAT Overload), you get to have thousands of users connect to the Internet using only one real global IP address.

    •NAT Overload is the real reason we haven’t run out of valid IP address on the Internet

    (Config)# access-list < ACL-NO> permit <NET.ID>

    (Config)#ip nat inside pool <NAME> </strong> netmask < mask> </p>

    (Config)# ip nat inside source list pool overload

    Implementation :

    (Config) # interfacef0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat inside ( interfacefacing towards LAN)

    (Config)# interfaces0/0

    (Config-if)# ip nat outside ( interfacefacing towards ISP )

  • SECTION 15:
  • 69
    Difference Between Hub and Switch part 1



    •It is a Physical layer device (Layer 1)

    •It has no intelligence.

    •It works with 0’s and 1’s (Bits)

    •Italways do broadcasts

    •It works with shared bandwidth

    It has 1 Broadcast Domain

    It has 1 Collision Domain

    •Collisions are identified using Access Methods called CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA

    •It is Data-link layer device (Layer 2)

    •Its is An Intelligent device

    •It works with Physical addresses (i.e. MAC addresses)

    •It uses broadcastand Unicast

    •It works with fixed bandwidth

    •It has 1 Broadcast domain by default

    Number of Collision domains depends upon the number of ports.

    •It maintains a MAC address table

  • 70
    Difference Between Hub and Switch part 2

    Broadcast Domain

    •Set of all devices that receive broadcast frames originating from any device within the set.

    Collision domain

      •In Ethernet, the network area within which frames that have collided are propagated is called a collision domain.

      •A collision domain is a network segment with two or more devices sharing the same bandwidth.

  • 71
    Basic Switching concepts

    Address resolution protocol

    ARP protocol helps the switch to resolve the IP address in to respective MAC address. It is inbuilt protocol in TCP/IP

    Types of Switches

    Unmanageable switches

      •These switches are just plug and play

      •No configurations and verifications can be done

      •There is no console port.

    Manageable switches

      •These switches are also plug and play

      •It has console port and CLI access.

      •We can verify and modify configurations and can implementand test some advance switching technologies ( VLAN, trunking , STP)

  • SECTION 16:
    Virtual LAN (VLAN)
  • 72
    Virtual LAN ( VLAN)


    •Divides a Single Broadcast domain into Multiple Broadcast domains.

    •A Layer 2 Security

    •By default all ports of the switch are in VLAN1. This VLAN1 is known as Administrative VLAN or Management VLAN

    •VLAN can be created from 2 – 1001

    •Can be Configured on a Manageable switch only

    •2 Types of VLAN Configuration

    –Static VLAN

    –Dynamic VLAN

  • 73
    Static VLAN

    Static VLAN

    •Static VLAN’s are based on port numbers

    •Need to manually assign a port on a switch to a VLAN

    •Also called Port-Based VLANs

    •One port can be a member of only oneVLAN

    1 ) VLAN Creation in config Mode:

    Switch(config)# vlan

    Switch(config-Vlan)# name

    Switch(config-Vlan)# Exit

    Assigning ports in Vlan

    Switch(config)# interface </p>

    Switch(config-if)# switchport mode access

    Switch(config-if)# switchport access Vlan

    2 ) Static VLAN using Database command:

    Creation of VLAN:-

    Switch #vlan database

    Switch(vlan)#vlanname </p>

    Switch(vlan)# exit

    Assigning port in VLAN:-

    Switch#config t

    Switch(config)# int fastethernet

    Switch(config-if)# switchportmode access

    Switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan

  • 74
    Dynamic VLAN

    Dynamic VLAN

    •Dynamic VLAN’s are based on the MAC address of a PC

    •Switch automatically assigns the port to a VLAN

    •Each port can be a member of multiple VLAN’s

    •For Dynamic VLAN configuration, a software called VMPS( VLAN Membership Policy Server) is needed

  • 75

    Trunk links

    –Trunks can carry multiple VLANs traffic.

    –A trunk link is a 100- or 1000Mbps point-to-point link between two switches, between a switch and router, or between a switch and server. These carry the traffic of multiple VLANs—from1 to 1005 at a time.

    –Trunking allows you to make a single port part of multiple VLANs at the same time.

    VLAN Identification Methods (Frame Tagging)

    •Single VLAN can span over multiple switches

    •In oder to make sure that same vlan users on different switches communicate with each other there is a method of tagging happens on trunk links

    •Tagis addedbefore a frame is send and removed once it is received on trunk link

    •Frame tagging happens only on the trunk links

    •VLAN identification is what switches use to keep track of all those framesmoving through the trunk links

    •The below two trunking protocols responsible for frame tagging process

    Inter-Switch Link (ISL)

    IEEE 802.1Q


    IEEE 802.1Q

    •It’s a Cisco proprietary

    •It works with Ethernet, Token ring, FDDI

    •It adds 30 bytes of tag

    •All VLAN traffic is tagged

    •Frame is not modified

    ·Open standard, we can use on different vendors switches.

    ·It works only on Ethernet

    ·Only 4 Byte tag will be added to original frame.

    ·Unlike ISL, 802.1q does not encapsulate the frame. It modifies the existing Ethernet frame to include the VLAN ID

    Trunking Configuration –

    Switch(config)#interface </strong> </p>

    Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk

    Switch(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q/ISL

  • 76
    Inter-VLAN Routing

    Steps :

    1)create vlan and shift the ports as per the requirement

    2)configure on switch fa0/20 as trunk port

    3)Create sub interfaces on router port fa0/0

    4)Verifyconnectivity between vlans(ping ---

  • 77


    Trunking can be done dynamically through negotiation process

    Switch#sh dtp

    Global DTP information

    Sending DTP Hello packets every 30 seconds

    Dynamic Trunk timeout is 300 seconds

    0 interfaces using DTP



      desires to become trunk ( always want to become trunk)

      Sends and reply to DTP messages

      default mode on 3550 switches


      Only reply to DTP messages ( not send )

      Default mode on all switches except 3550


    Configuring trunk manually


    Configuring access manually


    Turn off DTP messages (disable DTP)

  • SECTION 17:
    Spanning Tree Protocol
  • 78
    Understanding STP part 1


    •Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) uses Spanning Tree Algorithm to avoid the Switching loops in layer-2 devices (bridges or switches).

    •STP works when multiple switches are used with redundant links avoiding Broadcast Storms, Multiple Frame Copies & Database instability.

    •First Developed By DEC

    •STP is a open standard (IEEE 802.1D)

    •STP is enabled by default on all Cisco Catalyst switches

  • 79
    Understanding STP part 2

    Root Bridge Election

    –The bridge with the Best (Lowest) ID.

    –Out of all the switches in the network , one is elected as aroot bridge that becomes the focal point in the network.

      ·A root bridge is elected to serve as a common reference point for the topology. A switch's bridge ID is composed of two parts:

      oBridge priority (2 bytes) - Administratively set; defaults to 32,768 (0x8000)

      oMAC address (6 bytes) - One of the switch's MAC addresses

    Non-Root bridge

      • All Switches other than the Root Bridge are Non-Root Bridges

    Root Port Election

      ·All non-root bridges look the best way to go to root bridge.

      ·every non-root bridge have one root port

      ·The port with the lowest path cost to the root bridge is designated as the root port.

      ·The root path cost noted in a BPDU is incremented by the cost assigned to the port on which it was received.

        • Root port with the least cost (Speed) connecting to the root bridge.
        • The bridge with the Best (Lowest) of forwarding Switch ID.
        • Lowest Physical Port Number.

    Port costs

    Bandwidth Cost

    4 Mbps 250

    10 Mbps 100

    16 Mbps 62

    45 Mbps 39

    100 Mbps 19

    155 Mbps 14

    622 Mbps6

    1 Gbps 4

    10 Gbps 2

  • 80
    Spaning tree portfast
    Portfast is a Cisco-proprietary enhancement to Spanning Tree that helps speed up network convergence. It is for access(user) ports only

    ·Spanning-tree PortFast causes a port to enter the spanning-tree forwarding state immediately, bypassing the listening and learning states. You can use PortFast on switch ports connected to a single workstation or server to allow those devices to connect to the network immediately, instead of waiting for the port to transition from the listening and learning states to the forwarding state.

    ·Note :PortFast should be usedonlywhen connecting a single end station to a switch port. If you enable PortFast 0on a port connected to another networking device, such as a switch, you can create network loops.

    Portfast on specific ports

    (config-if)spanning-tree portfast

    to enable on each all access portsglobally

    (config)#spanning-tree portfast default

  • 81
    Spaning tree uplinkfast and backbonefast

      ·UplinkFast is for speeding convergence when a direct link to an upstream switch fails. The switch identifies backup ports for the root port. (These are called an uplink group.)

      ·If the root port fails, one of the ports in the uplink group is unblocked and transitions immediately to forwarding; it bypasses the listening and learning stages.

        ·BackboneFastis simple to configure and operates by short-circuiting the Max Age timer when needed. Although this function shortens the time a switch waits to detect a root path failure, ports still must go through full-length Forward Delay timer intervals during the Listening and Learning states.

        ·Where PortFast and Uplink Fast enable immediate transitions, but the BackboneFast can reduce the maximum convergence delay only from 50 to 30 seconds.

  • 82
    Rapid STP (RSTP)
  • 83
    Per Vlan STP (PVSTP)
  • SECTION 18:
  • 84
    Basics of IPV6

    IP Network Addressing

      INTERNET à world’s largest public data network, doubling in size every nine months

      –IPv4, defines a 32-bit address - 232 (4,294,967,296) IPv4 addresses available

      –The first problem is concerned with the eventual depletion of the IP address space.

      –Traditional model of classful addressing does not allow the address space to be used to its maximum potential.

    An IPv6 address is represented as eight groups of fourhexadecimaldigits, each group representing 16bits(twooctets). The groups are separated bycolons(:). An example of an IPv6 address is:


    The hexadecimal digits are case-insensitive. The full representation of eight 4-digit groups may be simplified by several techniques, eliminating parts of the representation.

    Leading zeroes

    Leading zeroes in a group may be omitted.[1]Thus, the example address may be written as:


    Groups of zeroes

    One or more consecutive groups of zero value may be replaced with a single empty group using two consecutive colons (::).[1]Thus, the example address can be further simplified:


  • 85
    IPV6 address Addressing

    Types of unicast address in IPV6

    1) Global unicast

      olike public IP ( routable )

      ostarts with 2000::/3( the first three bits 001) assigned by IANA

    2) unique local

      ·like private ip( routable)

      ·any address whichever starts with FCor FD in the first two numbers

    Aunique local address(ULA) is anIPv6address in the blockfc00::/7,

    3) link local

    ·default IPV6 address on every ipv6 enabled interface ( non routable )FE80::/10


    ·In IPV6 multicast address will be starting with FF( FF00::/8)

    Firsttwo numbers will be always FF and remaining can be any (ex:FF

  • 86
    IPV6 address Types

    An anycast address is an address that is assigned to a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes.

    • similar to multicast , identify multiple interfaces but sends to only one whichever it finds first.
    • the above ( unique local and Global unicast addresses can be used as anycast).
  • 87
    LAB : IPV6 Static address Configuration

    Assigning the IPV6 address

      1)Static( Manual )


      ·Statefull (via DHCP)

      ·Stateless( device getsIPv6 add by including the MAC add)

    A single interface can have multilple IPV6 addresses

  • 88
    IPV6 Address stateless Autoconfiguration
  • 89
    IPV6 address stateless Auto configuration LAB
  • 90
    IPV6 Static & Default Routing


    IPv6 uses the same types of routing protocols as IPv4,but with some slight modifications to account for specific requirements of IPv6.



      ·RIPng (RFC 2080)

      ·IS-IS for IPv6

      ·OSPFv3 (RFC 2740)

      ·MP-BGP (RFC 2545/2858)

      ·EIGRP for IPv6

    IPv6 support static and default routing and the working principle ( when to use and how it works is same what we learned in IPV4 routing )

      ·Syntax for writing static and default routing is similar in IPV6 when compared with IPV4

      ·As in IPv4, IPv6 has 2 families of routing protocols: IGP and EGP, and still uses the longest-prefix match routingalgorithm


    Static routing with IPv6 is used and configured in the same way as with IPv4. There is an IPv6-specific requirement per RFC 2461: “A router must be able to determine the link-local address of each of its neighboring routers in order to ensure that the target address of a redirect message identifies the neighbor router by its link-local address.” This basically states that it is not recommended to use a global unicast address as a next-hop address with routing.

  • 91
    IPV6 Routing using RIPng


      ·Same as IPv4:

      ·Distance-vector, 15-hops Based on RIPv2

      ·Updated features for IPv6:

      Uses IPv6 for transport

      IPv6 prefix, next-hop IPv6 address

      Uses the multicast group FF02::9 for RIP updates

  • 92
    IPV6 Routing using OSPFV3


      ·Based on OSPFv2, with enhancements

      oDistributes IPv6 prefixes

      oRuns directly over IPv6

  • 93
    IPV6 Routing using EIGRP


      ·Same EIGRP used with IPv4

      ·Best of distance vector and link state (advanced distance vector)

      ·Multiprotocol EIGRP has a protocol-dependent module for IPv4, IPX, AppleTalk, and now IPv6

      ·Easy to configure and fast convergence

  • SECTION 19:
    WAN Technologies
  • 94
    understanding Leased lines

    Dedicated line:-

    üPermanent connection for the destination

    üUsed for short or long distance

    üBandwidth is fixed

    üAvailability is 24/7

    üCharges are fixed whether used or not.

    üUses analog circuits

    üAlways same path is used for destination

    üExample is Leased Line

  • 95
    Frame Relay part 1


    Frame Relay is a connection oriented, standard NBMA layer 2 WAN protocol

    Connections in Frame Relay are provided by Virtual circuits.

    Virtual circuits are multiple logical connections on same physical connection

  • 96
    Frame Relay part 2

    DLCI (data link connection identifier):-

    üAddress of Virtual connections

    üFor every VC there is one DLCI number.

    üLocally significant and provided by Frame Relay service provider.

    LMI (Local management interface):-

    LMI allows DTE (router) to send status enquiry messages (keep alive)to DCE(frame relay switch) to exchange status information about the virtual circuits devices for checking the connectivity.

    Frame relay LMI types?

    1. CISCO (Default)

    2. ANSI

    3. Q933A

    Note:- On Cisco router LMI is auto sense able no need to configure

  • 97
    LAB : Frame Relay


    interface Serial0/0

    no sh

    ip address

    encapsulation frame-relay


    interface Serial0/0

    no sh

    ip address

    encapsulation frame-relay

    # sh run int s0/0

    Sh ip int brief

    On FRSW


    Conf t

    frame-relay switching

    ( to make the router to act as FR SWITCH)

    int s0/0

    no shutdown

    encapsulation frame-relay

    frame-relay intf-type dce

    frame-relay lmi-type cisco

    frame-relay route 100 int s0/1 200

    int s0/1

    no shutdown

    encapsulation frame-relay

    frame-relay intf-type dce

    frame-relay lmi-type cisco

    frame-relay route 200 int s0/0 100

  • 98
    MEtro ethernet

    A metropolitan-area Ethernet, Ethernet MAN, or metro Ethernetnetwork is a metropolitan area network (MAN) that is based on Ethernet standards.

    It is commonly used to connect subscribers to a larger service network or the Internet.

    Businesses can also use metropolitan-area Ethernet to connect their own offices to each other.


    An Ethernet interface is much less expensive

    Ethernet also supports high bandwidths with fine granularity

    Ethernet-based access network is that it can be easily connected to the customer network, due to the prevalent use of Ethernet in corporate and, more recently, residential networks.

  • 99

    A virtual private network (VPN) provides connection between two or more private networks across a public network, such as the Internet.

    It enables a computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were directly connected to the private network

    while benefiting from the functionality, security and management policies of the private network.

    This is done by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination of the two.

    A VPN connection across the Internet is similar to a wide area network (WAN) link between the sites.

    From a user perspective, the extended network resources are accessed in the same way as resources available from the private network.

    Site-to-site VPN

    –Site-to-site VPNs Site-to-site VPNs, or intranet VPNs, allow a company to connect itsremote sites to the corporate backbone securely over a public medium like the Internet instead of requiring more expensive WAN connections like Frame Relay.

    –A remote-access VPN

    –Remote access VPNs Remote access VPNs allow remote users like telecommuters to securely access the corporate network wherever and whenever they need to.


  • 100
    DSL cable modems

    Cable Modems

    In a modern HFC network, typically 500 to 2,000 active data subscribers

    All are connected to a certain cable network segment andall sharing the upstream and downstream Bandwidth.

    Hybrid fibre-coaxialor HFC,

    is telecommunications industry term for a network that incorporates both optical fiber and coaxial cable to create a broadband network.)

    DSL Modems

    Digital subscriber line is a technology used by traditional telephone companies to

    deliver advanced services (high-speed data and sometimes video) over twisted-pair copper telephone wires

    It typically has lower data carrying capacity than HFC networks, and data speeds

    can be range limited by line lengths and quality

    Symmetrical DSL

    The speed for both downstream and upstream connections are equal, or symmetrical.

    Asymmetrical DSL

    Different transmission speeds occur between two ends of a network—downstream speed is usually faster.


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  • Jeff Keith
    not worthwhile

    The instructor is not engaging and also not prepared for his class.

  • David Bradford
    Laz is mostly good but sometimes verbose and sometimes to brief

    I find in this course that Laz sometimes talks to much about other topics that are not helpful. This makes some lectures too long and lacking content. On other lectures he is too brief and does not explain fully what he is doing requiring additional reading from outside sources.

  • Michael Anthony Terrell
    Good coverage for CCNA plus additional need to know topics

    Covered a lot of topic in great detail

  • Dimitris Saidis
    Great Course

    Very detailed and thorough

  • Killer Jones
    One of the best!

    Once you get past the accent I am sure you will learn as much as I did from this course. The instruction is very thorough and he makes it seem easy. Especially pleased to see videos specifically on trouble shooting. This came in handy during my exams. I will be definitely purchasing other courses from this instructor.

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