Tackling and mastering inheritance, selection and variation
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Tackling and mastering inheritance, selection and variation

Gaining a full conceptual understanding of confusing terminology and concepts with the help of a dynamic teacher
4.3 (5 ratings)
Instead of using a simple lifetime average, Udemy calculates a course's star rating by considering a number of different factors such as the number of ratings, the age of ratings, and the likelihood of fraudulent ratings.
19 students enrolled
Created by Leanne Cooper
Last updated 6/2016
English
Current price: $10 Original price: $30 Discount: 67% off
5 hours left at this price!
30-Day Money-Back Guarantee
Includes:
  • 3.5 hours on-demand video
  • 2 Articles
  • 2 Supplemental Resources
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
What Will I Learn?
  • 1. INHERITANCE
  • a) INTRODUCTION
  • Define inheritance
  • State the meaning of chromosome, gene, DNA and allele
  • Define a diploid and haploid nucleus
  • State how many chromosomes there are in a human cell and human sex cell
  • State how to determine the sex of a person by looking at the karyotype
  • b) DNA TO PROTEINS. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  • Explain how DNA controls cell function by controlling what proteins are made.
  • State 3 important proteins in the body: enzymes, antibodies and receptors for neurotransmitters
  • Explain what the genetic code is
  • Explain how the sequence of bases in a gene code for the correct order of amino acids in a protein
  • Explain briefly how a protein is made
  • c) DUPLICATING CELLS. MITOSIS
  • Define mitosis
  • State the use of mitosis in growth, repair, replacement of cells and asexual reproduction
  • Define meiosis and state its role in gamete function
  • State that chromosomes are duplicated before mitosis
  • Outline what happens to chromosomes during mitosis
  • State the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells and describe the role of stem cells
  • d) FORMATION OF GAMETES. MEIOSIS
  • Define meiosis
  • Explain how meiosis produces variation by forming new combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes
  • State the differences between mitosis and meiosis
  • e) PHENOTYPES, GENOTYPES AND THE CONFUSING TERMINOLOGY IN INHERITANCE
  • Use pedigree diagrams to show how features are inherited
  • Distinguish between genes and alleles
  • Define phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive
  • f) BREEDING PLANTS. MONOHYBRID INHERITANCE
  • Define monohybrid inheritance
  • Use genetic diagrams to predict the results of monohybrid crosses and calculate phenotypic ratios
  • Use Punnett squares in crosses which result in more than one genotype to work out and show the possible different genotypes
  • Explain how to use a test cross to identify an unknown genotype 

  • g) SHARING POWERS. CODOMINANCE
  • Explain the term codominance
  • Describe the inheritance of ABO blood groups
  • State the possible allele combinations of people with blood groups A, B, AB and O.
  • Use Punnett squares to determine the resulting blood groups of children from parents who have different blood groups.
  • h) SEX LINKAGE
  • Describe how sex is determined and inherited in humans
  • Describe colour blindness as an example of sex linkage
  • Define a sex linked characteristic
  • Use genetic diagrams to predict the results of crosses involving sex linkage
  • 2. VARIATION AND SELECTION
  • a) TALLEST TO SHORTEST. VARIATION
  • Define variation
  • Identify and explain examples of variation
  • Distinguish between genetic variation and phenotypic variation
  • State the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation
  • Draw the typical graphs of continuous and discontinuous variation
  • State that phenotypic variation is caused by both genetic and environmental factors
  • State that discontinuous variation is mostly caused by genes alone such as the different blood groups
  • Give examples of genetic and environmental factors that cause phenotypic variation
  • b) MUTATIONS. HOW WE GET DIFFERENT ALLELES
  • Define the term mutation
  • State that mutation is the way in which new alleles are formed
  • Describe the possible effects of radiation and certain chemicals on the rate of mutations
  • Describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of a mutation
  • Briefly describe how gene mutations can result in cancer
  • c) STICKY CELLS. SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA
  • Describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of a gene mutation
  • Describe the symptoms of sickle cell anaemia
  • Explain the distribution of sickle cell allele in human populations with reference to the distribution of malaria
  • Use a punnett square to work out the genotype and phenotype of children from parents who have the sickle cell trait
  • State that the heterozygous condition for sickle cell trait gives resistance to malaria
  • d) ADAPTING TO THE ENVIRONMENT. ADAPTIVE FEATURES
  • Define adaptive feature
  • Define fitness
  • Interpret images or other information about a species to describe its adaptive features
  • Explain the adaptive features of hydrophytes and xerophytes to their environments
  • e) STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL. NATURAL SELECTION PART 1
  • Describe natural selection
  • Describe evolution as the change in adaptive features of a population over time as a result of natural selection
  • Define the process of adaptation
  • f) MUTANT BACTERIA. NATURAL SELECTION PART 2
  • Describe the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of evolution by natural selection
  • Give other examples of natural selection: Darwin's finches, peppered moth, sickle cell anaemia trait
  • g) SELECTIVE BREEDING
  • Describe the role of selective breeding in producing varieties of animals and plants with increased economic importance
  • Describe examples of artificial selection
  • Outline how selective breeding is carried out
  • State the differences between artificial and natural selection
View Curriculum
Requirements
  • You should already be familiar with the topics covered in the beginning of Form 3. This course is on the sections, Inheritance and Selection and Variation, covered in Form 4.
Description

DNA, mitosis, meiosis, genetics...do these sound like keywords that you need extra revision with before exams? Are you self-studying at home?  If so, this course is for you!

Tackle and Master inheritance and variation so that you are confident in the exam

There are 2 big sections in this course which include inheritance and selection and variation. You will learn about what chromosomes are, how proteins are made all the way to working out inheritance and sex linked disease using Punnett Squares. Other tricky topics that will be covered include mutations, selective breeding, sickle cell anaemia and antibiotic resistant bacteria to name a few.

I've integrated my teaching experience, passion for Biology and creative flare into videos that make Biology more easy to understand. You can see me teaching in each video, instead of just having to hear a voice, which adds to making the lessons more personal.  

By the end of this course, you'll have valuable skills that will help you to draw the key concepts from the content and retain the knowledge more easily. You'll know how to describe, list, calculate, explain,  interpret necessary information. 

What to expect

I've upped my game and designed a course that integrates interesting Keynote presentations as well as a video of me explaining the key concepts into short videos. You will find 16 teaching videos that explain 2 of the most difficult concepts in the syllabus. You will also be able to download, print and cut out flash cards, which are study cards, of questions and terminology that will help you to learn a difficult topic easily.  At the end of each section is a short quiz for you to check that you are on track.

To start each lecture, I've outlined clear learning outcomes, that are in line with the syllabus. What's brilliant about this course is that the videos are short and can be watched over and over again. Furthermore, I've used real life examples so that you can link the concepts together.

This course is for you if you are studying the Cambridge IGCSE syllabus or an equivalent board. Check the curriculum to see if the content overlaps with what you are studying!

Enjoy and all the best with your revision! :)

Who is the target audience?
  • This course is perfect if you want to go through the different sections in your own time and fill in any gaps that you might be missing from class
  • It you are preparing for the Cambridge IGCSE Biology exam or an equivalent board, you will find this course really useful
Students Who Viewed This Course Also Viewed
Curriculum For This Course
21 Lectures
03:33:05
+
Introduction to course
1 Lecture 03:49

This is just an introduction on what to expect in the course :)

Preview 03:49
+
2. Inheritance
11 Lectures 02:01:23

This video is just an overview of what to expect in this section :)

Preview 04:45

When you first learn about chromosomes, DNA, genes and alleles, it can all be quite confusing. I've gone through it slowly so that you can visualise what each term means. 

This is a video lecture, where you will be able to..


  • Define inheritance
  • State the meaning of chromosome, gene, DNA and allele
  • Define a diploid and haploid nucleus
  • State how many chromosomes there are in a human cell and human sex cell
  • State how to determine the sex of a person by looking at the karyotype


    Preview 12:05

    Why do we look the way we do? Inheritance
    18 questions

    This is a video lecture, where I take you through the steps from DNA to proteins. By the end of the lecture, you should be able to

    • Explain how DNA controls cell function by controlling what proteins are made.
    • State 3 important proteins in the body: enzymes, antibodies and receptors for neurotransmitters
    • Explain what the genetic code is
    • Explain how the sequence of bases in a gene code for the correct order of amino acids in a protein
    • Explain briefly how a protein is made


    2. DNA to proteins. Protein synthesis
    12:49

    DNA to proteins. Protein synthesis
    10 questions

    Mitosis can be quite hard to get your head around. I've explained it briefly in this video, so that you can visualise the different steps and see why this nuclear division is important in life processes.

    By the end of this video, you should be able to

    • Define mitosis
    • State the use of mitosis in growth, repair, replacement of cells and asexual reproduction
    • Define meiosis and state its role in gamete function
    • State that chromosomes are duplicated before mitosis
    • Outline what happens to chromosomes during mitosis
    • State the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells and describe the role of stem cells


    3. Duplicating cells. Mitosis
    14:28

    Meiosis and Mitosis may appear to be very similar at first, but once you watch the different steps and see how they compare side by side, you will figure out why meiosis results in cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define meiosis
    • Explain how meiosis produces variation by forming new combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes
    • State the differences between mitosis and meiosis

    4. Formation of gametes. Meiosis
    12:37

    Mitosis and meiosis
    16 questions

    Inheritance involves a lot of new terms: phenotypes, genotypes, recessive, dominant! In this lecture, I go through what each term means and how to use do a test cross and use a Punnett Square. By the end of this lecture, you should be able to

    • Use pedigree diagrams to show how features are inherited
    • Distinguish between genes and alleles
    • Define phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive


    5. Phenotypes, genotypes and the confusing terminology in inheritance
    11:32

    phenotypes, genotypes and the confusing terminology
    6 questions

    Doing test crosses at first is quite tricky, but once you have gone through the steps that I show you in this video lecture, it will become a piece of cake! There are different phenotypic ratios that you need to learn too, so I will highlight these to you.

    By the end of this lecture, you will be able to

    • Define monohybrid inheritance
    • Use genetic diagrams to predict the results of monohybrid crosses and calculate phenotypic ratios
    • Use Punnett squares in crosses which result in more than one genotype to work out and show the possible different genotypes
    • Explain how to use a test cross to identify an unknown genotype


    6. Breeding plants. Monohybrid inheritance
    15:55

    You've just got your head about monohybrid inheritance! Now, you are going to learn about how certain alleles are co-dominant and result in different phenotypes to the parents. Don't worry, this video lecture goes through it so you will be a pro by the end :)

    By the end of this lecture, you will be able to 

    • Explain the term codominance
    • Describe the inheritance of ABO blood groups
    • State the possible allele combinations of people with blood groups A, B, AB and O.
    • Use Punnett squares to determine the resulting blood groups of children from parents who have different blood groups.


    7. Sharing powers. Codominance
    12:11

    Monohybrid inheritance and codominance
    11 questions

    Sex linkage...why is it if a man has a defective allele for a sex linked disease, he has the disease and yet his sister, who also has the defective allele, doesn't? You will soon find this out.

    By the end of this video lecture, you will be able to

    • Describe how sex is determined and inherited in humans
    • Describe colour blindness as an example of sex linkage
    • Define a sex linked characteristic
    • Use genetic diagrams to predict the results of crosses involving sex linkage



    8. The xceptional chromosome. Sex linkage
    13:48

    Sex linkage
    7 questions

    In this video lecture, I go through examples with you of how to figure out the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals in pedigree diagrams.

    9. Pedigree diagrams
    11:06

    Pedigree diagrams
    5 questions

    Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Flash cards for inheritance
    00:07
    +
    2. Variation and selection
    9 Lectures 01:27:52

    This video gives you an overview of what to expect in this section :)

    Preview 04:17

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Define variation
    • Identify and explain examples of variation
    • Distinguish between genetic variation and phenotypic variation
    • State the differences between continuous and discontinuous variation
    • Draw the typical graphs of continuous and discontinuous variation
    • State that phenotypic variation is caused by both genetic and environmental factors
    • State that discontinuous variation is mostly caused by genes alone such as the different blood groups
    • Give examples of genetic and environmental factors that cause phenotypic variation

    1. Tallest to shortest. Variation
    15:42

    Variation
    4 questions

    Gene mutations are so interesting! In this video, I explain how mutations result in different alleles. There's a disease called sickle cell anaemia which is due to a mutation and results in your red blood cells having a different shape to normal red blood cells. I've gone beyond the syllabus and explained a bit about cancer because it links in nicely with mutations.

    By the end of this lesson, you will be able to

    • Define the term mutation
    • State that mutation is the way in which new alleles are formed
    • Describe the possible effects of radiation and certain chemicals on the rate of mutations
    • Describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of a mutation
    • Briefly describe how gene mutations can result in cancer


    2. Mutations. How we get different alleles
    14:07

    Sickle cell anaemia is such an interesting genetic disorder. In this lesson, you are going to learn about how having one allele for the abnormal haemoglobin will give you resistance to malaria.

    By the end of this lesson, you will be able to

    • Describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of a gene mutation
    • Describe the symptoms of sickle cell anaemia
    • Explain the distribution of sickle cell allele in human populations with reference to the distribution of malaria
    • Use a punnett square to work out the genotype and phenotype of children from parents who have the sickle cell trait
    • State that the heterozygous condition for sickle cell trait gives resistance to malaria


    3. Sticky cells. Sickle cell anaemia
    10:21

    Mutations and sickle cell anaemia
    7 questions

    It's easy to pick up how an animal is adapted to it's environment, but what about plants? In this video, I'll explain to you how plants that live in water and plants that live in the desert are adapted to their environments.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define adaptive feature
    • Define fitness
    • Interpret images or other information about a species to describe its adaptive features
    • Explain the adaptive features of hydrophytes and xerophytes to their environments

    4. Adapting to the environment. Adaptive features
    11:27

    Using examples that you can visualise makes natural selection much easier to understand. By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe natural selection
    • Describe evolution as the change in adaptive features of a population over time as a result of natural selection
    • Define the process of adaptation
    5. The struggle for survival. natural selection part 1
    09:30

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a real problem these days. How do bacteria become antibiotic resistant? I this video lecture, I will explain how natural selection is linked to antibiotic resistant bacteria, as well as other examples like the peppered moth, sickle cell trait and Darwin's finches.

    By the end of this video, you should be able to

    • Describe the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of evolution by natural selection
    • Give other examples of natural selection: Darwin's finches, peppered moth, sickle cell anaemia trait


    6. Mutant bacteria. Natural selection part 2
    12:03

    Humans always want the best out of their crops and animals. A process called artificial selection or selective breeding results in these kind of animals or crops being produced.

    By the end of this lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe the role of selective breeding in producing varieties of animals and plants with increased economic importance
    • Describe examples of artificial selection
    • Outline how selective breeding is carried out
    • State the differences between artificial and natural selection


    7. Selective breeding
    10:13

    Adaptive features, natural and artificial selection
    15 questions

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Flash cards for selection and variation
    00:12
    About the Instructor
    Leanne Cooper
    4.7 Average rating
    10 Reviews
    73 Students
    2 Courses
    Biology teacher, MSc, PGCE

    Ms Cooper has a Masters in Science and Post Graduate Certificate in Education. She broke away from research and went into teaching Biology. This is where her passion lies. In the beginning of her teaching career, she taught Cambridge Science at an international school in Malaysia for 2 years. It was there that she got exposure to how incredible technology is in the classroom. 

    Having taught Cambridge IGCSE and A-level students at private schools for 5 years gave her a good grounding for her Post Graduate Certificate in Education, whereby she came first in the course at Wits University last year. 

    She originally created teaching videos for her students in her class that have since been used internationally. This drove her to make her videos more professional and relevant to students who are self-studying or would like to revise. She thus is developing packages that the students can use and find beneficial.