Ms Cooper's IGCSE Biology: mastering the first 7 topics

Topics 1-7 from the Cambridge IGCSE curriculum
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  • Lectures 64
  • Length 8.5 hours
  • Skill Level All Levels
  • Languages English
  • Includes Lifetime access
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About This Course

Published 4/2016 English

Course Description

Are you wanting a clear, easy way to learn Biology? Are you wanting to brush up on revision before exams? Are you studying Biology at home? If so, this course is for you! 

Learn and Master Biology so that you are confident in the exam

The topics covered include:

  1. Characteristics and classification of living organisms
  2. Organisation of the organism
  3.  Movement in and out of cells
  4. Biological molecules
  5. Enzymes
  6.  Plant nutrition
  7. Human nutrition.

Together with my teaching experience, passion for Biology and love of creating videos that make Biology come alive, you will find a high quality course that is easy to understand. The video lectures have information linking to real life so that you can see why the topic is beneficial to learning. 

By the end of this course, you'll have valuable skills that will help you to draw the key concepts from the content and retain the knowledge more easily. You'll know how to describe, list, calculate, explain, draw and interpret necessary information. 

What to expect

I designed this course in the same way that I teach in the classroom, honing in on key points. You will find over 40 teaching videos that explain the content relevant to the syllabus and linking it to real life. You will also be able to download, print and cut out flash cards of questions and terminology that will help you to learn a difficult topic easily. You can carry these questions in your pocket and use them to study anywhere. At the end of each section is a short quiz for you to check that you are on track.

There are clear learning outcomes at the beginning of each lecture. The videos are short and to the point, honing in on the key points that are important. This means that you can press pause, grab something to drink and watch it again if necessary. I've used real life examples so that you can link the concepts together.

This course is for you if you are studying the Cambridge IGCSE syllabus or an equivalent board. Check the curriculum to see if the content overlaps with what you are studying!

Enjoy and all the best with your revision! :)




What are the requirements?

  • A basic understanding of Biology, but I will be starting from the beginning of the syllabus

What am I going to get from this course?

  • CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS
  • Describe and define the 7 characteristics of living organisms
  • State how organisms are classified based on the features that they share
  • Define and describe the binomial system of naming
  • Define species
  • Describe the hierarchy of classification
  • Explain that classification systems aim to reflect evolutionary relationships
  • Explain that classification is traditionally based on studies of morphology and anatomy
  • Explain that the sequences of bases in DNA and of amino acids in proteins are used as a more accurate means of classification
  • Explain that organisms which share a more recent ancestor (are more closely related) have base sequences in DNA that are more similar than those that share only a distant ancestor
  • Use the pentadactyl limb as an example to explain the anatomical similarities between different organisms

  • Describe and compare the structure of a plant cell with an animal cell, as seen under a light microscope
  • State the functions of the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell
  • ORGANISATION OF THE ORGANISM
  • Describe the features that put organisms into one of the 5 kingdoms
  • Describe the structure of a virus and how a virus replicates
  • State the properties of bacteria, fungi and protista
  • List the features of ferns and flowering plants
  • State the differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons
  • List the characteristics of the 5 classes of vertebrates in the animal kingdom
  • Describe the features of crustaceans, insects, arachnids, myriapods that are used to classify them into groups
  • Construct and use simple dichotomous keys based on easily identifiable features 
  • Describe and compare the structure of a plant cell with an animal cell, as seen under a light microscope
  • State the functions of the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell
  • State that the cytoplasm contains ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • State that aerobic respiration occurs in mitochondria
  • Identify the specialised cells and Describe the feature that makes it adapted to its function.
  • Identify the different levels of organisation in drawings, diagrams and images
  • Calculate magnification and size of biological specimens, using millimetres and micrometres
  • MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF CELLS
  • Define diffusion, osmosis and active transport
  • Give examples of diffusion in the laboratory
  • State how substances move into and out of the cell through the cell membrane by diffusion
  • Describe diffusion of gases in the leaf and lungs, and food in the small intestines
  • State how the alveolus is adapted for gaseous exchange
  • State how the villus is adapted for absorption of nutrients
  • Describe the factors that affect the rate of diffusion
  • Relate how these factors link to diffusion in living organisms
  • Explain how to demonstrate osmosis using a partially permeable membrane
  • Define water potential
  • Explain the importance of water potential and osmosis on animal and plant tissues
  • Explain what will happen when you put plant and animal cells into solutions of different concentrations
  • Explain how plants are supported by the turgor pressure in cell walls
  • Describe an experiment to test how plant tissue is affected by different solutions
  • Discuss the importance of active transport as a process for movement across membranes
  • Explain how protein molecules move particles across a membrane during active transport
  • State the differences between active transport and diffusion
  • BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
  • State the elements that make up carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  • List the food sources of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their functions
  • List the properties of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides
  • State what a hydrolysis reaction is and condensation reaction is
  • Explain how the sequence of amino acids determines the protein’s shape
  • Explain why the shape of the protein is so important in enzymes and antibodies
  • Describe the test for reducing sugars, starch, lipids, proteins and Vitamin C
  • Plan and describe an experiment to test if fresh lemon juice has more vitamin C compared to bottled lemon juice.
  • Use food tests to identify what nutrients are in 5 different solutions
  • State what chromatin, chromosomes and genes are
  • State which bases pair together in DNA
  • Describe the structure of DNA
  • Explain how the information from the gene is transferred from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  • ENZYMES
  • Define the terms catalyst and enzyme
  • Describe why enzymes are important in all living organisms.
  • Describe how an enzyme works with reference to active site, enzyme-substrate complex and product.
  • Explain the “lock and key” model.
  • State the 5 properties of enzymes.
  • State how to measure the activity of an enzyme
  • Explain the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity
  • Design an experiment to test how temperature and pH affects the rate of a reaction.
  • PLANT NUTRITION
  • Write the word and chemical equation for photosynthesis
  • Define photosynthesis
  • State where the raw materials for the reaction come from
  • Explain that chlorophyll transfers light energy into chemical energy in molecules, for the synthesis of carbohydrates
  • State the uses of sugars in plants
  • Describe how to test for oxygen
  • Draw and label a leaf
  • Identify and label the different tissue layers inside a leaf
  • Explain how leaves are adapted for photosynthesis
  • Describe how the stomata open and close
  • Describe how to test a leaf for starch, explaining what each step does
  • Describe how test for each of the factors necessary for photosynthesis
  • Define the rate limiting factor
  • Describe how to investigate the effect of varying temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis
  • Draw the graph of results and describe them
  • Describe the effect of increasing light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis at 2 concentrations of carbon dioxide
  • Explain the use of carbon dioxide enrichment, optimum light and temperature in a glasshouse system and how these factors are controlled
  • Describe the importance of nitrate ions and magnesium ions in plant nutrition
  • Explain the effects of nitrate and magnesium deficiency on plants
  • Explain how leguminous plants improve the nitrogen content in soil
  • Describe an experiment to test which nutrients are needed for plant growth
  • Explain the difference between chemical and natural fertilisers and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Use hydrogen carbonate indicator solution to investigate gaseous exchange of an aquatic plant kept in the light and in the dark
  • HUMAN NUTRITION
  • Define nutrition and balanced diet
  • State the 7 nutrients needed in a balanced diet and what these nutrients are needed for
  • Describe the effect that age, sex, activity, pregnancy and breast feeding have on dietary requirements
  • State how saturated fat is linked to high cholesterol and heart disease
  • Describe how the lack of fibre is linked to bowel cancer
  • State how fibre is linked to reducing the risk of heart disease.
  • State what the unit of energy is
  • Use the body mass index to tell if someone is obese
  • State what diseases are linked to obesity
  • Describe the difference between malnutrition and starvation
  • State the importance of Vitamin C, D, iron and calcium and the deficiency symptoms that results from a lack of them.
  • Define ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion
  • Define and label where chemical and mechanical digestion take place
  • Identify and name the 4 types of teeth and what they are used for,
  • Describe the structure of a tooth
  • Explain how plaque is formed and the steps in tooth decay
  • Describe the proper care of teeth, and the use of fluoride
  • Describe the events that occur in the mouth
  • State what saliva comprises
  • Describe swallowing
  • Describe peristalsis, including the contraction of the circular and longitudinal muscles
  • Describe the digestion of food in the stomach
  • State what the sphincter muscles do
  • State what chyme is
  • Describe where bile is made, stored and released and how it helps with digestion
  • Describe what is in pancreatic juice and what the different enzymes do
  • State what the 3 parts of the small intestine are called, discussing digestion in the duodenum and absorption in the ileum
  • Explain the structure of a villus
  • Explain how the ileum is adapted for absorption
  • State the functions of the liver and how the liver is involved in assimilation
  • Describe the large intestine and its function
  • Explain how cholera is transmitted and how it causes diarrhoea and dehydration
  • Explain what oral rehydration therapy is and how it works.
  • At the end of my course, students will be able to...

What is the target audience?

  • This course is perfect if you want to go through the different sections in your own time and fill in any gaps that you might be missing from class
  • It you are preparing for the Cambridge IGCSE Biology exam or an equivalent board, you will find this exam really useful

What you get with this course?

Not for you? No problem.
30 day money back guarantee.

Forever yours.
Lifetime access.

Learn on the go.
Desktop, iOS and Android.

Get rewarded.
Certificate of completion.

Curriculum

Section 1: Introduction to course
02:31

This is just an introduction on what to expect in this course :)

Section 2: 1. Characteristics of living organisms
03:36

An overview of what to expect in this section :)

07:13

As a Biologist, how can you describe something as living? You need to know the different definitions of the 7 characteristics, so I've shown you one method of revising. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Describe the 7 characteristics of living organisms
  • Define the different characteristics
08:56

This is an introduction on how to classify organisms based on the features that they share. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • State how organisms are classified based on the features that they share,
  • Define and describe the binomial system of naming,
  • Define species,
  • Describe the hierarchy of classification.
10:35

Classifying something based on what it looks like can be a bit tricky. Here you will learn about different methods of classification. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Explain that classification systems aim to reflect evolutionary relationships 
  • Explain that classification is traditionally based on studies of morphology and anatomy 
  • Explain that the sequences of bases in DNA and of amino acids in proteins are used as a more accurate means of classification 
  • Explain that organisms which share a more recent ancestor (are more closely related) have base sequences in DNA that are more similar than those that share only a distant ancestor 
  • Use the pentadactyl limb as an example to explain the anatomical similarities between different organisms
10:47

Often people think that viruses are living. Here you will learn what a virus actually is and why it is not classified as living. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

Describe the difference between plants and animals

  • State what kingdoms Euglena and mushrooms fall into
  • List the 5 kingdoms
  • Describe the features that put organisms into one of the 5 kingdoms
  • Describe the structure of a virus
  • Describe how viruses replicate
  • State how influenza, AIDS and bird flu are spread.
Characteristics and classification
12 questions
12:16

What is the structure of a bacterium? What is a protist? These are questions that you will be able to answer after watching this video. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

  • State the properties of bacteria
  • Describe the uses of bacteria
  • State the properties of fungi
  • State how fungi reproduce
  • Identify the different sizes of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protista
  • State the properties of protista
  • Give examples of protists
A closer look at bacteria, fungi and protista
8 questions
09:42

How can you tell whether a plant is a monocotyledon or dicotyledon? I will explain this in this video.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • State that plants are divided into divisions
  • List the features of ferns
  • List the main features of a flowering plant
  • State what the functions of the apical bud, leaf, stem and roots
  • State the differences between dicotyledons and monocotyledons
Plant kingdom
7 questions
10:41

The Animal kingdom is broken up into a series of short videos so you can get the most out of them in the short time. This video deals with the fish, amphibians and reptiles.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • List the characteristics of:
    • fish
    • amphibians
    • reptiles


07:24

The Animal kingdom is broken up into a series of short videos so you can get the most out of them in the short time. This video deals with the warm blooded animals that have a backbone - mammals and birds.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

  • List the features of:
    • mammals
    • birds
  • Draw and label a feather


15:28

The Animal Kingdom is divided up into short videos. In this video, you will learn about those creepy crawlies - the invertebrates. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

  • Describe the external features of arthropods
  • Describe the features of crustaceans, insects, arachnids, myriapods that are used to classify them into groups
  • Describe how the animals in these groups are adapted to their environment
06:17

If you know how to use a dichotomous key, you will earn easy marks in an exam.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

  • Construct keys using features that you see
  • Define what a dichotomous key is
  • State the 2 types of dichotomous keys
  • Identify organisms using dichotomous keys


Article

These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

20 questions

A short quiz of multiple choice questions to check that you are on track.

Section 3: 2. Organisation of the organism
02:21

An overview of what to expect in this section :)

16:20

Cells are really interesting if you look at what's inside them! There are little organelles called mitochondria that are so important for providing us with energy.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

  • Describe the structures in a plant and animal cell
  • Identify the differences between a plant and animal cell
  • Identify the structures that you can see under a light microscope and describe their functions
  • State that the cytoplasm contains vesicles and ribosomes on rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • State that aerobic respiration occurs in mitochondria


07:15

There are cells that have a specific function - like the cells that line your airway have little cytoplasmic structures that move about and clear your airway of mucus. These are called specialised cells. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify the specialised cells,
  • Describe the feature of the specialised cell that makes it adapted to its function.


  • 07:39

    What is a cell and what is a tissue? How can you organise things from cells to tissues to organs?

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Write the levels of organisation in order
    • Give examples of each level of organisation
    • Define each level of organisation


    12:14

    Calculating magnification can be quite tricky, but once you master how to use the magnification triangle to use in calculations, it's a piece of cake!

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Draw and use the magnification triangle to calculate magnification,
    • Calculate magnification and actual size of biological specimen using mm and µm as units.
    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Organisation of the organism
    22 questions
    Section 4: 3. Movement in and out of cells
    02:10

    An overview of what to expect in this section :)

    14:05

    This video lecture is on how molecules move about. You will learn about diffusion, a process you see taking place around you all the time!  By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define diffusion
    • Describe why diffusion occurs in liquids and gases, but not solids
    • Give examples of diffusion in the laboratory
    • State how substances move into and out of the cell through the cell membrane by diffusion
    • Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes
    • State whether diffusion through a cell membrane is an active or passive process
    16:33

    Why is diffusion so important to living organisms? Here you will learn where diffusion takes place in the body and plant. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define diffusion
    • Describe diffusion of gases in the lungs
    • State how the alveolus is adapted for gaseous exchange.
    • Describe diffusion of gases in a leaf.
    • Describe diffusion of food in the small intestines
    • State how the villus is adapted for absorption of nutrients.


    12:22

    How can you make molecules diffuse faster? What factors affect the rate of diffusion? After this video lecture, you be able to

    • Describe the factors that affect the rate of diffusion
    • Relate how these factors link to diffusion in living organisms
    13:23

    Why do plants wilt? By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Define osmosis
    • Explain how to demonstrate osmosis using a partially permeable membrane
    • Define water potential
    • State the difference between concentrated and dilute
    • State what the water potential gradient is
    • Define osmosis in terms of water potential


    16:49

    Why do red blood cells burst if you put them into distilled water? By the end of this lecture, you should be able to

    • Explain the importance of water potential and osmosis on animal and plant tissues
    • Describe what will happen when you put animal cells into pure water and a concentrated solution
    • Describe what will happen when you put plant cells into pure water and a concentrated solution
    • Explain how plants are supported by the turgor pressure in cell walls
    • Explain the effects on plant tissues when you put them into different solutions, using the terms turgid, turgor pressure, plasmolysis and flaccid
    06:00

    In this video lecture, I will describe how to test osmosis using potato.

    By the end of this lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe an experiment to test how plant tissue is affected by different solutions,
    • Explain what has happened to the plant tissue using the terms plasmolysis, plasmolysed, flaccid, turgid and turgor pressure,


    09:45

    Plant cells need to absorb mineral salts into their root hair cells despite the concentration of some mineral salts in their root hair cells being higher in their cells compared to the concentration in the soil. But how do they do this? Here, you will learn about active transport.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define active transport
    • Explain how ions move into a plant if there is a higher ion concentration inside a plant cell compared to the outside
    • Explain how protein molecules move particles across the membrane during active transport
    • Discuss the importance of active transport in:
      • root hair cells
      • villi
      • kidney tubules
    • State the differences between active transport and diffusion


    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Movement in and out of cells
    15 questions
    Section 5: 4. Biological molecules
    01:44

    An overview of what to expect in this section :)

    14:33

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • List the 7 nutrients in a balanced diet
    • State what the elements are in carbohydrates, fats and proteins
    • Write the general formula for a carbohydrate
    • State the 3 groups of carbohydrates
    • List the properties of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides
    • State what a hydrolysis reaction is and condensation reaction is
    • Give examples of each group
    • Describe the test for reducing sugars
    • Describe the test for starch


    09:18

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • List the elements in proteins
    • State what a dipeptide, polypeptide and protein are
    • Explain how the sequence of amino acids determines the protein’s shape
    • Explain why the shape of the protein is so important in enzymes and antibodies
    • List the main food sources of proteins
    • State the functions of proteins
    • Describe how to test for a protein
    07:15

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • List the elements in lipids
    • State the difference between fats and oils
    • State the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats
    • List the functions of lipids
    • List the food sources of lipids
    • Describe how to test for lipids
    07:00

    How do you know if something has Vitamin C in it? This experiment is very simple. 

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • State why vitamin C is important in the body.
    • Describe an experiment to test the Vitamin C content in lemon juice.
    • Plan and describe an experiment to test if fresh lemon juice has more vitamin C compared to bottled lemon juice.
    • Draw a table of results of the experiment
    • Write a conclusion from the experiment
    • Describe how to make the experiment more reliable


    10:38

    Food tests can be really confusing, especially remembering which food test turns brick red or purple or forms a cloudy emulsion. I will go through it slowly with you, and you will be able to identify what nutrients are in different solutions.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Name the food tests for starch, reducing sugar, protein, lipids and vitamin C.
    • Use food tests to identify what nutrients are in 5 different solutions
    • Complete a table of results using your observations


    12:03

    DNA is one of the most important molecules in our body. It has the information for what makes us who we are. This lecture forms the basis for when you study mitosis and meiosis later on.

    • By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to


    • State what chromatin, chromosomes and genes are.
    • State which bases pair together in DNA
    • Describe the structure of DNA
    • Describe what a gene is
    • Describe how 3 bases code for an amino acid
    • Explain how the information from the gene is transferred from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Biological molecules
    25 questions
    Section 6: 5. Enzymes
    01:41

    An overview of what to expect in this section :)

    12:42

    Enzymes are such cool proteins! They are involved in so many different processes in our body as well as in plants and bacteria.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Define the term catalyst.
    • Define the term enzyme.
    • Describe why enzymes are important in all living organisms.
    • Describe how an enzyme works with reference to active site, enzyme-substrate complex and product.
    • Explain the specificity of enzymes in terms of complementary shape.
    • Explain the “lock and key” model.
    • State the 5 properties of enzymes.


    11:34

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State how to measure the activity of an enzyme,
    • Interpret and explain the graph of increasing temperature vs rate of enzyme reaction,
    • Define the optimum temperature,
    • Explain the effect of pH on enzyme activity,
    04:52

    If you take the enzyme, amylase that works in your mouth, and add it to your stomach, why does it stop working? Enzymes work at different pH.

    By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

    • Design an experiment to test how pH affects the rate of a reaction.
    • Carry out an experiment testing how pH affects protease breaking down egg white.
    • Interpret your observations and draw a conclusion from the results.


    07:12

    If you were asked how to test what temperature an enzyme, such as amylase, works best in, what would you do?

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Design an experiment to test how temperature affects the rate of a reaction.
    • Carry out an experiment testing how temperature affects amylase breaking down starch into maltose.
    • Interpret your observations and draw a conclusion from the results.
    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Enzymes
    13 questions
    Section 7: 6. Plant nutrition
    02:43

    An overview of what to expect in this section :)

    12:13

    Photosynthesis is an incredible process that allows plants to manufacture food by using only water, carbon dioxide and sunlight. 

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Write the word and chemical equation for photosynthesis,
    • Define photosynthesis,
    • State where the raw materials for the reaction come from,
    • Explain that chlorophyll transfers light energy into chemical energy in molecules, for the synthesis of carbohydrates,  
    • State the uses of sugars in plants,
    • Describe how to test for oxygen,
    • State why plants are so important.
    10:09

    If you cut open a leaf and examine it under a microscope, you will notice that there are different tissues. I will go through the different tissues with you so that you will be able to identify them easily in an exam.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Draw and label a leaf,
    • Identify and label the different tissue layers inside a leaf,
    • Explain how leaves are adapted for photosynthesis,
    • Label a palisade mesophyll cell,
    • Describe how the stomata open and close.


    04:12

    Testing to see whether a leaf has photosynthesised is quite easy, but why is each step in the starch test important. Here I will go through the starch test step by step.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Design an experiment to test a leaf for starch.
    • Describe each step of the experiment and explain why that step is necessary.


    11:22

    It's easy to say that plants need carbon dioxide, water and light for photosynthesis to take place, but what tests can you do to check this? I will go through the different experiments with you in this video lecture.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe how to test a leaf for starch,
    • Describe how to destarch a plant,
    • Describe how test for each of the factors necessary for photosynthesis:
      • light
      • carbon dioxide
      • chlorophyll
    16:12

    Rate limiting factors and what each part of the graph means can be so confusing. In this video lecture, I will explain how to interpret the graphs and identify the rate limiting factor.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Define the rate limiting factor,
    • State 3 environmental factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis,
    • Describe how to investigate the effect of varying temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis,
    • Draw the graph of results and describe them.
    • Describe the effect of increasing light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis at 2 concentrations of carbon dioxide


    03:39

    Glasshouses are used everywhere. This is a nice, short video lecture on what the factors are that are necessary for plants to grow optimally and how they are controlled. By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Explain the use of carbon dioxide enrichment, optimum light and temperature in a glasshouse system.
    • Describe how the factors are controlled.
    11:52

    Why does a plant start to get yellow leaves? Plants also need mineral ions as well as water, carbon dioxide and light. In this video lecture, I will explain the different mineral requirements that plants need.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State where minerals come from
    • Describe how plants take up minerals
    • Explain why farmers use fertilisers
    • Describe the importance of nitrate ions and magnesium ions in plant nutrition
    • Explain the effects of nitrate and magnesium deficiency on plants
    • Explain how leguminous plants improve the nitrogen content in soil
    • Describe an experiment to test which nutrients are needed for plant growth
    • Explain the difference between chemical and natural fertilisers and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
    08:04

    How can you test gaseous exchange in a plant? I will go through an experiment so that you will know how to use an indicator solution to do test this.

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State the equation for photosynthesis and respiration,
    • Explain what gas is released at night by plants,
    • Explain what gas is released during the day by plants,
    • Describe the colour change of hydrogen carbonate indicator solution when carbon dioxide is released and when its taken up,
    • Use hydrogen carbonate indicator solution to investigate gaseous exchange of an aquatic plant kept in the light and in the dark,



    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Plant nutrition
    25 questions
    Section 8: 7. Human nutrition
    03:06

    An overview of what to expect in this section :)

    08:45

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Define nutrition,
    • Define the term balanced diet,
    • State the 7 nutrients needed in a balanced diet,
    • State what the nutrients are needed for,
    • Describe the effect that age, sex, activity have on energy requirements,
    • Describe the effects that breast feeding and pregnancy have on dietary requirements,
    • State how saturated fat is linked to high cholesterol and heart disease


    11:04

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe the food pyramid,
    • State the sources of each of the 7 nutrients and what they are needed for in the body,
    • Describe the deficiency symptoms due to the lack of vitamin C, D and the mineral salt iron and calcium,
    • Describe how the lack of fibre is linked to bowel cancer
    • State how fibre is linked to reducing the risk of heart disease.
    06:37

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State what the unit of energy is,
    • State the reasons why a person puts on weight,
    • Use the body mass index to tell if someone is obese,
    • State what diseases are linked to obesity,
    • Describe the difference between malnutrition and starvation.
    05:50

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe the effects of starvation,
    • State the importance of Vitamin C,
    • Describe the effects of scurvy,
    • Discuss the causes and effects of vitamin D deficiency,
    • State the importance of iron and the effects of the anaemia


    11:24

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Define ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion
    • Define and label where chemical and mechanical digestion take place
    • Name the enzymes involved in chemical digestion,
    • Identify and label the different parts of the digestive system.
    10:38

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State how many baby teeth a child has,
    • Identify and name the 4 types of teeth and what they are used for,
    • Describe the structure of a tooth,
    • Explain how plaque is formed,
    • Describe the different steps in tooth decay,
    • Describe the proper care of teeth in terms of diet and regular brushing,
    • Explain how fluoride helps prevent tooth decay.


    11:45

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe the events that occur in the mouth,
    • State what saliva comprises,
    • Describe swallowing,
    • Describe peristalsis, including the contraction of the circular and longitudinal muscles,
    • Describe the digestion of food in the stomach,
    • State what the sphincter muscles do.


    07:31
    • By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to


    • State which organs are associated with the small intestine,
    • State what chyme is,
    • Describe where bile is made, stored and released and how it helps with digestion,
    • Describe what is in pancreatic juice and what the different enzymes do.
    12:13

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • State what the 3 parts of the small intestine are called,
    • Explain what type of digestion occurs in the duodenum,
    • State that absorption takes place in the ileum,
    • Explain the structure of a villus,
    • Explain how the ileum is adapted for absorption,
    • Describe what happens to absorbed food once it’s been absorbed through the villi,
    • State the functions of the liver,
    • Explain how the liver is involved in assimilation.
    10:56

    By the end of this video lecture, you should be able to

    • Describe the large intestine and its function,
    • Describe diarrhoea as a symptom of cholera,
    • Explain how cholera is transmitted,
    • Explain how cholera bacteria cause diarrhoea and dehydration,
    • Explain what oral rehydration therapy is and how it works.
    Article

    These are flash cards on terminology or facts that you might find helpful with learning this section. Download the pdf of flash cards, cut them out and use them for revision.

    Blank spaces have been left between the sections incase you want to create your own flash cards.

    Human nutrition
    35 questions

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    Instructor Biography

    Leanne Cooper, Biology teacher, MSc, PGCE

    Ms Cooper has a Masters in Science and Post Graduate Certificate in Education. She broke away from research and went into teaching Biology. This is where her passion lies. In the beginning of her teaching career, she taught Cambridge Science at an international school in Malaysia for 2 years. It was there that she got exposure to how incredible technology is in the classroom. 

    Having taught Cambridge IGCSE and A-level students at private schools for 5 years gave her a good grounding for her Post Graduate Certificate in Education, whereby she came first in the course at Wits University last year. 

    She originally created teaching videos for her students in her class that have since been used internationally. This drove her to make her videos more professional and relevant to students who are self-studying or would like to revise. She thus is developing packages that the students can use and find beneficial.

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