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Lectures to Accompany Wheelock's Latin: Chapters 16-30

Lectures, useful forms, and audio tutorials for Wheelock's Latin, chapters 16-30
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Created by Ben Lugosch
Last updated 7/2013
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Over the years of teaching Latin from the excellent and justly renowned textbook "Wheelock's Latin," I have created a series of lectures designed to help students get the most of this magnificent book. In them you will find guidance to some of the more perplexing concepts of grammar -- English and Latin -- that often comprise an insuperable barrier to progressing in Latin for modern-day students. The lectures will not replace the Wheelock text. They will only, I hope, make your on-ramp smoother. 

To that end, the lectures track exactly with the chapters of the textbook. This will give you "context sensitive" help when you need it.

You will not find answers to the exercises or anything that is copyright protected by the publisher of the Wheelock book. To get any benefit from these lectures, you must have the Wheelock text.

A typical college-level class will cover chapters 16-30 in the first semester; a high school class will cover them in the second year. Best of luck to you! -bl

Who is the target audience?
  • Autodidacts
  • Homeschoolers and their students
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What Will I Learn?
A secure foundation for your future study of Latin
View Curriculum
  • Wheelock's Latin Text, 6th edition or higher
Curriculum For This Course
Expand All 72 Lectures Collapse All 72 Lectures 11:00:50
Brief Course Introduction
1 Lecture 04:11

We continue our work through the venerable Wheelock Latin text, Chapters 16-30, which is roughly the second semester of a college-level class, or a second year in high school. 

I've created a series of lectures and downloadable study forms to help you keep on track. 

You'll find nothing on this site that violates any of Wheelock's copyrighted materials, and that includes an answer key. 

If you'd like to join one of my online classes of elementary to intermediate Latin, do contact me and we'll see what we can do to get you in.

Good luck!

Preview 04:11
Chapter 16: Third Declension Adjectives
5 Lectures 39:11
Third declension adjectives are just adjectives which use the third declension pattern of case endings. They don't modify only third declension nouns, any more than adjectives of the first and second declension can modify only nouns of the first and second declension.  The ablative singular of the M/F gender constitutes the only departure from the standard i-stem third declension: it's -ī- rather than the expected -e-. 
Third declension adjectives come in three categories: one, two or three terminations. As you'll see, this distinction applies only to the nominative singular. 
Preview 21:02

Use this form to focus your study of the chapter vocabulary.
Preview 3 pages

Use this form to review your understanding the main points of this chapter's grammar.
Preview 4 pages

The Self-Tutorials are an invaluable resource to help you master the material.
Preview 13:04

Practice your pronunciation as you study these sentences.
Preview 05:05
Chapter 17: Relative Pronoun and Relative Clauses
5 Lectures 44:02
The relative pronoun acts like a subordinating conjunction, attaching an adjectival clause to something in the main clause of the sentence. As a pronoun, it agrees in number and gender with what it's pointing to, and gets its case from the way it's being used in its own clause. 
Chapter 17: Lecture

Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter vocabulary.
Chapter 17: Vocabulary Review Sheet
3 pages

Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter's new forms and new concepts.
Chapter 17: Forms and Concepts
2 pages

A brief introduction to the self-tutorials for this chapter.
Chapter 17: Self-Tutorials Discussed

Reading of the sentences in the chapter's self-tutorial exercises. 
Chapter 17: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
Chapter 18: Passive Voice in the Present System of 1st and 2nd Conjugation Verbs
5 Lectures 42:30
The passive voice indicates that the subject of a verb is receiving, rather than performing the action. In the present system of tenses in Latin, the passive voice is formed by replacing the active endings with the passive endings. 

Chapter 18: Lecture

Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter vocabulary.
Chapter 18: Vocabulary Review Sheet
3 pages

Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter forms and concepts.
Chapter 18: Forms and Concepts
4 pages

Discussion of the self-tutorial exercises.
Chapter 18: Self-Tutorials Discussion

Reading of the self-tutorial sentences for your practice.
Chapter 18: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
Chapter 19: Passive Voice of the Perfect System
6 Lectures 49:40

The perfect system passive is formed from the fourth principal part of the verb with a conjugated form of the verb "sum" to indicate tense, person and number. The fourth principal part of a verb can also be called the "perfect passive participle." A participle is a verbal adjective, and hence will have a variable ending to allow it to agree with the noun that it is modifying.

Chapter 19: Perfect System Passive


Interrogative adjectives modify nouns in such as way as to ask a questions about them; interrogative pronouns ask a question about something that has been left out. Adjective: "What book are you reading?" Pronoun: "What are you reading?" The forms of the interrogative adjective are identical to those of the relative pronoun. The forms of the interrogative pronoun differ from the relative pronoun only in a few forms in the singular.

Chapter 19: Interrogative Adjective and Pronoun

Chapter 19: Vocabulary Sheet
3 pages

Chapter 19: Forms and Concepts
4 pages

Chapter 19: Self-Tutorials Discussed

Chapter 19: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
Chapter 20: Fourth Declension Nouns; Ablative of Separation
4 Lectures 26:36

The theme vowel of fourth declension nouns is -ū-; like the third declension, it includes nouns of all three genders, though masculine is predominant. 

Chapter 20: Lecture

A convenient way to keep and study the vocabulary for chapter 20. Also, this link will take you to the Quia flashcard drills.

Chapter 20: Vocabulary
3 pages

A little music to study by . . . Hope you enjoy it!
Chapter 20: Forms and Concepts
2 pages

Chapter 20: Self-Tutorials Read and Discussed
Chapter 21: Third and Fourth Conjugations: Present System Passive
4 Lectures 40:11

The passive voice of the present system of 3rd and 4th conjugations follow the same rules you learned for the 1st and 2nd conjugations:
present stem + tense signs + personal endings, active or passive

Chapter 21: Lecture

Chapter 21: Vocabulary
3 pages

Chapter 21: Forms and Concepts
4 pages

Chapter 21: Self-Tutorials Read and Discussed
Chapter 22: Fifth Declension and Summary of Ablatives
4 Lectures 27:52

Chapter 22: Lecture

Chapter 22: Vocabulary
3 pages

Chapter 22: Forms and Concepts
2 pages

Chapter 22: Self-Tutorials
Chapter 23: Participles
6 Lectures 01:12:26

A participle is a verbal adjective and has tense, voice, number, gender, and case. Latin has four participles, as seen in this paradigm:

The tense of the participle is relative to the tense of the main verb. Translating participles properly often requires promoting them to subordinate clauses or compressing them to a noun.
Preview 23:43


It is helpful to begin the process of translating a participle by thinking first of its most basic meaning.

The tense of the participle is relative to the tense of the main verb. Translating participles properly often requires promoting them to subordinate clauses or compressing them to a noun.
Preview 34:34

Now that you've acquired new verbal forms, it's time to update your synopsis sheets. This file talks you through a couple of synopses for practice. (Apologies in advance for the rather poor quality.)

I've included below a downloadable synopsis sheet if you'd like to have one. The two files are the same: one's in Word and the other is a PDF.
Preview 05:58

Attached you'll find an old recording I did of the sentences where I completely tear them all apart and put them back together for you. If you find that your head is swimming with these participles, you might benefit from following along with me. Warning: my delivery is really dull, and the file is long, like 45 minutes!
Preview 08:11
Chapter 24: Ablative Absolute and Passive Periphrastic
4 Lectures 34:41

The Ablative Absolute construction resembles the English absolute construction such as "that being said," or "all things being equal." These are participial phrases, with no finite verb, consisting of a noun or pronoun with a participle agreeing with it. As an "absolute," they stand outside of the grammar of the main clause of the sentence. In Latin, the pronoun or noun is in the ablative case and the participle agrees with it in number, gender, and case.

The Passive Periphrastic construction consists of the future passive participle used as a predicate, linked to the subject with a conjugated form of the verb "sum." It acquires an additional sense of obligation or necessity. The personal agent is expressed not with a/ab + ablative, but with the dative case alone.
Chapter 24: Lecture

Chapter 24: Vocabulary
3 pages

Chapter 24: Forms and Concepts
2 pages

If you want more detailed help with the sentences, use the audio file below:
Chapter 24: Self-Tutorial Exercises
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About the Instructor
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Retired Classics Professor

Dr. Lugosch taught all areas of classical studies at the undergraduate and graduate level, and published scholarly articles on Sophocles, Plato, Aristotle, and Homer. Recently retired, Dr. Lugosch still leads small private tours to Italy, Greece, Turkey and France that explore artifacts of classical antiquity.

These lectures help support his money-losing hobby farm in Kentucky where he raises organic pigs, grass fed beef, pastured chickens, Californian rabbits, and all manner of vegetables.

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