Lectures to Accompany Wheelock's Latin: Chapters 16-30

Lectures, useful forms, and audio tutorials for Wheelock's Latin, chapters 16-30
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Instructed by Ben Lugosch Language / Latin
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  • Lectures 72
  • Length 11 hours
  • Skill Level Intermediate Level
  • Languages English
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About This Course

Published 6/2013 English

Course Description

Over the years of teaching Latin from the excellent and justly renowned textbook "Wheelock's Latin," I have created a series of lectures designed to help students get the most of this magnificent book. In them you will find guidance to some of the more perplexing concepts of grammar -- English and Latin -- that often comprise an insuperable barrier to progressing in Latin for modern-day students. The lectures will not replace the Wheelock text. They will only, I hope, make your on-ramp smoother. 

To that end, the lectures track exactly with the chapters of the textbook. This will give you "context sensitive" help when you need it.

You will not find answers to the exercises or anything that is copyright protected by the publisher of the Wheelock book. To get any benefit from these lectures, you must have the Wheelock text.

A typical college-level class will cover chapters 16-30 in the first semester; a high school class will cover them in the second year. Best of luck to you! -bl

What are the requirements?

  • Wheelock's Latin Text, 6th edition or higher

What am I going to get from this course?

  • A secure foundation for your future study of Latin

Who is the target audience?

  • Autodidacts
  • Homeschoolers and their students

What you get with this course?

Not for you? No problem.
30 day money back guarantee.

Forever yours.
Lifetime access.

Learn on the go.
Desktop, iOS and Android.

Get rewarded.
Certificate of completion.


Section 1: Brief Course Introduction

We continue our work through the venerable Wheelock Latin text, Chapters 16-30, which is roughly the second semester of a college-level class, or a second year in high school. 

I've created a series of lectures and downloadable study forms to help you keep on track. 

You'll find nothing on this site that violates any of Wheelock's copyrighted materials, and that includes an answer key. 

If you'd like to join one of my online classes of elementary to intermediate Latin, do contact me and we'll see what we can do to get you in.

Good luck!

Section 2: Chapter 16: Third Declension Adjectives
Third declension adjectives are just adjectives which use the third declension pattern of case endings. They don't modify only third declension nouns, any more than adjectives of the first and second declension can modify only nouns of the first and second declension.  The ablative singular of the M/F gender constitutes the only departure from the standard i-stem third declension: it's -ī- rather than the expected -e-. 
Third declension adjectives come in three categories: one, two or three terminations. As you'll see, this distinction applies only to the nominative singular. 
3 pages
Use this form to focus your study of the chapter vocabulary.
4 pages
Use this form to review your understanding the main points of this chapter's grammar.
The Self-Tutorials are an invaluable resource to help you master the material.
Practice your pronunciation as you study these sentences.
Section 3: Chapter 17: Relative Pronoun and Relative Clauses
The relative pronoun acts like a subordinating conjunction, attaching an adjectival clause to something in the main clause of the sentence. As a pronoun, it agrees in number and gender with what it's pointing to, and gets its case from the way it's being used in its own clause. 
3 pages
Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter vocabulary.
2 pages
Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter's new forms and new concepts.
A brief introduction to the self-tutorials for this chapter.
Reading of the sentences in the chapter's self-tutorial exercises. 
Section 4: Chapter 18: Passive Voice in the Present System of 1st and 2nd Conjugation Verbs
The passive voice indicates that the subject of a verb is receiving, rather than performing the action. In the present system of tenses in Latin, the passive voice is formed by replacing the active endings with the passive endings. 

3 pages
Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter vocabulary.
4 pages
Downloadable form to help you study and review the chapter forms and concepts.
Discussion of the self-tutorial exercises.
Reading of the self-tutorial sentences for your practice.
Section 5: Chapter 19: Passive Voice of the Perfect System

The perfect system passive is formed from the fourth principal part of the verb with a conjugated form of the verb "sum" to indicate tense, person and number. The fourth principal part of a verb can also be called the "perfect passive participle." A participle is a verbal adjective, and hence will have a variable ending to allow it to agree with the noun that it is modifying.


Interrogative adjectives modify nouns in such as way as to ask a questions about them; interrogative pronouns ask a question about something that has been left out. Adjective: "What book are you reading?" Pronoun: "What are you reading?" The forms of the interrogative adjective are identical to those of the relative pronoun. The forms of the interrogative pronoun differ from the relative pronoun only in a few forms in the singular.

Chapter 19: Vocabulary Sheet
3 pages
Chapter 19: Forms and Concepts
4 pages
Chapter 19: Self-Tutorials Discussed
Chapter 19: Self-Tutorial Sentences Read
Section 6: Chapter 20: Fourth Declension Nouns; Ablative of Separation

The theme vowel of fourth declension nouns is -ū-; like the third declension, it includes nouns of all three genders, though masculine is predominant. 

3 pages
A convenient way to keep and study the vocabulary for chapter 20. Also, this link will take you to the Quia flashcard drills.

2 pages
A little music to study by . . . Hope you enjoy it!
Chapter 20: Self-Tutorials Read and Discussed
Section 7: Chapter 21: Third and Fourth Conjugations: Present System Passive

The passive voice of the present system of 3rd and 4th conjugations follow the same rules you learned for the 1st and 2nd conjugations:
present stem + tense signs + personal endings, active or passive

Chapter 21: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 21: Forms and Concepts
4 pages
Chapter 21: Self-Tutorials Read and Discussed
Section 8: Chapter 22: Fifth Declension and Summary of Ablatives

Chapter 22: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 22: Forms and Concepts
2 pages
Chapter 22: Self-Tutorials
Section 9: Chapter 23: Participles

A participle is a verbal adjective and has tense, voice, number, gender, and case. Latin has four participles, as seen in this paradigm:

The tense of the participle is relative to the tense of the main verb. Translating participles properly often requires promoting them to subordinate clauses or compressing them to a noun.

It is helpful to begin the process of translating a participle by thinking first of its most basic meaning.

The tense of the participle is relative to the tense of the main verb. Translating participles properly often requires promoting them to subordinate clauses or compressing them to a noun.
Chapter 23: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 23: Forms and Concepts
2 pages
Now that you've acquired new verbal forms, it's time to update your synopsis sheets. This file talks you through a couple of synopses for practice. (Apologies in advance for the rather poor quality.)

I've included below a downloadable synopsis sheet if you'd like to have one. The two files are the same: one's in Word and the other is a PDF.
Attached you'll find an old recording I did of the sentences where I completely tear them all apart and put them back together for you. If you find that your head is swimming with these participles, you might benefit from following along with me. Warning: my delivery is really dull, and the file is long, like 45 minutes!
Section 10: Chapter 24: Ablative Absolute and Passive Periphrastic

The Ablative Absolute construction resembles the English absolute construction such as "that being said," or "all things being equal." These are participial phrases, with no finite verb, consisting of a noun or pronoun with a participle agreeing with it. As an "absolute," they stand outside of the grammar of the main clause of the sentence. In Latin, the pronoun or noun is in the ablative case and the participle agrees with it in number, gender, and case.

The Passive Periphrastic construction consists of the future passive participle used as a predicate, linked to the subject with a conjugated form of the verb "sum." It acquires an additional sense of obligation or necessity. The personal agent is expressed not with a/ab + ablative, but with the dative case alone.
Chapter 24: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 24: Forms and Concepts
2 pages
If you want more detailed help with the sentences, use the audio file below:
Section 11: Chapter 25: Infinitives and Indirect Statement


Latin possesses forms for the present, perfect, and future infinitives in both the active and passive voices:

A common use of the infinitive is in the accusative-infinitive construction to express indirect statement:

Dīxit ad castra mox venitūrum esse, he said that he would come to the camp soon.

Chapter 25: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 25: Forms and Concepts
3 pages
To my great shame, I offer you the old file where I take apart the sentences in ridiculous detail. 
Section 12: Chapter 26: Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Degrees of Adjectives

Adjectives attribute a quality to a substantive, and they can do so in such a way that a comparison is either stated or implied with other substantives.

Positive Degree: blue, ragged
Comparative: bluer; more ragged
Superlative: blues; most ragged

Positive Degree: longus, -a, -um; fēlīx, -cis
Comparative Degree: longior, longius; fēlīcior, fēlīcius
Superlative Degree: longissimus, -a, -um; fēlīcissimus, -a, -um

The comparison in the comparative degree can be made either by using the adverb "quam" or with the Ablative of Comparison.

When the comparative degree is used absolutely in Latin, "rather" can be used in English instead of the comparative; when the superative degree is used absolutely in Latin, the adverbs "very" or "really" can be used in English instead of the superlative.

"Quam" can also be used with the superlative degree to mean "as X as possible," where "X" is the meaning of the adjective.
Chapter 26: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 26: Forms and Concepts
3 pages
And, to my everlasting shame, the earlier reading of the sentences, with merciless analyses of the sentences . . . 
Section 13: Chapter 27: Irregular Comparisons

Chapter 27: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 27: Forms and Concepts
3 pages
Chapter 27: Self-Tutorial Sentences
Section 14: Chapter 28: The Present of the Subjunctive Mood; Jussive, and Purpose Clause


Chapter 28: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 28: Forms and Concepts
7 pages
And, for your further use, an old file which takes the sentences apart. 
Section 15: Chapter 29: Imperfect Subjunctive; Sum, Possum; Result Clauses

3 pages
Plus one old audio file where I take the sentences apart in gruesome detail. 
Chapter 29: Forms and Concepts
4 pages
Plus one old audio file where I take the sentences apart in gruesome detail. 
Section 16: Chapter 30: Perfect System Subjunctive; Indirect Question; Sequence of Tenses



Indirect Questions in Latin merely change the mood of the original question to the subjunctive. The subjunctive follows the Sequence of Tenses.
Chapter 30: Vocabulary
3 pages
Chapter 30: Forms and Concepts
2 pages
Provided for additional help is an old recording of me dissecting the sentences in the Self-Tutorials word by word.
Section 17: Concluding Remarks

You're progressing nicely. You have all the forms of nouns and adjectives, you've seen all the conjugations and have started mastering the subjunctive mood. With just a couple more concepts, coming in the next ten chapters, you'll be ready to start reading "real" Latin authors. 

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Instructor Biography

Ben Lugosch, Retired Classics Professor

Dr. Lugosch taught all areas of classical studies at the undergraduate and graduate level, and published scholarly articles on Sophocles, Plato, Aristotle, and Homer. Recently retired, Dr. Lugosch still leads small private tours to Italy, Greece, Turkey and France that explore artifacts of classical antiquity.

These lectures help support his money-losing hobby farm in Kentucky where he raises organic pigs, grass fed beef, pastured chickens, Californian rabbits, and all manner of vegetables.

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