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Mass Balance Basics

Learn how to solve Mass Balance Applications in Chemical Processes.
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Last updated 2/2015
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Description

Welcome to the Mass Balance Introductory Course!

I designed this course is for general engineering fields. Chemical and Process Engineers will find it very relevant for their study curriculum but even Mechanical or Industrial Engineers will find it very interesting!

By the end of this course you will learn:

  • Basic concepts of Engineering and Chemical Processes
  • Application of the Mass Balance Equation to many real life processes
  • Non-Reactive Systems and Reactive Systems
  • Equilibrium and Multiple Reactions
  • Single-Unit or even Multiple-Units Mass Balances
  • Special topics in engineering: Recycle, Purge Systems, Bypass and Combustion

By the end of the Course you will be able to:

  • Solve Mass Balance Problems of many real-life Chemical Processes

The course is structured as follow:

  • 12 Sections of Theory and Applied Examples (Video-Based!)
  • 31 Mass Balance Solved Exercises (about 10-hour-video of explained problems content)
  • 11 Quizes for Learning Review
  • Support on the Discussion Board!

This is a very important Subject in Engineering and is the basis of further courses such as:

  • Energy Balance and Thermodynamic
  • Heat and Mass Transfer Operations and Unit Operations
  • Reactor Engineering and Plant Design

I teach this course for about $800 per semester. You will get it as low as $49 for a LIFETIME!

Take the course and you will have a greater advantage than your classmates to get a better grade on your university courses!

The Course Curriculum may be seen below!

Who is the target audience?
  • Engineers of all areas will find it attractive, specially those in Plant Engineering
  • Chemical Engineers, since it is the basic curriculum
  • Process Engineers might find it helpful
  • Biochemical Engineers, Industrial Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, and even Petroleum Engineers
Students Who Viewed This Course Also Viewed
What Will I Learn?
Learn basic concepts and definitions used in Chemical Engineering
Get to know the basic Unit Operations in Engineering
Understand the difference between open, closed and isolated systems
The importance of Steady State and Transient State Processes
Understand that the Mass Balance Equation is based in the conservation of mass principle
Be able to Apply the Mass Balance Equation to Engineering Problems
Solve Mass Balance Problems with 1, 2 or even more Unit Operations in the Process
Solve Mass Balance Problems with and without Chemical Reactions
Understand the importance of the use of Purge, Recycle and Bypasses in Engineering Applictions
Know the basic concepts in Combustion
View Curriculum
Requirements
  • Please check out my previous course: Mass Balance OVERVIEW
  • You should know the basics of math and chemistry of a High School Study Program
Curriculum For This Course
Expand All 108 Lectures Collapse All 108 Lectures 15:44:36
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Introduction to Mass Balance: Theory and Basic Definitions
9 Lectures 45:41

Brief Introduction to the Topics we will be studying in this Course

Preview 04:06

Understanding the definition of Process...

A chemical process must have a chemical reaction.

Preview 04:47

There are 3 main Type of Diagrams:

  • Block Diagram
  • Flow Diagram
  • Pipe and Instrumentation Diagram

Block and Flow Diagrams will be used extensively in the course...

P&ID are studied in higher level courses such as Plant Design, Automation and Control of Process, etc.

Preview 05:43

Basic Unit Operation:

  • Heat Transfer Unit Operation
  • Mass Transfer Unit Operation
  • Momentum Transfer Unit Operation
  • Reaction Unit Operations

Important specially for further courses! Understanding the importance of a Unit Operation in a Chemical Process.

Basic Unit Operations
07:09

Process Variables are essentially variables that will be analyzed to understand the "status" of our system.

Several examples are:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Density
  • Flow rate
  • Concentration
  • Viscosity

It's important you understand the importance of each of the variables and how the variables are measured.

Process Variables
04:13

Mass flow, Mole Flow and Volumetric Flow

These type of flow rates are the ones that matter to us in Mass Balance.

Please get to know that you can relate them

  • Mass - Molecular Weigth - Mole
  • Mass - Density - Volume
Mass, Mole and Volumetric Flows
05:27

The State of a System is very important.

There are two types of State that we will be studying in this course

  • Steady State: No change of variables with respect of time
  • Transient State: properties of the system change with time
System State (Steady and Transient)
07:22

We present other type of System classification

  • Open System: Exchange of Matter and Energy
  • Closed System: Exchange of Energy but no Matter
  • Isolated System: No exchange of Matter or Energy

We also present the type of processes:

  • Isobaric
  • Isothermal
  • Isochoric
  • Adiabatic (No heat exchange) we study this in Energy Balance
Other type of Systems (Open, Closed, Isolated)
06:13

End of Section 1

You should know bay far all the basic concepts and definitions for the course.

Be sure to review the material in order to satart Section 2!

End of Section 1
00:41

Section 1 Quiz
7 questions
+
Mass Balance Elementary Principles and Equation
26 Lectures 03:56:59

We will see the next topics:

  • Mass Balance Principle and Equation
  • Mass Balance in 2 Units (No Reaction)
  • Mass Balance in 2 or More Units (No Reaction)
  • Recycle and Bypass in Mass Balance
  • Mass Balance in Reactive Systems
  • Chemical Equilibrium in Mass Balance
  • Multiple Reactions in Mass Balance
  • Mass Balance of Atomic and Molecular Species
  • Mass Balance with Purge Systems
  • Combustion in Mass Balance

Let's go!

Introduction to Section 2
05:08

Basic Principle of Mass Conservation: No creation or Destruction of Mass!

There is only transformation...

We present an examples so you get the best of the Topic!

Mass Balance Principle
05:22

The Mass Balance Equation is presented:

Inlet - Outlet + Production - Consumption = Accumulation

The accumulation term is generally a derivative... In steady state we will ignore this fact!

Mass Balance Equation
02:51

The Differential Mass Balance is recommended for Continuous Processes (Steady State)

The Integral Mass Balance is recommended for Batch or Semi-Batch Processes (Transient State)

Type of Mass Balances (Differential and Integral)
04:34

The type of Processes are presented once again... We will perform some exercises!

Review: Type of Processes
01:14

Steady State Problem... We see how the accumulation term is cancelled and since there is no reaction the consumption and production terms are cancelled as well!

We will work with Inlet = Outlets

Steady State Problem
07:55

We solve this Batch Problem. Hexane will be evaporated with air. At the end you finish with NO hexane at all...

The accumulation term here is a derivative of mass with respect of time!

Batch Problem
09:57

How to read and draw Flow Diagrams.

Its very important to be able to read the diagrams and get information and data that will help you understand the process.

If you get written data or any type of extra data, is very important that you draw the diagram and write down every data! Then you should be able to solve you problem!

Diagram Flow Construction
10:54

Its very important to be able to scale-up and scale-down. This is done generally by calculating a Factor.

Basis of calculation is important to establsih on "what base" is the problem based?

Scale-Up & Basis of Calculation
13:06

We analyze our first system: A system with no reaction, in one single unit!

Mass Balance in Non-Reactive Systems with 1 Unit
05:20

We apply the Mass Balance Equation to this example of Water and NaOH. The idea is to dilute the original Brine to a less concentrated one.

Example of a Non-Reactive Systems with 1 Unit
09:00

Sometimes you are going to stumble upon a problem with not enough data and you will ask yourself if you either need more data or if you just made a mistake.

We start this study of "Degree of Freedom". This methodology allows us to know if the system is completely set or if it has some degree of freedom (i.e you can set the variables)

Can the Problem be Solved?
03:58

We use the "variable counting" vs. "equation couunting".

Its very important to use INDEPENDENT equations. If you count a dependent equation, the you will not be able to solve the system!

Variable-Equation Counting
08:54

Degre of Freedom Analysis Example. I like this example since you get to see how we apply the method of DOF Analysis.

Important to mark that you should account all the variables, even though you know you have the data. Explicit data such as:

X = 10

is an explicit equation that you should also take into consideration!

Degrees Of Freedom Analysis: Example
03:28

The proposal of this Methodology to attack Mass Balance Equations is totally recommended!

You may use other approaches but they should be similar to these one!

Mass Balance Methodology
06:04

We apply the methodology to an example.

Methodology: Application to a Mass Balance
09:19

A real life example of how we could Apply the Mass Balance Equation to a "Egg Factory"... Even though we are using "eggs" as a currency, we could still use "mass"

EXERCISE#01 - Introduction to Mass Balance in 1 Unit No Reaction
10:31

Exercise for Labeling Streams in a Mass Balance Problem

EXERCISE#02 - Diagram Construction Mass Balance
11:20

We perform an analisys of the degrees of freedom in a Distillation Column

EXERCISE#03 - Degree of Freedom Analysis Problem
09:09

We perform a Mass Balance on a Distillation Column. Be sure to get how we apply the inlet = outlet reduced mass balance equation.

EXERCISE#04 - Distillation Column Mass Balance
19:38

Humidifying Air: This process is contrary to "drying" air which will be studied in Exercise#08

EXERCISE#05 - Humidification of Air
16:23

A simple mass balance of different solutions of Sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Mass Balance Equation reduces to Inlets equals Outlets

EXERCISE#06 - Mixture of H2SO4 Solutions
17:50

Application of the Mass Balance Equation to a Wet Sugar Factory. Remember that there are two substances and we can apply 2 mass balances!

EXERCISE#07: Wet Sugar Production
17:24

Dry Air and Humidity (water) are common mixture in ambient air. Normal operations require dry air, therefore the air must be dried.

EXERCISE#08 - Drying of Air with pellets
15:21

Flow of CO2 in a pipeline. We use geometry of the pipeline...

EXERCISE#09 - Flow of CO2 in a Pipeline
12:02

This are basic Mass Balance Problems. We will add up extra "features" to these type of problems such as:

  • More Unit Operations
  • Recycle, Bypass and Purge
  • Reactions
  • Combustion

Be sure you get the idea, these set of problems is very important for you to continue in this course!

---

The next exercises will be based on these type of problems!

Need more exercises?
00:17

A Review of this Section

Mas Balance Equation Application
7 questions
+
Mass Balance in 2 Units and No Reactions
4 Lectures 24:10

Mass Balance in 2 units with no reaction. Last section was about 1 unit, now we add an extra unit. Things get more complex now. Be sure to understand the "sub-system" concept!

Mass Balance in 2 Units and No Reactions
05:44

An applied example of a Mass Balance with two units and no reactions!

Example: Mass Balance with 2 Units and No Reactions
10:56

An exercise using 2 units. Be sure to get the Mass Balance in the Sub-Systems!

EXERCISE#10 - Mass Balance in 2 Units with no Reaction
07:18

The next exercises will include at least 2 or more units! This is just an introduction. In the next Section you will study multiple units

Need more exercises?
00:12

A Review of this Section

2 Units in Mass Balance with No Reaction
3 questions
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Mass Balance in 2 or MORE Units and No Reactions
3 Lectures 15:47

This topic is actually an extension of Mass Balance with no Reaction on 1 Unit and 2 Units. The Mass Balance is still in Steady State. We apply the balance in differente sub-sustems now!

Mass Balance in 2 or MORE Units and No Reactions
05:41

Multiple set of units in a Concentration of a Brine. Since all the set are equal, you may get a standard formula for the "nth" unit.

EXERCISE#11 - Concentration of a Brine in Multiple Units
09:59

Please refer to next sections if you need more Solved Problems of Mass Balance with 2 or MORE!

Need more exercises?
00:07

A Review of this Section

Multiple Units Mass Balance Operations
3 questions
+
Recycle and Bypass Applications in Mass Balance
8 Lectures 01:35:09

Lets see a little bit of theoretical concepts of Plant Design. We use Recycle and Bypass to improve the process. It is very basic but very powerful!

Recycle and Bypass
08:49

We apply this concept to a process. Be sure to get how we set the basis of calculation!

Application of Recycle/Bypass
11:50

We introduce the application of Bypass. In this example, some fresh juice is mixed in the end due to the flavour conditions.

EXERCISES#12 - Production of Juice Concentrate + Bypass Application
19:28

In this crystallization process you will use multiple units!

EXERCISE#13 - Crystallization of Potassium Sulfate P1
14:04

In this crystallization process you will use multiple units!

EXERCISE#13 - Crystallization of Potassium Sulfate P2
13:05

We apply the concept of Recycle in each unit.

EXERCISE#14 - Extraction of Bean Oils in Hexane + Recycle P1
14:12

We apply the concept of Recycle in each unit.

EXERCISE#14 - Extraction of Bean Oils in Hexane + Recycle P2
13:34

Recycle and Bypass Applications will be included in many other exercises in the next sections! Just keep doing exercises and you will find more recycle and bypasses!

Need More Exercises?
00:07

A Review of this Section

Recycle and Bypass
6 questions
+
Mass Balance in Reactive Systems
13 Lectures 01:29:09

This is an introduction for Mass Balances with Reactions! We still work in steady state but we will now add the Produciton and Consumption terms!

Its very important that you know how to apply the MAss Balance equation to each. Please take the time to review the Stoichiometry Topics... Eventhough is no topic of Mass Balance, you will need them!

Introduction to Reactive Systems
02:58

A Stoichiometry review: the stochiometric coefficeints and factors

Stoichiometry Review: Coefficients
02:25

A Stoichiometry review: How to balance a chemical equation. The Mass Balance depends on 100% of the balanced equation.

Stoichiometry Review: Balancing Equations
02:46

A Stoichiometry review:

  1. Limiting reactant - ONE species that will react totally
  2. Excess reactatns - one or more species that will NOT react totally
Stoichiometry Review: Limiting and Excess Reactants
03:31

A Stoichiometry review: Conversion is very important specially in reaction proesses such as reactors or even in combstion!

Conversion is based on the feed mateial vs the outlet material.

Stoichiometry Review: Conversion
01:51

A Stoichiometry review: Extent of Reaction

Is similar to conversion but it is based on the stoichiometric factor of each of the species. This will help us A LOT in the Mass Balance Problems!

Stoichiometry Review: Extent of Reaction
02:27

Examples of the use of Extent of Reaction.

Stoichiometry Review- Extent of Reaction Examples
10:12

We've seen conversion before. Its important to note that the conversion may be based on either the Global Process, or the Single-Pass Conversion of that single unit!

The reference changes since the inlet value is different!

Global Conversion vs. Single-Pass Conversion
05:28

A simple reaction of oxidation. Be sure to balance the equation and solve!

EXERCISE#15 - Mass Balance of an Oxidation Reaction
13:03

Another Reaction Mass Balance to form Ethyl Bromide

EXERCISE#16 - Production of Ethyl Bromide
19:39

Production of the famous pigment Titanium Dioxide. We use a lot of reactions and mass balances which is important since many processes are like this one

EXERCISE#17 - Production of Titanium Dioxide P1
13:58

Production of the famous pigment Titanium Dioxide. We use a lot of reactions and mass balances which is important since many processes are like this one

EXERCISE#17 - Production of Titanium Dioxide P2
10:45

If you need more help or exercises for chemical reaction, check out the next sections, these included more chemical reaction exercises! Good luck!

Need More Exercises?
00:06

A Review of this Section

Chemical Reaction in Mass Balance
5 questions
+
Chemical Equilibrium in Mass Balance
6 Lectures 01:04:49

Chemical Equilibrium Theory. This Course's Scope has nothing to do with Chemical Equilibrium but with the applciation of Mass Balance in Chemical Equilibrium Systems.

Chemical Equilibrium
05:05

Application of the concepts of Chemical Equilibrium to a Real-Life Problem

Application of Chemical Equilibrium Theory
10:35

We start now another process which include a chemical reaction. Be sure to balance correctly the equation, account for each species and perform the Balance Equation in Steady Sate.

EXERCISE#18 - Production of Methyl Acetone in Equilibrium - Part 1
15:42

We start now another process which include a chemical reaction. In this special case we include EQUIBLIRUM Be sure to balance correctly the equation, account for each species and perform the Balance Equation in Steady Sate. Then use the equilibrium constant and perform the operations!

EXERCISE#18 - Production of Methyl Acetone in Equilibrium - Part 1
15:52

We apply the equilibrium reaction to methanol

EXERCISE#19 - Production of Methanol in Equilibrium
17:25

Chemical Equilibrium problems are not typical in Mass Balance Problems. You WILL study these type of problems in Equilibrium Thermodynamics or Physical Chemistry problems...

Please refer to Problem #20. This Problem includes 2 reactions and an Equilibrium.

Need More Exercises?
00:10

A Review of this Section

Chemical Equilibrium
4 questions
+
Multiple Reactions in Mass Balance
12 Lectures 01:52:19

An overview of what happens when we add MORE reactions on the process. Essentialy the basics are known but we need to adapt it for multiple reacitons!

Overview
06:04

Yield is important since we want to maximize it in a process. We are going to see how could we maximize it using just Mass Balance Theory. This is a typical Reactor Engineering Topic

Yield
01:37

Selectivity is essentially, how is the reactant "selecting" the path of reactions. We have multiple reactions and we want one in specific.

The higher the selectivity, the better performance of reactions we will have.

Selectivity
01:30

How to apply the Extent of Reaction in Multiple Reactions Systems. Please refer to the Applied Exmaples #1 and #2!

Multiple Reactions: Extent of Reaction
01:23

We apply the extent of reaction to multiple reactions!

Applied Example #1
04:00

We apply the extent of reaction to multiple reactions!

Applied Example #2
10:48

We apply Multiple Reactions and Equilibrium concepts!

EXERCISE#20 - Extent of Reaction in an Equilibrium Reaction
16:35

Multiple reactions and side reactions. Balance Equations, apply extent of reactions and solve for the mass balances

EXERCISE#21 - Production of Monochloroethane and Dichloroethane
17:21

Multiple Reactions in the same process!

EXERCISE#22 - Production of Hydrogen Fluoride
16:48

Mass Balance application to the production of Formaldehyde.

EXERCISE#23 - Formaldehyde Production
12:22

Production of Methyl Chloride... in multiple reactions. Be sure to account for each extent of reaction correctly.

EXERCISE#24 - Production of Methyl Chloride P1
11:47

Production of Methyl Chloride... in multiple reactions. Be sure to account for each extent of reaction correctly.

EXERCISE#24 - Production of Methyl Chloride P2
12:04

A Review of this Section

Multiple Reactions in Mass Balance
4 questions
+
Mass Balance of Atomic Species and Molecular Species
7 Lectures 01:14:45

So far we've only seen the Mass Balances of Molecular Species (H2O, CO2, N2)... But we could also do Mass Balances on the Atomic Species.

The main advantage is that atoms cant be created or destroyed so they have the form:

Inlet = Outler

Even though there is a reaction occuring in the system!

Atomic Species MB Theory
06:14

Applying the Atomic Species Balance to an example

Atomic Species MB Applied Example #1
06:20

Applying the Atomic Species Balance to an example

Atomic Species MB Applied Example #2
07:35

Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...

EXERCISE#25 - Production of Iso-Octane in Multiple Units and Recycles (Part 1)
18:45

Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...

EXERCISE#25 - Production of Iso-Octane in Multiple Units and Recycles (Part 2)
17:42

Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...

EXERCISE#25 - Production of Iso-Octane in Multiple Units and Recycles (Part 3)
18:06

Refer to Problem #26 for more Atomic Species Mass balances.

Need More Exercises?
00:03

A Review of this Section

Atomic Species Mass Balance
4 questions
+
Mass Balance with Purge Systems
5 Lectures 46:18

As with Recycle and Bypass, we will find convenient for reaction systems to have a purge.

Many systems will not be able to eliminate inert material. The amterial will accumulate in the sytem and this should not be possible!

We are working in Steady State so we need to find a way to mantain the steady State... The Purge!

Purge System: Why we need it?
06:02

Application of a Purge system to a Process. This is Part 1.

Applied Example P1
13:06

Application of a Purge system to a Process. This is Part 1.

Applied Example P2
10:24

A process of methanol production. An atomic specis mass balance is applied on Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. There is also a Purge System Included

EXERCISE#26 - Methanol Production and Atomic Species Mass Balance
16:38

Refer to problem #31 if you need an extra problem of a Pruge System. Remember that a Purge is only a stream and may be treated as a Product Stream!

Need More Exercises?
00:08

A Review of this Section

Purge Systems
4 questions
2 More Sections
About the Instructor
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Passionate Engineer... I love teaching Online to the World!

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I've been in the Chemical Industry for about 3 years. I love applying all my knowledge learned in University to the Daily Engineering Life. From working in a Petrochemical Plant as a Process Plant Designer to working with textile material from Polyester Yarns; I could teach you a lot of how it is important to learn the Engineering subjects!

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Right now I'm preparing online material for Engineers all over the world. I have a dream in which online education will break all barriers and let Engineers all over the world learn easier and faster! Please join me in my quest!

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