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Welcome to the Mass Balance Introductory Course!
I designed this course is for general engineering fields. Chemical and Process Engineers will find it very relevant for their study curriculum but even Mechanical or Industrial Engineers will find it very interesting!
By the end of this course you will learn:
By the end of the Course you will be able to:
The course is structured as follow:
This is a very important Subject in Engineering and is the basis of further courses such as:
I teach this course for about $800 per semester. You will get it as low as $49 for a LIFETIME!
Take the course and you will have a greater advantage than your classmates to get a better grade on your university courses!
The Course Curriculum may be seen below!
Brief Introduction to the Topics we will be studying in this Course
Understanding the definition of Process...
A chemical process must have a chemical reaction.
There are 3 main Type of Diagrams:
Block and Flow Diagrams will be used extensively in the course...
P&ID are studied in higher level courses such as Plant Design, Automation and Control of Process, etc.
Basic Unit Operation:
Important specially for further courses! Understanding the importance of a Unit Operation in a Chemical Process.
Process Variables are essentially variables that will be analyzed to understand the "status" of our system.
Several examples are:
It's important you understand the importance of each of the variables and how the variables are measured.
Mass flow, Mole Flow and Volumetric Flow
These type of flow rates are the ones that matter to us in Mass Balance.
Please get to know that you can relate them
The State of a System is very important.
There are two types of State that we will be studying in this course
We present other type of System classification
We also present the type of processes:
End of Section 1
You should know bay far all the basic concepts and definitions for the course.
Be sure to review the material in order to satart Section 2!
We will see the next topics:
Let's go!
Basic Principle of Mass Conservation: No creation or Destruction of Mass!
There is only transformation...
We present an examples so you get the best of the Topic!
The Mass Balance Equation is presented:
Inlet - Outlet + Production - Consumption = Accumulation
The accumulation term is generally a derivative... In steady state we will ignore this fact!
The Differential Mass Balance is recommended for Continuous Processes (Steady State)
The Integral Mass Balance is recommended for Batch or Semi-Batch Processes (Transient State)
The type of Processes are presented once again... We will perform some exercises!
Steady State Problem... We see how the accumulation term is cancelled and since there is no reaction the consumption and production terms are cancelled as well!
We will work with Inlet = Outlets
We solve this Batch Problem. Hexane will be evaporated with air. At the end you finish with NO hexane at all...
The accumulation term here is a derivative of mass with respect of time!
How to read and draw Flow Diagrams.
Its very important to be able to read the diagrams and get information and data that will help you understand the process.
If you get written data or any type of extra data, is very important that you draw the diagram and write down every data! Then you should be able to solve you problem!
Its very important to be able to scale-up and scale-down. This is done generally by calculating a Factor.
Basis of calculation is important to establsih on "what base" is the problem based?
We analyze our first system: A system with no reaction, in one single unit!
We apply the Mass Balance Equation to this example of Water and NaOH. The idea is to dilute the original Brine to a less concentrated one.
Sometimes you are going to stumble upon a problem with not enough data and you will ask yourself if you either need more data or if you just made a mistake.
We start this study of "Degree of Freedom". This methodology allows us to know if the system is completely set or if it has some degree of freedom (i.e you can set the variables)
We use the "variable counting" vs. "equation couunting".
Its very important to use INDEPENDENT equations. If you count a dependent equation, the you will not be able to solve the system!
Degre of Freedom Analysis Example. I like this example since you get to see how we apply the method of DOF Analysis.
Important to mark that you should account all the variables, even though you know you have the data. Explicit data such as:
X = 10
is an explicit equation that you should also take into consideration!
The proposal of this Methodology to attack Mass Balance Equations is totally recommended!
You may use other approaches but they should be similar to these one!
We apply the methodology to an example.
A real life example of how we could Apply the Mass Balance Equation to a "Egg Factory"... Even though we are using "eggs" as a currency, we could still use "mass"
Exercise for Labeling Streams in a Mass Balance Problem
We perform an analisys of the degrees of freedom in a Distillation Column
We perform a Mass Balance on a Distillation Column. Be sure to get how we apply the inlet = outlet reduced mass balance equation.
Humidifying Air: This process is contrary to "drying" air which will be studied in Exercise#08
A simple mass balance of different solutions of Sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Mass Balance Equation reduces to Inlets equals Outlets
Application of the Mass Balance Equation to a Wet Sugar Factory. Remember that there are two substances and we can apply 2 mass balances!
Dry Air and Humidity (water) are common mixture in ambient air. Normal operations require dry air, therefore the air must be dried.
Flow of CO2 in a pipeline. We use geometry of the pipeline...
This are basic Mass Balance Problems. We will add up extra "features" to these type of problems such as:
Be sure you get the idea, these set of problems is very important for you to continue in this course!
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The next exercises will be based on these type of problems!
A Review of this Section
Mass Balance in 2 units with no reaction. Last section was about 1 unit, now we add an extra unit. Things get more complex now. Be sure to understand the "sub-system" concept!
An applied example of a Mass Balance with two units and no reactions!
An exercise using 2 units. Be sure to get the Mass Balance in the Sub-Systems!
The next exercises will include at least 2 or more units! This is just an introduction. In the next Section you will study multiple units
A Review of this Section
This topic is actually an extension of Mass Balance with no Reaction on 1 Unit and 2 Units. The Mass Balance is still in Steady State. We apply the balance in differente sub-sustems now!
Multiple set of units in a Concentration of a Brine. Since all the set are equal, you may get a standard formula for the "nth" unit.
Please refer to next sections if you need more Solved Problems of Mass Balance with 2 or MORE!
A Review of this Section
Lets see a little bit of theoretical concepts of Plant Design. We use Recycle and Bypass to improve the process. It is very basic but very powerful!
We apply this concept to a process. Be sure to get how we set the basis of calculation!
We introduce the application of Bypass. In this example, some fresh juice is mixed in the end due to the flavour conditions.
In this crystallization process you will use multiple units!
In this crystallization process you will use multiple units!
We apply the concept of Recycle in each unit.
We apply the concept of Recycle in each unit.
Recycle and Bypass Applications will be included in many other exercises in the next sections! Just keep doing exercises and you will find more recycle and bypasses!
A Review of this Section
This is an introduction for Mass Balances with Reactions! We still work in steady state but we will now add the Produciton and Consumption terms!
Its very important that you know how to apply the MAss Balance equation to each. Please take the time to review the Stoichiometry Topics... Eventhough is no topic of Mass Balance, you will need them!
A Stoichiometry review: the stochiometric coefficeints and factors
A Stoichiometry review: How to balance a chemical equation. The Mass Balance depends on 100% of the balanced equation.
A Stoichiometry review:
A Stoichiometry review: Conversion is very important specially in reaction proesses such as reactors or even in combstion!
Conversion is based on the feed mateial vs the outlet material.
A Stoichiometry review: Extent of Reaction
Is similar to conversion but it is based on the stoichiometric factor of each of the species. This will help us A LOT in the Mass Balance Problems!
Examples of the use of Extent of Reaction.
We've seen conversion before. Its important to note that the conversion may be based on either the Global Process, or the Single-Pass Conversion of that single unit!
The reference changes since the inlet value is different!
A simple reaction of oxidation. Be sure to balance the equation and solve!
Another Reaction Mass Balance to form Ethyl Bromide
Production of the famous pigment Titanium Dioxide. We use a lot of reactions and mass balances which is important since many processes are like this one
Production of the famous pigment Titanium Dioxide. We use a lot of reactions and mass balances which is important since many processes are like this one
If you need more help or exercises for chemical reaction, check out the next sections, these included more chemical reaction exercises! Good luck!
A Review of this Section
Chemical Equilibrium Theory. This Course's Scope has nothing to do with Chemical Equilibrium but with the applciation of Mass Balance in Chemical Equilibrium Systems.
Application of the concepts of Chemical Equilibrium to a Real-Life Problem
We start now another process which include a chemical reaction. Be sure to balance correctly the equation, account for each species and perform the Balance Equation in Steady Sate.
We start now another process which include a chemical reaction. In this special case we include EQUIBLIRUM Be sure to balance correctly the equation, account for each species and perform the Balance Equation in Steady Sate. Then use the equilibrium constant and perform the operations!
We apply the equilibrium reaction to methanol
Chemical Equilibrium problems are not typical in Mass Balance Problems. You WILL study these type of problems in Equilibrium Thermodynamics or Physical Chemistry problems...
Please refer to Problem #20. This Problem includes 2 reactions and an Equilibrium.
A Review of this Section
An overview of what happens when we add MORE reactions on the process. Essentialy the basics are known but we need to adapt it for multiple reacitons!
Yield is important since we want to maximize it in a process. We are going to see how could we maximize it using just Mass Balance Theory. This is a typical Reactor Engineering Topic
Selectivity is essentially, how is the reactant "selecting" the path of reactions. We have multiple reactions and we want one in specific.
The higher the selectivity, the better performance of reactions we will have.
How to apply the Extent of Reaction in Multiple Reactions Systems. Please refer to the Applied Exmaples #1 and #2!
We apply the extent of reaction to multiple reactions!
We apply the extent of reaction to multiple reactions!
We apply Multiple Reactions and Equilibrium concepts!
Multiple reactions and side reactions. Balance Equations, apply extent of reactions and solve for the mass balances
Multiple Reactions in the same process!
Mass Balance application to the production of Formaldehyde.
Production of Methyl Chloride... in multiple reactions. Be sure to account for each extent of reaction correctly.
Production of Methyl Chloride... in multiple reactions. Be sure to account for each extent of reaction correctly.
A Review of this Section
So far we've only seen the Mass Balances of Molecular Species (H2O, CO2, N2)... But we could also do Mass Balances on the Atomic Species.
The main advantage is that atoms cant be created or destroyed so they have the form:
Inlet = Outler
Even though there is a reaction occuring in the system!
Applying the Atomic Species Balance to an example
Applying the Atomic Species Balance to an example
Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...
Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...
Production of Iso-Octane. A series of recycles are included...
Refer to Problem #26 for more Atomic Species Mass balances.
A Review of this Section
As with Recycle and Bypass, we will find convenient for reaction systems to have a purge.
Many systems will not be able to eliminate inert material. The amterial will accumulate in the sytem and this should not be possible!
We are working in Steady State so we need to find a way to mantain the steady State... The Purge!
Application of a Purge system to a Process. This is Part 1.
Application of a Purge system to a Process. This is Part 1.
A process of methanol production. An atomic specis mass balance is applied on Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. There is also a Purge System Included
Refer to problem #31 if you need an extra problem of a Pruge System. Remember that a Purge is only a stream and may be treated as a Product Stream!
A Review of this Section
I'm a Chemical Engineer!
I've been in the Chemical Industry for about 3 years. I love applying all my knowledge learned in University to the Daily Engineering Life. From working in a Petrochemical Plant as a Process Plant Designer to working with textile material from Polyester Yarns; I could teach you a lot of how it is important to learn the Engineering subjects!
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Right now I'm preparing online material for Engineers all over the world. I have a dream in which online education will break all barriers and let Engineers all over the world learn easier and faster! Please join me in my quest!
The Courses I design are entirely dynamic. You will see theory and then apply it ASAP to a real life problem! I even use the books you are using right now in your engineering courses...
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