Introduction to bookkeeping and Accounting
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Introduction to bookkeeping and Accounting

Introduction to Bookkeeping and Accounting, Assets, liabilities, I&E and the Accounting equation
3.7 (165 ratings)
Instead of using a simple lifetime average, Udemy calculates a course's star rating by considering a number of different factors such as the number of ratings, the age of ratings, and the likelihood of fraudulent ratings.
2,649 students enrolled
Created by Paula Guilfoyle
Last updated 5/2016
Current price: $10 Original price: $35 Discount: 71% off
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  • 37 mins on-demand video
  • 5 Articles
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
What Will I Learn?
  • Outline the importance of bookkeeping and how it ties in with Accounting
  • Identify common business documents
  • Recognise reasons for document retention, filing and security
  • Describe different types of transactions
  • Explain Assets, Liabilities, Revenue and Expenditure
  • Carry out computations using the Accounting Equation
View Curriculum
  • You will need basic maths and a good level of English
  • No prior accounting or bookkeeping knowledge is required

Are you interested in studying bookkeeping or accounting but don't know where to start? Are you studying for your first year professional Bookkeeping exams or Financial Accounting exams (ACCA, CPA) and need to do some exam prep? Do you want to refresh bookkeeping and accounting skills from the past?


Bookkeeping and Accounting is not for everyone, but a rounded business person will understand how to keep proper and correct books. If you are a small business owner, or part of a larger organisation, having bookkeeping and accounting knowledge is a must have business skill.


We will first look at the role of a bookkeeper and the importance of that role in the business accounting process. We will then examine different types of business documents and reasons for document retention, filing and security. After we describe different types of transactions, we will then explain the terms Assets, Liabilities, Capital, Revenue and Expenditure. In addition to this we will also carry out some calculations using the Accounting Equation.

This course is short but comprehensive, and will take you about 30 min to watch all the tutorials. This course houses a fantastic question bank on the topics covered, ensuring the learner has the opportunity to apply their understanding to examples, making this course ideal for those taking first year professional Bookkeeping exams or Financial Accounting exams (ACCA, CPA) and want some additional help.

In addition to this, this course also contains detailed notes, and a chance to interact with other learners and the instructor, via the course community discussion board, and life time access.

Who is the target audience?
  • Are you interested in studying Bookkeeping or Accounting?
  • Do you want to know how to keep books correctly for your own business
  • Do you wish to refresh some business and accounting skills
  • Are you studying ACCA, CPA, CA first year financial accounting and need some exam prep?
  • Are you studying for professional bookkeeping exams?
  • Then this course is for you
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Curriculum For This Course
Introduction to Bookkeeping and Accounting
16 Lectures 37:17

A quick introduction to this course Introduction to Bookkeeping and Accounting

Preview 01:11

Try this short fun financial literacy game to get you in the mood of learning......and when you have completed this course, drop back and play it again

Preview 00:21

There is a certificate of completion available - learn how to earn your certificate in this lesson and get some valuable learning tips

Preview 02:43

A bookkeeper will record financial transactions and keep records, which are back up by valid documentation. These financial transactions are entered into the accounting records, which are also known as the BOOKS.

Financial transactions can include:

  • Sales – exchanging a good or service for money
  • Purchase – buying a good or service
  • Payments – transfer of money to someone else (for example, for purchases or for wages to employees)
  • Receipts – getting money from someone else (for example, from customers)
  • Petty cash – paying for low value items with a small fund of cash
  • Payroll – wages and salaries paid to employees, and any payroll taxes.

These records are used to prepare a set of accounts (also called financial statements or financial accounts).

It is important when bookkeeping that you keep accurate and complete records. You also have to remember that work that you do is confidential. It is important that the business only records transactions that specifically relate to the business. This means the business accounts must not include transactions or personal expenses of the owner. This is much easier for a Company then a sole trader and you must be very careful about this. Personal expenses will not be allowable on tax returns and there can be heavy fines for doing so.

It is also important to remember that Accounting is the process of using the bookkeeping information (the record of transactions) to prepare financial statements. So if you want to know accounting you must first know bookkeeping.

Preview 04:56

Bookkeeping records are kept to prepare both financial accounts and management accounts. Financial Accounts are prepared in accordance to legislations and have a particular format. Management accounts on the other hand are more detailed and aid in the day to day decision of the business. In addition to management there are a number of other's also interested in the business financial information

Suppliers are interested if you are requesting credit, as they need to ensure that you can make payments.

Banks are interested in your financial statements if you are requesting a loan or overdraft facility

Investors will be interested in your financial statements and management accounts as they want to ensure that you are investable

Tax authorise will be interested in both your financial statements and your bookkeeping and accounting records.

Who is interested in Business Financial information

Most of us regularly go into a shop and give cash in exchange for some type of goods. So we understand what is meant by cash purchase (we buy goods from the shop with money). A cash sale is also something we are familiar with. From the shop's point of view, when a customer goes into the shop and gives cash for goods, the shop is making a cash sale.

Credit transactions happen when the goods are given to the customer in exchange for future payment. An invoice is sent to the customer which records who the customer is, the items that are sold, the date of the sale and the value of the transaction (how much the customer owes the supplier). It will also state how long the customer can wait before paying for the product, the credit terms – often 30 days. Because no cash has changed hands at the point of sale, the transaction is called a credit sale . The seller has made a credit sale, and the customer has made a credit purchase.

Understanding Cash and Credit Transactions

It is a good idea to get familiar with the purpose and content of some of the main documents used to provide evidence of financial transactions. Local legalisation will say how long these records should be kept but it is often several years. Reasons for this include to help settle disputes and for revenue and tax audits.

  • Quotation
  • Purchase order
  • Delivery note
  • Goods received note (GRN)
  • Invoice
  • Credit note
  • Statement
  • Remittance advice
Financial Documents

When bookkeeping it is important to record and file documents so that they can be easily retrieved. Local law will also define how long these records are to be kept for. For this reason many companies have a document retention policy. When we looked a documents earlier, each document has a unique number for easy filing and retrieval. Transactions can be recorded manually or on a computerised system.

When you are keeping information on employees, customers and suppliers, a master files is kept with details that do not change often such as name, address, bank accounts and payment terms. When storing information about these people you must follow the guidelines of the data protection legislation in your country:

Only store information that is relevant and up to date

The information must be securely stored

The person you hold the data about has the right to see that information, but you cannot show it to other people.

A lot of businesses will have a storage area in their building for documents called an Archive. An archive must be secure to protect data and keep it confidential.

You must securely destroy documents that you no longer need; for example, by using a shredder. This is because the documents can contain sensitive and confidential information, such as personal data.

Confidentiality and care of documents is essential, as we know that there are criminals who will try and make money from other people's data

Document filing and Document retention


An asset is something held and controlled by the business that can be converted into cash or cash equivalents. Assets can be further divided into Current Assets and Non-Current Assets

Current assets are expected to be generally used up, sold or collected in a short period (normally less than 12 months). Examples of current assets are:

  • Inventory/stock
  • Money owed by customers for credit sales (also known as trade receivables or accounts receivables)
  • Money in the bank
  • Cash.

Inventory/Stock is product or goods purchased and held for resale. It also includes raw materials that will be made into items to sell, work-in-progress and finished goods.

Non-current assets are assets that the business expects to continue using for a number of years in the business. For example:Equipment




As liability is something that a business owns. It's the recognition that economic benefit must pass as a result of something that has happened in the past.

As with assets, liabilities are also broken down into current and non-current liabilities. Noncurrent liabilities are due after 12 months whereas a current liability is due within 12 months.

Current liabilities would include money owed to supplier's trade creditors, bank overdrafts, and a non-current asset would include long terms loans from the bank.


Use this activitiy to gain an understanding of an asset and a liability

Activity - Assets and Liabilities

Assets are items that are owned by the business and liabilities are items that are owed to the business. These are both passive. You can include the delivery cost, installation and improvement of your non-current assets as capital expenditure. The costs of repairing a non-current asset are classed as revenue expenditure.

We get income when we make a sale, we incur an expense when we buy something. These are both activities. Income and expenses are found in the profit and loss.

So income and expenditure require an action, but assets and liabilities are just present in our business.

In your life, when you work, you earn money (income). You then use that money to buy food to give you the energy to work more (expenditure). Or you might buy a book (asset), which will give you pleasure, and you can use again (non-current asset), or you may choose to sell it (inventory).

Income and Expenditure

Capital is a liability, but it is a special liability as it is not due to third parties such as banks and suppliers, but to the owners. Remember that the business and the person are separate, and the business needs to know how much is owned to the owner. When a business starts up, the owner puts in some money, maybe to pay the first few months' rent. When a business makes profit, this is part of the capital, or money owed to the owners. Assets and liabilities are also part of the capital.

This brings us on to the accounting equation

Assets – liabilities = capital

This also means that what a business owns, less what a business owes is equal what is owed to the owner.

For example, if a business has assets worth $35,000 and liabilities of $15,000 then we can calculate the capital belonging to the owners: $35,000 - $15,000 = $00,000. The owners have $20,000 of capital in the business.

Assets, Liabilities and capital are found on the Balance sheet

Capital and the Accounting equation

In this lesson we are going to introduce you to the concept of single entry accounting and the concept of double entry accounting

Single V's Double Entry Accounting

You should now be able to do the following:

Outline the importance of bookkeeping

Identify common business documents

Describe different types of transactions

Explain the importance of the accounting equation

Recognise reasons for document retention.


This lesson contains the notes to the course

Course notes

It is fundamental that the concepts and terminology used in this course is both understood and retained if you wish to continue your studies in Bookkeeping or Accounting. All of the topics we covered in this course are examinable in Y1 Financial Accounting with almost every professional accounting body world wide (ACCA, CPA, CA) If you are unable to answer any of these questions, I would suggest that you re-visit the section or drop me a question on the discussion board. If you are able to answer all of these questions, congratulations, you are ready to move on to a more advanced course.....Best of Luck!!!!!


Test your understanding and knowledge retentoin
18 questions
Bonus section
4 Lectures 07:45

In this lesson you will learn more about professional bookkeeping and accounting exams

Professional Bookkeeping or Accounting Exams

learning break


If you are growing your professional social profile, why don't you show of your certificate on your LinkedIn Profile. In this lesson you will learn how easy it is to active this. And if you want, you can then share your profile here on the discussion board with the community and connect with like minded people

Activity - Add your certificate to your linkedin profile
About the Instructor
Paula Guilfoyle
4.3 Average rating
1,565 Reviews
22,777 Students
19 Courses
CPA Accountant, Online Educator & Life Long Learner

Paula is a Qualified CPA with over 15 years' experience in the fields of Accountancy, Business Management,Process improvement, Internal Audit, Group accountant, Operations management and Training. All across a broad range of industries and sectors. Paula has been Key Speaker at many Accounting Events where her talks on Excel are received very positively. Taken from her experiences in Accounting and business fields, Paula also has Udemy courses for those wishing to up skill, especially in the area of Spreadsheets, Bookkeeping and Accounting.

Now an E-learning Educator 5+ years, Paula also has a focus on E-learning and online teaching. Drawn from her online teaching experience,Paula has a number of courses available to online teachers to help bridge the skills gap for those that teach or wish to teach online.