Shalom, my name is Jeff Benner. I am the founder of the Ancient Hebrew Research Center and have written over a dozen books on Biblical Hebrew including the Mechanical Translation of Genesis and Exodus and the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible. Through years of study, research and teaching others, I have developed a method of studying Hebrew words that will benefit you in seeking a deeper understanding of the Bible.
The Hebrew Bible (called the Tanakh by Jews and the Old Testament by Christians) was written by Hebrews whose language and culture was very different from our own. A language is closely tied to the culture of those who speak the language. In the case of the Hebrews, who were a nomadic and agrarian people, their language was closely connected to that culture and lifestyle. When we read the Bible, our 20th Century culture and lifestyle will often influence how we interpret it, therefore it is essential that we read and study the Bible from their culture and perspective so that we can better understand the Bible.
When most people do a word study they will open up Strong's dictionary, look up the word they are studying, read that definition and then move on. But there is much more to a thorough study of a Hebrew word, which will open up a whole new world to the reader. This course will teach you how to dig deeper into the meanings of the words of the Bible to uncover the more in-depth understanding of the words in the Bible. Even if you do not know any Hebrew, the resources and tools available to you will provide you with a wealth of information.
A short introduction about myself and my research into the Hebrew language of the Bible. I will also introduce the importance of understanding the Bible form a Hebrew perspective and give a brief overview of what to expect in this course.
In this lecture you will learn the difference between abstract and concrete words. Because the Hebrew language uses concrete words instead of abstracts, it is important to learn the concrete meanings of Hebrew words to better be able to interpret Biblical passages correctly.
Many Hebrew words can be used in a literal or figurative sense. As an example, the Hebrew word mateh, meaning branch, can be a literal branch of a tree or it can be a figurative branch of a family lineage. In this lecture we will look at the literal and figurative meanings of the Hebrew word that is often translated as "bless."
The Bible was written by an ancient people in a land and time, whose culture and philosophy is very different from our own. It is paramount that the reader of the Bible view the text from the culture and perspective of the writers and not from their own culture and perspective, which will cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings of the text.
The Bible is full of descriptions, but if we use our own perspectives of descriptions, we will misinterpret the text. When we describe something, we generally describe its appearance. But as the Hebrews of the Bible had a very different philosophy than our own, we need to learn that they described things in a way that is very different from our own.
Hebrew verbs and nouns work differently in Hebrew than they do in English. In this lecture you will learn how they are different and how this will impact how Hebrew words are translated and interpreted.
You have a specific philosophy that helps you to interpret the world around you and it is a common misunderstanding by many to believe that everyone around the world, past and present, have the same philosophy of thought.
This lecture will examine each of the main words in the Priestly blessing found in Numbers 6:24-26 and present the original cultural context and meaning of these words. With this information you will read and understand the blessing in a whole new light.
Using what you have learned in the lectures in this session, answer the following questions related to the philosophy of the Hebrew language.
In this section you will need a Bible and a concordance and dictionary keyed to Strong's numbers. If you do not have these on hand, I will provide you with free resources that are available to complete this section. These resources include
A Bible concordance and dictionary is essential for Hebrew word studies and they are easy to use, once you learn how. In this lecture you will learn how to use a standard Bible concordance and dictionary to be able to;
E-Sword is a free Bible program that you can download and use on your computer (mobile versions are also available). With this program you can quickly and easily look up Bible passages, find the Hebrew word behind the English translations and look up other verses using that word. In this lecture I will show you how to use the program to;
As useful as Strong's and other similar dictionaries are, they do have their limitations that must be understood to prevent misunderstandings of Hebrew words and their translations. In this lecture we will focus on Strong's inability to identify all of the words that are derived out a given root word. In a future lecture we will look at some other resources that can help with this issue.
Another limitation of Strong's Dictionary is that it does not include the many prefixes and suffixes that are attached to Hebrew words, which will effect how one understands the Hebrew word. In this lecture I will show some examples of these prefixes and suffixes using Genesis 1:1. But don't worry, in a future lecture I will provide you with some tools to help with identifying these prefixes and suffixes.
One other major limitation of Strong's Dictionary is that it does not provide the different forms of Hebrew verbs. Strong's will only identify the simple form, but in the Hebrew text a verb can take on many different forms, which will drastically change how that verb will be translated. But again, don't worry as in a future lecture I will provide resources to help with understanding the basics of Hebrew verbs.
This lecture is an introduction to the Strong's Dictionary exercise that you will complete in the next lecture where you will be given Psalm 23 and and all the Strong's numbers associated with each English word. In this lecture I will provide an example of how to;
In this article I will explain how to look up words in Strong's Dictionary to find the more in-depth meaning to the words in Psalm 23. Once you you have found these meanings you will create your own paraphrase of Psalm 23 using the Hebraic meanings of the words.
The resource attached to this lecture is the worksheet that will be need to complete the exercise and will include;
Now that you have completed your exercise, let's compare notes. In this article is my own paraphrase of Psalm 23 using Strong's Dictionary to determine the more in-depth meaning of the words in this chapter, along with a detailed description of how I derived at my paraphrase.
Now that you have a foundation of how to use a Bible concordance and dictionary, answer the questions in this quiz to test your knowledge of how to properly and effectively use Strong's Dictionary to look up and define Hebrew words.
There are many lexicons available to assist you with doing a Hebrew word study. In this article I will provide you with details on some of these lexicons, some of which are free as they in the Public Domain. The resources provided with this lecture are;
In this lecture I will demonstrate how Gesenius' Lexicon will help to better define Hebrew words by revisiting a passage that we looked at with Strong's Dictionary and expand our understanding of the Hebrew words.
One of the limitations of Strong's was the inability to identify all the words derived out of one root, an important aspect when doing Hebrew word studies. In this lecture I will show you how the Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon will overcome this problem. But as this lexicon requires one to find a Hebrew word alphabetically, I show how to use the New Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon, which is keyed to Strong's numbers to allow you to find the Hebrew words easily.
Another limitation of Strong's was its inability to identify the prefixes and suffixes attached to Hebrew words. In this lecture I will show you how to use Benjamin Davidson's lexicon to find the Hebrew word as it appears in the Bible and decipher the prefixes and suffixes added to the word. The only drawback is that you must know the Hebrew alphabet to use this lexicon so you can look up the Hebrew words alphabetically.
In this lecture you will learn about the two-letter and three-letter roots of Hebrew words and how they relate to each other. I will also show you how to look up a Hebrew word in the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon by its Strong's number.
The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon will provide the cultural background of a Hebrew word by looking at all of the words and roots that are related to it. In this lecture you will learn;
In this lecture you will examine all of the words that are derived out of one two-letter root and determine the common theme among all of them, which will help to define particular words.
In this exercise you will be given a series of, what appear to be, completely unrelated words. Using what you have learned about the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon you will look all of these words up in the lexicon, looking for a common theme among them.
Once you have completed the exercise from the previous lecture, you will evaluate your work by comparing it to my own observations about the words provided. Your evaluation of the words may vary from mine, but you should at least be able to see some similarities and some observations that you may have missed.
You now have a foundation in the mechanics of the Ancient Hebrew Lexicon and how to effectively use it in your word studies. Answer the following questions related to navigating through the lexicon and the different aspects of Hebrew words and roots.
In this article you will be provided links to two online interlinear Bibles to assist you with doing a more in-depth study of the Hebrew Bible.
An interlinear Bible may appear complicated at first, but learning how to navigate through and read an interlinear is fairly simple and will greatly improve your understanding of a given Bible passage, phrase or word. In this lecture you will be given an overview of the interlinear and;
While Strong's Dictionary only provides a limited look at the words of the Hebrew Bible, an interlinear Bible will present a more accurate understanding of the words. In this lecture we will examine each word in Psalm 23:1 in the interlinear Bible to better refine our understanding and translation of this verse.
In this lecture we will continue our examination with Psalm 23:2 in the interlinear Bible looking for a more refined understanding of the Hebrew words behind the English.
Using the interlinear Bible you will expound on what we learned from Strong's Dictionary concerning the Hebrew words in Psalm 23:3-6.
In this article is my own interpretations of the Hebrew words in Psalm 23 based on what can be gleaned from the interlinear Bible. Compare your work with my own to evaluate your work.
As an interlinear Bible provides a translation of Hebrew words, including their prefixes and suffixes, you will be better equipped to interpret Hebrew words and phrases and go beyond the limitations of Strong's Dictionary.
The translations provided for each Hebrew word will assist you with interpreting Hebrew verbs. While Strong's Dictionary is only able to provide the simple verb form, the interlinear can help with identifying different aspects of Hebrew verbs, refining your understanding of the words used in the Bible.
In this quiz you will test your knowledge about how an interlinear works and how you can benefit from its use.
bible Dictionaries are an invaluable resource for researching and studying the manners, customs, lifestyle and culture of the Hebrew people of the Bible. In this lecture I will provide you a few examples of how a Bible Dictionary can help your understanding of Hebrew words and provide a cultural background. The resources provided in this lecture are in the public domain and include;
Besides the Bible dictionaries that are written specifically for the Bible, there are many other resources available, such as encyclopedias, history books and the internet, for studying the culture and lifestyle of the Hebrew people. While these resources are not specific to the Bible, they can still be a valuable resource.
In this quiz you will answer questions related to Bible Dictionaries and other resources available for studying the culture and lifestyle of the Hebrew people.
The translators of the Bible used specific English words to convey the meaning of the Hebrew words behind them. So when defining a word from the Biblical text, the first step is to determine the meaning of the English word. However, because the Hebrew language is so different from our own, English is extremely limited and cannot completely convey the meaning of a given Hebrew word.
In previous lectures we have used dictionaries and lexicons to determine the meanings of Hebrew words, but the Bible itself is also a very useful tool in interpreting the text. In this lecture you will learn how to examine the context of a word to help define it.
We all have our favorite translations, but by comparing how a Hebrew word, phrase or verse is translated in different translations you can get another look at how other translators translate and interpret the Hebrew words.
A common form of Hebrew poetry that is found in the Bible is the paralleling of Hebrew words with similar or opposite meanings. These words, that are paralleled with the word you are studying, will help to understand how the author understood the word.
In previous lectures we have learned how the study of the root of a given word will help to define the word that you are studying. By also looking at how the root of the word you are studying is used in its context you will better be able to define the root and thereby define the word you are studying.
Now that you have a basic understanding of how to define words through the Bible, answer the following questions related to this subject.
Through this course you have learned a series of steps to be taken when doing a thorough study of a Hebrew word. In this lecture I will review for you all of these steps to prepare you for your own Hebrew word studies
In this lecture, which is divided into three parts, we will use all of the tools shown in the course, from beginning to end, to do a Hebrew word study on the word "grace."
This is the second part of the lecture on how to do a Hebrew word study on the word "grace," using the tools we have learned in this course.
This is the third and final part of the lecture on how to do a Hebrew word study on the word "grace," using the tools we have learned in this course.
You are now equipped with the tools and knowledge you need to do your own Hebrew word study, but don't worry, I'm not leaving you to defend for yourself just yet. In this exercise you will do your own Hebrew word study on a specific word, using the methods described in this course. Once you have completed your word study, I will go through my own study of this word in the next lecture to help you evaluate your own work.
Congratulations, you have just completed your first Hebrew word study. Now its time to compare notes. In this lecture, divided into three parts, I will go through my own study on the word righteousness. Compare your word study with my own, looking for things you may have missed, or maybe even something that I may have missed.
This is the second part of my word study on the word "righteousness," allowing you to compare your study with my own.
20 questions related to the course material to test your comprehension and understanding.
Now that you have completed this course, what's next?
I first began learning Hebrew in 1995 and soon found that most instruction on Hebrew was missing a key ingredient, a cultural background to the language. After much research on this subject I founded the Ancient Hebrew Research Center in 1999 to share my research into the Ancient Hebrew alphabet, language and culture. I have written well over 500 articles for the Ancient Hebrew Research Center website, which receives about 500,000 visits a month and produced over 100 videos. I have also authored 13 books including a Lexicon of the Hebrew language of the Bible and a mechanical translation of the books of Genesis and Exodus from Hebrew to English. I have been invited on many occasions to speak at seminars and conferences around the country.