Higher School Certificate Physics Space Flight
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# Higher School Certificate Physics Space Flight

Topic 9.2 Space from the NSW Higher School Certificate Physics Course
4.5 (2 ratings)
16 students enrolled
Created by John Moylan
Last updated 3/2017
English
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Includes:
• 8.5 hours on-demand video
• 28 Supplemental Resources
• Access on mobile and TV
• Certificate of Completion
What Will I Learn?
• Define weight as the force on an object due to a gravitational field
• Perform an investigation and gather information to determine a value for acceleration due to gravity using pendulum motion and identify reason for possible variations from the value 9.8 ms-2
• Gather secondary information to predict the value of acceleration due to gravity on other planets
• Analyse information using the expression: F = mg to determine the weight force for a body on Earth and for the same body on other planets
• Explain that a change in gravitational potential energy is related to work done
• Define gravitational potential energy as the work done to move an object from a very large distance away to a point in a gravitational field
• Apply the Gravitational Potential Energy Formula.
• Be able to calculate and explain Gravitational Potential Energy
• Describe Galileo’s analysis of projectile motion
• Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components
• Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components.
• Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.
• Identify data sources, gather, analyse and present information on the contribution of one of the following to the development of space exploration: Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, O’Neill or von Braun.
• Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the centripetal force acting on a satellite undergoing uniform circular motion about the Earth.
• Solve problems and analyse information using the orbital radius and velocity of a body in terms of the universal gravitational constant and the mass of the central body
• Explain the concept of escape velocity in terms of the: – gravitational constant – mass and radius of the planet
• Outline Newton’s concept of escape velocity
• Identify why the term ‘g forces’ is used to explain the forces acting on an astronaut during launch
• Discuss the effect of the Earth‘s orbital motion and its rotational motion on the launch of a rocket
• Analyse the changing acceleration of a rocket during launch in terms of the: – Law of Conservation of Momentum – forces experienced by astronauts
• Analyse the forces involved in uniform circular motion for a range of objects, including satellites orbiting the Earth
• Compare qualitatively low Earth and geo-stationary orbits
• Define the term orbital velocity and the quantitative and qualitative relationship between orbital velocity, the gravitational constant, mass of the central body, mass of the satellite and the radius of the orbit using Kepler’s Law of Periods
• Account for the orbital decay of satellites in low Earth orbit
• Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere and landing on the Earth’s surface
• Identify that there is an optimum angle for safe re-entry for a manned spacecraft into the Earth’s atmosphere and the consequences of failing to achieve this angle
• Describe a gravitational field in the region surrounding a massive object in terms of its effects on other masses in it
• Present information and use available evidence to discuss the factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force
• Define Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.
• Discuss the importance of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites
• Identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes
• Describe and evaluate the Michelson- Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether
• Discuss the role of the Michelson- Morley experiments in making determinations about competing theories
• Gather and process information to interpret the results of the Michelson- Morley experiment
• Outline the nature of inertial frames of reference
• Perform an investigation to help distinguish between non-inertial and inertial frames of reference
• Describe the significance of Einstein’s assumption of the constancy of the speed of light
• Identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative
• Analyse and interpret some of Einstein’s thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between thought and reality
• Discuss the concept that length standards are defined in terms of time in contrast to the original metre standard
• Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: – the relativity of simultaneity – the equivalence between mass and energy – length contraction – time dilation – mass dilation
• Discuss the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel
• Analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and the evidence supporting it, using Einstein’s predictions based on relativity that were made many years before evidence was available to support it
• solve problems and analyse information using energy, time dilation, length contraction, and relativistic mass formulas
View Curriculum
Requirements
• Ideally have completed Year 11 Physics or an equivalent introductory course.
• Have a basic understanding of scientific concepts such as velocity, acceleration, momentum, kinetic and potential energy.
• Have a basic understanding of algebra and trigonometry.
• Have an understanding of manipulating and solving equations.
Description

This course follows the New South Wales Higher School Certificate Physics syllabus, and is largely in  syllabus order.

This course is intended to function as both a Physics course, which you can work through and complete, and a multimedia textbook, which you can use to aid in study of high school or college level Physics courses.  It is also intended to be a reference, that you can use to check facts and investigate subjects, as you retain access to both current material and material added over time, just like buying a book.

The course has 52 video lectures, with printable materials covering the material in each lecture, and just like a normal text book you can access any lecture at any time, and as many times as you like.  You can access video lectures on Android, i-Phone, PC, MAC and Linux devices.  You can also print out text versions of the lectures, or access these electronically as PDF files.  You can also ask questions of the instructor, and chat with your fellow students.

The course covers all dot points for the Space topic.

Material currently covered.

This course provides complete coverage of Space (9.2) topic from the New South Wales, Australia, Higher School Certificate Physics Syllabus.  The course goes beyond the minimum requirements of the syllabus especially in terms of the history of ideas, explanation of key concepts, and derivation of equations where this may aid student understanding of the syllabus material.  Past Higher School Certificate exam questions, as well as model answers to these published by the Board of Studies, have been extensively used to guide the writing of the course, and all worked examples used in the course are based on past Higher School Certificate Physics exam questions.

Space topics covered (Syllabus section 9.2): gravity, projectile motion, the motion of satellites, rockets and the conservation of momentum, launch of a rocket into space, re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere, and special relativity, as outlined in the New South Wales Higher School Certificate Physics Syllabus.

Finally

Please do not neglect to utilize fully the accompanying printable materials, which are detailed and extensive.  These materials are in the form of PDF files, so can be accessed on a range of devices.

The course follows the New South Wales higher school certificate physics syllabus .

For high school students this course will assist you to perform better in the Higher School Certificate Physics exam, or any similar Physics course you are studying, assist Physics teachers by providing lesson ideas and content, and provide an introductory level understanding Physics for anyone interested in the subject.

You are encouraged to ask any questions about materials covered in the course, and answers will be provided in a timely fashion.

The course also contains the first section of the second HSC topic, Motors and Generators.  If there is sufficient demand in the future this will be expanded into a separate course on electric motors, generators and transformers.

Who is the target audience?
• Students studying Physics for the New South Wales Higher School Certificate
• Teachers of Higher School Certificate Physics who wish to have access to a comprehensive set of resources.
• Anyone interested in the underlying Physics of Space and Space Flight.
• Please look through the lecture descriptions and previews.
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Curriculum For This Course
59 Lectures
08:28:21
+
Introduction
1 Lecture 06:41

Introduction to the course, detailing:

Syllabus coverage.

Course Structure,

How to get the most out of the course,

What you will gain from the course.

Preview 06:41
+
Topic 1, Space: Gravity
12 Lectures 02:17:57

The gravitational theories of Aristotle and Galileo.

Galileo's thought experiments and practical experiments on gravity.

Experimental proof of Galileo's theory of gravity by the Apollo astronauts on the Moon.

Definition of Gravity, Weight and Mass.

Syllabus coverage:

9.2.1.2.1  'Define weight as the force on an object due to a gravitational field.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Preview 07:09

Calculating weight using the equation F= mg.

Rearranging the equation F= mg to calculate g and m.

Weight on other planets.

Relationship between the mass of a planet and acceleration due to gravity.

 NSW HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.1.3.3'Analyse information using the expression: F = mg to determine the weight force for a body on Earth and for the same body on other planets.

See 'Resources' lecture 1 for printable notes.

Preview 06:58

Worked Examples of calculating weight, mass and acceleration due to gravity.

Questions based on:

1,2009 HSC Question 16

2, 2010 HSC Question 7

3, 2011 HSC Question 2

 NSW HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.1.3.3'Analyse information using the expression: F = mg to determine the weight force for a body on Earth and for the same body on other planets.'

See 'Resources' lecture 1 for printable notes.

Calculating Weight Worked Examples
08:17

Activity to measure acceleration due to gravity using a pendulum.

Outline of the materials needed, and how to carry out the exercise.

Outline of mathematics needed to calculate acceleration due to gravity from the period of a pendulum.

Outline of factors which may affect the local value of acceleration due to gravity, including the spin of the planet, geology and elevation.

Brief discussion of the science and history of pendulums.

If you are unable to carry out the activity, please use the data in the printable notes, and attempt the questions.

HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.1.3.1

'Perform an investigation and gather information to determine a value for acceleration due to gravity using pendulum motion or computer-assisted technology and identify reason for possible variations from the value 9.8 m/s.'

And

HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.3.3.1

'Present information and use available evidence to discuss the factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Activity: Measuring Acceleration due to Gravity
12:36

Worked example of calculations and answers to questions  for the activity to measure acceleration due to gravity using a pendulum.

Worked examples of related past HSC Questions,

Questions Based on:

1, 2012 HSC Question 21

2, 2014 HSC Question 3

3, 2002 HSC Question 16

HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.1.3.1

'Perform an investigation and gather information to determine a value for acceleration due to gravity using pendulum motion or computer-assisted technology and identify reason for possible variations from the value 9.8 m/s.'

And

HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.3.3.1

'Present information and use available evidence to discuss the factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force.'

See 'Resources' lecture 4 for printable notes.

Measuring Acceleration due to Gravity Worked Examples
12:36

Test your understanding of weight, mass and gravity.

Weight, Mass and Gravity
3 questions

The nature of gravitational fields.

Equipotential surfaces.

The inverse square law.

Centre of gravity.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.3.2.1

'Describe a gravitational field in the region surrounding a massive object in terms of its effects on other masses in it.'

And

HSC Physics Syllabus dot point 9.2.3.3.1

'Present information and use available evidence to discuss the factors affecting the strength of the gravitational force.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Gravitational Fields
14:27

Estimating acceleration due to gravity on the surfaces of extra solar planets.

Estimating the value of acceleration due to gravity at the Apollo 14 Moon landing site.

Syllabus Coverage:

NSW HSC Syllabus: 9.2.1.3.2

'Gather secondary information to predict the value of acceleration due to gravity on other planets.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Activity: Predicting 'g' on other planets
17:54

Worked solutions to predicting 'g' on other planets.

Activity 1, estimating acceleration due to gravity on the surfaces of extra solar planets.

Syllabus Coverage:

NSW HSC Syllabus: 9.2.1.3.2

'Gather secondary information to predict the value of acceleration due to gravity on other planets.'

See 'Resources' lecture 7 for printable notes.

'g' on Other Planets Worked Solutions: Activity 1
11:22

Worked solutions to estimating acceleration due to gravity on other planets.

Activity 2, estimating the value of acceleration due to gravity at the Apollo 14 Moon landing site.

Worked solutions to problems.

Problems Based on:

1, 2013 HSC Question 22

2, 2007 HSC question 4

3, 2006 HSC question

Syllabus Coverage:

NSW HSC Syllabus: 9.2.1.3.2

'Gather secondary information to predict the value of acceleration due to gravity on other planets.'

See 'Resources' lecture 7 for printable notes.

'g' on Other Planets Worked Solutions: Activity 2
15:21

Test your understanding of gravitational fields and extra terrestrial gravity.

Gravitational fields and acceleration due to gravity on other planets
3 questions

Gravitational Potential Energy in space.

The relationship between Gravitational Potential Energy and Work.

Calculating Gravitational Potential Energy.

Syllabus Coverage:

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.1.2.3

'Define gravitational potential energy as the work done to move an object from a very large distance away to a point in a gravitational field.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Preview 14:25

Worked solutions to gravitational potential energy problems.

Problems Based on:

1, 2012 HSC question 4

2, 2014 HSC question 27c

3, 2006 HSC question 18

Syllabus Coverage:

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.1.2.3

'Define gravitational potential energy as the work done to move an object from a very large distance away to a point in a gravitational field.'

See 'Resources' lecture 10 for printable notes.

Gravitational Potential Energy Worked Solutions
10:12

Gravitational Potential Energy
3 questions

Summary of the gravity topic.

Syllabus coverage: 9.2.1 (complete) and 9.2.3 (partial)

Topics include:

Gravity, mass and weight.

Gravity on other planets.

Variations in gravitational fields.

Gravitational Fields.

Gravitational potential energy.

Preview 06:40
+
Topic 1, Space: Space Flight
21 Lectures 02:54:47

Outlines Galileo's analysis of projectile motion, and introduces the concept that the trajectory of objects undergoing projectile motion in Earth's gravitational field can be analysed in terms of a constant horizontal velocity and a constant vertical acceleration.

Syllabus coverage:

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.2.2.2

'Describe Galileo’s analysis of projectile motion.'

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.2.2.1

'Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Preview 07:57

Worked solutions to problems on Galileo's analysis of projectile motion, and the concept that the trajectory of objects, undergoing projectile motion in Earth's gravitational field, can be analysed in terms of a constant horizontal velocity, and a constant vertical acceleration.

Problems Based on:

1, 2009 HSC Question 4

2, 2010 HSC Question 2

3, 2014 HSC Question 30

Syllabus coverage:

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.2.2.2

'Describe Galileo’s analysis of projectile motion.'

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.2.2.1

'Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

See 'Resources' lecture 13 for printable notes.

Galilean Projectiles Worked Examples
10:18

Resolving vectors into x and y components, and combining vector components into a resultant vector.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.1
'Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: Calculating Vector Components
06:14

Worked examples of resolving vectors into x and y components, and combining vector components into a resultant vector.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.1 'Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: Vector Components Worked Examples
10:33

Galilean Projectiles and Vector Components
3 questions

Calculating x and y components of a projectile's velocity and displacement, including maximum height, initial and final velocity and range.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: X and Y Components
08:44

Worked solution to problem 1, x and y components of projectile motion.

Based on 2011 HSC question 15.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: X and Y Worked Examples Part I
06:25

Worked solution to problems 2 and 3, x and y components of projectile motion.

Problems Based on:

2, 2000 HSC Question 26

3, 2014 HSC question 20

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: X and Y Worked Examples II
10:34

Potential and Kinetic Energy of projectiles, and how these change over the flight of a projectile.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile motion: Potential and Kinetic Energy
08:44

Worked solution to problem 4, Potential and Kinetic Energy of projectiles.

Note that numbering continues from last set of projectile motion questions, as do the questions themselves.

Based on 2006 HSC question 18.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources' lecture 15 for printable notes.

Projectile Motion: Potential and Kinetic Worked Examples I
08:56

Worked solution to problem 5, Potential and Kinetic Energy of projectiles.

Note that numbering continues from last set of projectile motion questions, as do the questions themselves.

Based on 2010 HSC Question 22
.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

Projectile Motion: Potential and Kinetic Worked Examples II
04:09

Worked solution to problem 6, Potential and Kinetic Energy of projectiles.

Note that numbering continues from last set of projectile motion questions, as do the questions themselves.

Based on 2012 HSC question 27 .

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

Projectile Motion: Potential and Kinetic Worked Examples III
09:08

Outline of an activity that you can carry out to investigate first hand the motion of a projectile, using a smart phone or video camera as a data logger.

If you are unable to carry out the activity, please use the data in the printable notes, and attempt the questions.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See 'Resources'  for printable notes and worked solutions.

Also see 'Resources' for an online activity using simulators.

Preview 12:26

Worked example of extracting data from the video record of the experiment, and calculating the initial velocity of the projectile from the flight time, release height and range.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See lecture 25 for resources.

Projectile Motion Exercise - Worked Example, Calculating u
06:10

Worked example of calculating the maximum height of the projectile in the projectile motion activity, from the initial velocity and release height.

9.2.2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See lecture 25 for resources.
Projectile Motion Exercise - Worked Example, Calculating h
05:32

Worked example of calculating the final velocity of the projectile from the projectile motion activity.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See lecture 25 for resources.
Projectile Motion Exercise - Worked Example, Calculating v
07:18

Worked examples of past HSC questions related to the Projectile Motion Activity, and projectile motion more generally.

Questions based on:

1, (Based on 2005 HSC Question 1)

2, (Based on 2013 HSC Question 4)

3, (Based on 2006 HSC question 16)

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.3.2 Perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and analyse data to calculate initial and final velocity, maximum height reached, range and time of flight of a projectile for a range of situations by using simulations, data loggers and computer analysis.

9.2.2.2.1 Describe the trajectory of an object undergoing projectile motion within the Earth’s gravitational field in terms of horizontal and vertical components.'

9.2.2.3.1 Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the actual velocity of a projectile from its horizontal and vertical components using:

X-component

v^2 = u^2

Δx = ut

Y-component

v = u + at

v^2 = u^2 + 2aΔy

Δy = ut + ½ at^2

See lecture 25 for resources.

See lecture 25 for resources.

Projectile Motion Exercise - Worked Examples HSC Type Questions
06:54

Calculating projectile motion in terms of x and y components.

Calculating Vector Components
3 questions

Explanation of the concept of escape velocity in terms of the universal gravitational constant and the mass and radius of the planet or other body.

Calculating the escape velocity of a projectile based on kinetic and potential energy, and calculation of the escape velocity of the Earth.

Syllabus Coverage:

9.2.2.2.3; explain the concept of escape velocity in terms of the:

– gravitational constant
– mass and radius of the planet

See printable notes for worked solutions and answers to problems.

Problems Based on:

1, 2003 HSC Question 17

2, 2005 HSC Question 3

3, 2010 HSC Question 32

Preview 08:44

Newton's concept of escape velocity and ideas on the orbit of the moon, and the effect of the rotation and orbit of the Earth on the launch of a rocket.

Syllabus coverage:

9.2.2.2.4; outline Newton’s concept of escape
velocity

9.2.2.2.6; discuss the effect of the Earth‘s orbital motion and its rotational motion on the launch of a rocket

See lecture 25 'resources' for printable notes as well as answers and worked solutions to problems.

Numbering of problems continues from previous lecture.

Problems Based on:

4, 2003 HSC Question 17

5, 2014 HSC Question 1

6, 2007 HSC Question 17

Escape Velocity: Newton's Cannon and Earth's Spin
05:21

Escape Velocity and the effect of the orbital velocity and spin of the earth on space launches.

Escape Velocity
3 questions

Outlines an activity to investigate the contribution of Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, O’Neill or von Braun to the development of modern rocketry, and includes a brief discussion of the contributions of Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard,Esnault-Pelterie, O’Neill and  von Braun to the development of modern rockets.

Printable notes include suggested links to further information, and a discussion of assessing data sources.

Syllabus coverage:

9.2.2.3.3; identify data sources, gather, analyse and present information on the contribution of one of the following to the development of space exploration: Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, O’Neill or von Braun

See 'Resources' for printable notes.

Brief History of Rocketry
06:57

The operation and acceleration of rockets explained in terms of the Law of Conservation of Momentum, as well as the changes in acceleration experienced by the astronauts during launch analysed and explained.  The concept of g-forces is introduced in terms of the forces acting on the astronauts during launch.

Syllabus Coverage

9.2.2.2.7; analyse the changing acceleration of a rocket during launch in terms of the:

– Law of Conservation of Momentum
– forces experienced by astronauts

9.2.2.2.5; identify why the term ‘g forces’ is used to explain the forces acting on an astronaut during launch

See printable notes in the 'Resources' for worked solutions and answers to problems.

Rockets and the Conservation of Momentum
12:07

Rockets
2 questions

Topic summary for Space Flight.

Topics covered include:

Projectile Motion.

Escape velocity.

Newton's concept of escape velocity

Introduction to rocket pioneers.

Rockets and the conservation of momentum.

G-forces.

Preview 11:36
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Topic 1, Space: In Orbit
8 Lectures 53:39

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion, and the development of his ideas.

Kepler's Third Law of Planetary motion.

HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.2.2.10
'Define the term orbital velocity and the quantitative and qualitative relationship between orbital velocity, the gravitational constant, mass of the central body, mass of the satellite and the radius of the orbit using Kepler’s Law of Periods.'

Preview 04:25

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, the force of gravity between two bodies and acceleration due to gravity.

See Lecture 31 for resources.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.3.2.2
'Define Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.'

F=G (mM)/d^2

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.3.2.3

'Discuss the importance of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of satellites.'

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
07:47

Uniform circular motion, tangential velocity, and centripetal force, and the nature of a circle as a special case of an ellipse.

See Lecture 31 for resources.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.8
'Analyse the forces involved in uniform circular motion for a range of objects, including satellites orbiting the Earth.'

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.3.4

Solve problems and analyse information to calculate the centripetal force acting on a satellite undergoing uniform circular motion about the Earth using:
F= (mv^2)/r

Uniform Circular Motion
07:26

Kepler's Third Law defined in therm of orbital velocity, the universal gravitational constant, mass of the central body, mass of the satellite and the radius of the orbit.

See Lecture 31 for resources.

Combining Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and the equations of uniform circular motion to derive Kepler's Third Law in a more useful form.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.10
'Define the term orbital velocity and the quantitative and qualitative relationship between orbital velocity, the gravitational constant, mass of the central body, mass of the satellite and the radius of the orbit using Kepler’s Law of Periods.'

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.3.5
Solve problems and analyse information using:
(r^3/T^3) = (GM)/(4p^2)

Kepler, Newton and Uniform Circular Motion
04:37

Kepler, Newton and Uniform Circular Motion
3 questions

Comparison of the characteristics of Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Satellites.

The effects of atmospheric drag, the Van Allen Belts, on satellites, and discussion of the velocity altitude and period of Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Satellites.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.9

‘Compare qualitatively low Earth and geo-stationary orbits.’

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.11

‘Account for the orbital decay of satellites in low Earth orbit.’

Low Earth Orbit and Geo-stationary Satellites
08:42

A discussion of the Slingshot Effect and its application to both the acceleration and deceleration of space craft.

See lecture 35 for resources.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.3.2.4

‘Identify that a slingshot effect can be provided by planets for space probes.’

The Slingshot Effect
04:43

Reentry to the Earth's atmosphere and the factors involved in safe reentry.

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.12

‘Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere and landing on the Earth’s surface.’

NSW HSC Syllabus 9.2.2.2.13

‘Identify that there is an optimum angle for safe re-entry for a manned spacecraft into the Earth’s atmosphere and the consequences of failing to achieve this angle.’

Preview 08:13

Orbit and Re-entry
3 questions

Summary of the In Orbit topic.

Preview 07:46
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Topic 1, Space: Relativity
10 Lectures 01:28:58

The history of the understanding of light from antiquity to the beginning of the 20th century.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4

‘Current and emerging understanding about time and space has been dependent upon earlier models of the transmission of light.’

Early History of Light
11:54

Outline of the Aether theory of light.

Description of the apparatus and experimental method used by Michelson and Morley, the results of their experiment to measure the Aether Wind, and the consequences of their failure to detect any evidence for the Aether.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.1

‘Outline the features of the aether model for the transmission of light.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.2

‘Describe and evaluate the Michelson- Morley attempt to measure the relative velocity of the Earth through the aether.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.3

‘Discuss the role of the Michelson- Morley experiments in making determinations about competing theories.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.1

‘Gather and process information to interpret the results of the Michelson- Morley experiment.’

Preview 11:49

The Principle of Relativity and the ideas of Galileo.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.4

‘Outline the nature of inertial frames of reference.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.5

‘Discuss the principle of relativity.’

Galileo and the Principle of Relativity
04:10

Inertial and non-inertial frames of reference and the principle of relativity.

See previous lecture for resources.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.4

‘Outline the nature of inertial frames of reference.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.5

‘Discuss the principle of relativity.’

Frames of Reference and Relativity
09:48

Einstein's theory of Special Relativity discussed, together with some of his early thought experiments.

The importance of the constancy of c in terms of time, length and mass,

Einstein's thought experiment underlying the relativity of simultaneity and the relativity of simultaneity discussed.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.6

‘Describe the significance of Einstein’s assumption of the constancy of the speed of light.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.7

identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.8

explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to:

– the relativity of simultaneity

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.3

analyse and interpret some of Einstein’s thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between thought and reality

Preview 07:45

Calculating time dilation.

The formula and thought experiments underlying time dilation discussed.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.7

'Identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative.'

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.9

Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to:

– time dilation

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.3

'Analyse and interpret some of Einstein’s thought experiments involving mirrors and trains and discuss the relationship between thought and reality.'

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.5

‘Solve problems and analyse information using the appropriate formulae.’

Time Dilation
06:20

Calculating length contraction.

The formula for length contraction and the underlying thought experiment discussed.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.7

‘Identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.8

‘Discuss the concept that length standards are defined in terms of time in contrast to the original meter standard.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.9

Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to:

– length contraction

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.5

‘Solve problems and analyse information using the appropriate formulae.’

Length Contraction
06:20

Relativistic mass and the equivalence of mass and energy, and how to calculate both.

Discussion of a thought experiment explaining relativistic mass.

Discussion of the equivalence of mass and energy.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.6

‘Describe the significance of Einstein’s assumption of the constancy of the speed of light.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.9

Explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to:

– the equivalence between mass and energy

– mass dilation

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.5

‘Solve problems and analyse information using the appropriate formulae.’

Relativity, Mass and Energy
08:06

Discussion of the nature of thought experiments and the discovery of evidence supporting Einstein's theories.

Discussion of the impact of relativity on Space Travel.

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.3.4

‘Analyse information to discuss the relationship between theory and the evidence supporting it, using Einstein’s predictions based on relativity that were made many years before evidence was available to support it.’

NSW HSC Physics Syllabus 9.2.4.2.10

‘Discuss the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel.’

Thought, Evidence and Space Travel
07:48

Relativity Quiz
3 questions

Summary of the Relativity topic.

Preview 14:58
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Topic 2, Motors and Generators: The Motor Effect
7 Lectures 46:19

The interaction between magnetic fields and charged particles are discussed in terms of the forces exerted on a moving charge, with special attention being paid to positive charges.

This unit considers the operation of electric motors and generators in terms of conventional current, which assumes that current is transmitted through a conductor in the form of moving positive charges.  Conventional current is used for historic reasons.

An understanding of the interaction between moving positive charges and magnetic fields will assist your understanding of this section of the course.

Charged Particles and Magnetic Fields
03:56

Syllabus Coverage:

9.3.1.2.1

discuss the effect on the magnitude of the force on a current-carrying conductor of variations in:

– the strength of the magnetic field in which it is located
– the magnitude of the current in the conductor
– the length of the conductor in the external magnetic field
– the angle between the direction of the external magnetic field and the direction of the length of the
conductor

9.3.1.3.3

solve problems and analyse information about the force on current-carrying conductors in magnetic fields using:
F = BIl sin(theta)

The Force on a Current Carrying Wire due to a Magnetic Field
08:25

Examples of calculations of the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

Examples based on:

1, (based on 2010 HSC question 28)

2, (based on 2012 HSC question 8)

3, (based on 2013 HSC question 3)

Worked Examples - Force on a Conductor due to a Magnetic Field
10:53

The Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Conductors
07:29

Torque is the effective turning force in rotational motion, and is the product of the tangential force multiplied by the distance from the center of rotation.  An understanding of torque is necessary to understand electric motors.

Covers Syllabus dot point:  9.3.1.2.3

define torque as the turning moment
of a force using:

torque = Fd

Torque
05:06

Outlines the forces acting on a current carrying loop in a magnetic field, and how these result in a torque on the loop.  This effect underlies the operation of electric motors.

Syllabus: 9.3.1.2.5

'describe the forces experienced by a current-carrying loop in a magnetic field and describe the net result of the forces'

Forces on a Current Carrying Loop in a Magnetic Field
04:47

Derivation and explanation of the equation for the torque generated by a current carrying coil in a magnetic field.

Syllabus:

Syllabus: 9.3.1.2.5

'describe the forces experienced by a current-carrying loop in a magnetic field and describe the net result of the forces'

9.3.1.3.4

solve problems and analyse information about simple motors using:
torque = nBIAcos theta

Calculating the Torque on a Current Carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field
05:43