TOEFL Words Study (264w cover about 93% of what you need)

Increase your TOEFL iBT Score to 110/120 Points (264 words may cover about 93% of what you need)
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  • Lectures 29
  • Length 1 hour
  • Skill Level Intermediate Level
  • Languages English
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About This Course

Published 1/2016 English

Course Description

======================== What is TOEFL TPO? ========================

「TPO」 stands for “TOEFL Practice Online“.

The TPO tests are a set of full-length practice TOEFLs that were used for REAL TESTs in previous years. Each TPO test costs $45 USD and you can’t take them twice. After you finish a test, it’s done.


========================= What's the course about? =====================

- Our Toefl team bought 23 of them (TPO 1~23) for several times and extracted the most essential 264 words from them in last 11 months.

- We've filmed about 2 hours of video lessons, 29 education videos.


=============== How Much Value Can You Get from This Course? =============

- You'll get 29 professional education videos which cover 93% of vocabulary you need for the Toefl iBT test!! (only for students whose TOEFL score is over 60)

- You'll also get lots of free resources to help you score high on your upcoming exam.


============================ Why This Course? ==========================

Vocabulary is basic and very important when you learn foreign languages. And memorizing new words is a huge part of learning a new language.

If you have any trouble for memorizing toefl words, recognizing toefl words or using toeflwords..... here you are!

Let us help you get started today!

What are the requirements?

  • no worries, only these videos are enough for learning

What am I going to get from this course?

  • Get to remember the most common, the most important and essential 264 words used in real TOEFL tests.
  • Obtain the confidence and skills needed to get a high score on the new internet based TOEFL test.
  • Get the latest test materials, free reference books etc.

What is the target audience?

  • Student who looks forward to getting a high score on the toefl test.
  • Student who has problem to memorize Toefl vocabulary.

What you get with this course?

Not for you? No problem.
30 day money back guarantee.

Forever yours.
Lifetime access.

Learn on the go.
Desktop, iOS and Android.

Get rewarded.
Certificate of completion.

Curriculum

Section 1: First Week
02:41
  • prone
  • resistant
  • championed



PRONE

Prone means likely to do, get of suffer from something. Also means Lying down. (<adj.>likely, lying down)

Ex. I've always been prone to headaches.


RESISTANT

Resistant means not wanting to accept something. Also means not affected by something. (adj. not accepting, not affected)

Ex. Why are you so resistant to change?


CHAMPIONED

Championed means to act as a champion of, to defend, to support.

Ex. He championed the idea of lowering taxes.




  • ascribe
  • autonomous
  • established


ASCRIBE

Ascribe to credit or assign, as to a cause or source. Also means to attribute or think of as belonging.

Ex. People like to ascribe humanfeelings to animals.

AUTONOMOUS

Autonomous means independent and having the power to make own decisions

Ex. Yes, it’s crazy. Autonomous robots exist.


ESTABLISHED

Established means generally accepted or familiar.

Ex. A system was established to fund presidential campaigns with tax dollars.



  • penchant
  • inclination
  • compromise

PENCHANT

Penchant MEANS a strong inclination, taste, or liking for something:

Ex. Her penchant for disappearing for days worries me.

INCLINATION

Inclination means a preference or tendency.

Ex. I have a strong inclination toward music.

COMPROMISE

Compromise means an agreement between two sides who have different opinions, in which each side gives up something it had wanted.

Ex. He made a compromise and it saved our relationship.

02:14

  • fragile
  • scarce
  • propulsion


FRAGILE

Fragile MEANS easily damaged, broken or harmed.

Ex. Be careful with that vase- it s very fragile!


SCARCE

Scarce means rare, not easy to find.

Ex. Cheap diamonds are scarce.:)


PROPULSION

Propulsion means the force produced by a system for moving a subject.

Ex. The wind propulsion almost put me down.:)




  • feasible
  • devised
  • integral

FEASIBLE

Feasible MEANS possible, reasonable, or likely

Ex. It is not longer feasible to fund this research

DEVISED

Devised means to invent something, esp. with intelligence or imagination.

Ex. He devised a new way to get over depression.

INTEGRAL

Integral means necessary and important as a part of a whole

Ex. You are an integral part of the team and we can’t do without him!




  • arduous
  • pales
  • Fluid

ARDUOUS

Arduous MEANS difficult and tiring.

Ex. During winter, a trip to the North is an arduous journey.

PALES

Pales means to become lighter than usual in color

Ex. He paled when I asked him about his secretary. J


FLUID

Fluid means a substance that flows and is not solid. Also means having a flowing or changing quality.

Ex. When I am ill I have to drink lots of fluids.


02:08

  • ensuing
  • unprecedented
  • inevitable


ENSUING

Ensuing MEANS happening after or following something else.

Ex. Ensuing tests disclosed an inrregular heartbeat.


UNPRECEDENTED

Unprecedented means never having happened or existed in the past.

Ex. We’ve entered an age of unprecedented prosperity J


INEVITABLE

Inevitable means certain to happen:

Ex. Having a crush on her is inevitable J



  • inhibits
  • impatiently
  • rebound

INHIBITS

Inhibits means to take an action that makes something less likely to happen.

Ex. Some states have a rule that inhibits lawyers from talking about their casesoutside the courtroom.

IMPATIENTLY

Impatiently means eager for something to happen. (adv)

Ex. I waited impatiently for the new puppy.J


REBOUND

Rebound means to return to an earlier and better condition;improve.

Ex. My favorite athlete find it harder to rebound from injuries.



  • distinct
  • trappings
  • adjacent

DISTINCT

Distinct means different or noticeable.

Ex. The dogs are of distinct breeds.

TRAPPINGS

Trappings means all the things that are part of or typical of a particular situation.

Ex. He enjoyed the trappings of wealth.


ADJACENT

Adjacent means very near, next to, or touching

Ex. They work in adjacent buildings.


02:13
  • sloping
  • inclining
  • foul


SLOPING

Sloping MEANS to go downward or upward at an angle:

Ex. His sloping handwriting did not help him at all.


INCLINING

Inclining means to lean down.

Ex. The inclining of her head to whisper something to him, was really cute.J


FOUL

Foul means unpleasant, or an act that is against the rules. Means also to pollute something, make it dirty.

Ex. They were using a foul language.



  • facilitates
  • suspended
  • overwhelming

FACILITATES

Facilitates means to make something possible or easier.

Ex. To facilitate learning, each class is no larger than 30 students.


SUSPENDED

Suspended means to to stop something, either temporarily or permanently

Ex. They suspended his Facebook Account and he cried for days.


OVERWHELMING

Overwhelming means very great, difficult to fight against.

Ex. I felt an overwhelming sense of relief when the school was over.




  • implement
  • undisputed
  • diversification

IMPLEMENT

Implement means to start using a plan.

Ex. They refused to pass the bill that would implement tax reforms.

UNDISPUTED

Undisputed means about which ther is no disagreement.

Ex. It’s an undisputed fact that women live longer than men.

DIVERSIFICATION

Diversification means varied or different.

Ex. There’s a huge diversification in this market.


02:14
  • rudimentary
  • thorough
  • meticulously


RUDIMENTARY

Rudimentary means only basic, and not deep or detailed.

Ex. They’ve made a rudimentary shelter in a wood nearby.

THROUGH

Through means nothing left out or omitted, complete; also means very great.

Ex. The doctor gave him a thorough medical examination.

The meeting was a thorough waste of time.


METICULOUSLY

Meticulously means giving or showing careful attention to every detail.

Ex. She meticulously planned every decorating details




  • virtually
  • plausible
  • phenomenon


VIRTUALLY

Virtually means almost but not quite.

Ex. Virtually everyone gets a headache now and then.

PLAUSIBLE

Plausible means possible true.

Ex. He had a plausible explanation and he got away.


PHENOMENON

Phenomenon means anything that is or can be experienced or felt. Means also something special.

Ex. He was a kind of phenomenon, apart from the others.



  • occurrence
  • critically
  • subsequently

OCCURRENCE

Occurrence MEANS an event, esp. one that happens unexpectedly.

Ex. Break-ins are an everyday occurrence in this neighborhood.

CRITICALLY

Critically means in away that is very bad or serious.

Ex. He was critically injured in the accident.


SUBSEQUENTLY

Subsequently means happening after something else.

Ex. He was made a partner, but he subsequently retired.


02:19

  • turbulent
  • violent
  • temperate


TURBULENT

Turbulent means full of confusion, moving very strongly.

Ex. His book discusses the turbulent years of civil rights struggle.


VIOLENT

Violent means using or involving force to hurt or attack, can also mean very strong too

Ex. She was very afraid of him because he is a very violent person.


TEMPERATE

Temperate means not extreme; within a middle range

Ex. The climate here is pretty temperate.




  • fixation on
  • fostered
  • spheres


FIXATION ON

Fixation on means the state of being unable to stopthinking about something.

Ex. Liz has a fixation with food.


FOSTERED

Fostered means to take care of a child as if it were your own without being the child’s legalparent

Ex. A social service agency placed the child with a foster family.

SPHERES

Spheres means a solid shape like a round ball or a range or area of activity,

Ex. This changes the shape of the cornea from a spoon like form to a sphere.




  • diffused
  • ritual
  • fleeing

DIFFUSED

Diffused means to spread or cause something to spread in many directions, to diffuse is also to make something less noticeable or weaker.

Ex. Television is a powerful means of diffusing knowledge.


RITUAL

Ritual means a set of actions or words performed in a regular way, is also any act done regularly, usually without thinking about it.

Ex My morning ritual includes reading the newspaper while I drink my coffee.


FLEEING

Fleeing means to escape by running away usually because of danger or fear.

Ex. Fleeing from the cops is not a good idea.

Section 2: Second Week
02:13

  • massive
  • sincerity
  • predominant


MASSIVE

Massive means very large in size, amount, or degree.

Ex. WOW, this is a massive building!


SINCERITY

Sincerity means honest; not false or invented.

Ex: She spoke with such sincerity, you had to believe her .


PREDOMINANT

Predominant means being the most noticeable or largest in number, or having the most power or influence.

Ex. This neighborhood is now predominantly Hispanic.




  • principal
  • aggressive
  • fluctuation


PRINCIPAL

Principal MEANS first in order of importance, it also can mean a person in charge of a school

Ex. Iraq’s principal export is oil.

AGGRESSIVE

Aggressive means using strong, forceful methods esp. to sell or persuade.

Ex You have to be aggressive if you want to succeed in this business.


FLUCTUATION

Fluctuation means to change or vary frequently between one level or thing and another.

Ex. I fluctuate between feeling really happy and utterly miserable.




  • retreat
  • bombard
  • disruption


RETREAT

Retreat means to move back and away from someone or something, esp. because you are frightened or want to be alone.

Ex. She burst into tears and retreated to the bedroom.

BOMBARD

Bombard means to attack a place with continuous shooting or bombs.

Ex : I was bombarded with phone calls and faxes.


DISRUPTION

Disruption means an interruption in the usual way that a system, process, or event works.

Ex: It would cause a tremendous disruption to our work schedule to install a different computer system.

02:11

  • disturbance
  • relics
  • miniature


DISTURBANCE

Disturbance means something that interrupts you, esp. something loud or causing trouble.

Ex. You must take care of yourself and avoid upsetting disturbances.

RELICS

Relics means a surviving memorial of something past.

Ex : The ship was a relic of the Spanish-American War.


MINIATURE

Miniature means very small.

Ex: She has dollhouse filled with miniature furniture.




  • inflexible
  • in spite of
  • Isolated


INFLEXIBLE

Inflexible means fixed and unable or unwilling to change.

Ex. Some officials think the law is too harshand inflexible.

IN SPITE OF

In spite of means even though there is something unpleasant or bad happening.

Ex : In spite of his injury, Ricardo will play in Saturday’s game.


ISOLATED

Isolated means to separate something from other things, or to keep something separate.

Ex: A high wall isolated the house from the rest of the neighborhood.



  • impetus
  • incentive
  • justified

IMPETUS

Impetues means a force that encourages a particularaction or makes it more energetic.

Ex. Often the impetus for change in education has had to come the parents.


INCENTIVE

Incentive means something that encourages a person to do something.

Ex : These kids have no incentive to learn.


JUSTIFIED

Justified means having a good reason for something.

Ex: Ok,I accept the criticism. Is completely justified.


01:59
  • stimulated
  • flourish
  • objective


STIMULATED

Stimulated means to encourage something to grow, develop, or becomeactive:

Ex. Tax cuts will stimulate the economy.


FLOURISH

Flourish means to grow or develop successfully

Ex : Parts of Ialy continue to flourish.


OBJECTIVE

Objective means not influenced by personal beliefs or feelings . [fair, real]

Ex: I always appreciate more an objective opinion.




  • unbiased
  • compelling
  • Propagate


UNBIASED

Unbiased means able to judge fairly because you are not influence by your own opinion.

Ex. I will try to remain as unbiased as I can.


COMPELLING

Compelling means persuasive, something that hold your attention.

Ex : He made a compelling argument.


PROPAGATE

Propagate means to spread ideas among people, or to other places.

Ex: Such lies are propagated in the media!



  • evolve
  • dormant
  • preserved

EVOLVE

Evolve means to change or develop gradually

Ex. After all these years, you have evolved a lot! Good For you!


DORMANT

Dormant means temporarily not active.

Ex : That was A dormant volcano.


PRESERVED

Preserved means to keep something as it is.

Ex: Oranges preserved in brandy.


02:14

  • instigate
  • erratic
  • deliberation


INSTIGATE

Instigate means to cause an event or situation.

Ex. All these changes were instigated by the new director.


ERRATIC

Erratic means changing suddenly and unexpectedly

Ex : Pff, what an erratic schedule.


DELIBERATION

Deliberation means considering or discussing something.

Ex: After much deliberation, she decided to accept their offer



  • variation
  • invoked
  • meager


VARIATION

Variation means change in quality, amount, or level

Ex. Oh, these prices variation annoys me.

INVOKED

Invoked means to call on smth. or someone esp. God, for help. Also means to cause something to be used, bring into effect.

Ex : The witness invoked the 5th Amendment against incriminating himself.


MEAGER

Meager means a very small in amount or number

Ex: The food at my grandmother’s house was meager.



  • vital
  • essential
  • context

VITAL

Vital MEANS necessary or extremely important for the succes

Ex. The kidneys play a vital role in removing waste from the blood


ESSENTIAL

Essential means NECESARRY OR NEEDED.

Ex : A knowledge of Spanish is essential for this job.


CONTEXT

Context means the influences or events related to a particular event or situation.

Ex: We need solutions in the context of changes to the health-care system.


02:42

  • depict
  • portray
  • perplexed


DEPICT

Depict means to represent or show something in a picture, story, movie, etc.; portray:

Ex.The movie depicts his father as a tyrant


PORTRAY

Portray means to represent or describe someone or something in a book, movie, etc. Also means To portray is also to act the part of someone in a movie or play:

Ex : Michael Douglas portrays the president of the United States.


PERPLEXED

Perplexed means to cause someone to be confused or uncertain over something that is not understood:

Ex. The symptoms of the disease have continued to perplex her doctors.



  • defeated
  • preposterous
  • extensive

DEFEATED

Defeat means to oppose and cause someone to lose in a competition or war so that you can win

ex:Bill Clinton defeated George Bush for the presidency in 1992.

PREPOSTEROUS

preposterous means completely unreasonable and ridiculous; not to be believed:It was a preposterous idea, and no one took it seriously.

EXTENSIVE

Extensive means covering a large area; having or being a large amount: Extensive also means wide in rangeand including much detailed information:

Ex. Her knowledge of music is extensive.Foster did extensive research on electromagnetic fields.




  • discrete
  • revealed
  • criteria


DISCRETE

Discrete means separate, not the same thing and with no parts in common

ex: The moviedepicts his fatheras a tyrant

REVEALED

revealed means to make known or show something that is surprising or that was previouslysecret:

Ex. He was jailed for revealing secrets to the Russians.

CRITERIA

criteria means a condition or fact used as a standard by which something can be judged or considered:

Ex. Eight criteria will be used to select new stadium sites.

02:51
  • altered
  • paradox
  • contradiction


ALTERED

altered means to change a characteristic, often slightly, or to cause this to happen::

ex: The coat was too long, so I took it back to the store to have it altered.


PARADOX

paradox means a statement or situation that may be true but seems impossible or difficult to understand because it contains two opposite facts or characteristics:

Ex. It’s a strange paradox that people who say you shouldn’t criticize the government criticize it as soon as they disagree with it.


CONTRADITION

Contradiction means a fact or statement that is the opposite of what someone has said or that is so different from another fact or statement that one of them must be wrong:

Ex. His life was full of contradictions





  • accomplishment
  • parallel
  • overshadow


ACCOMPLISHMENT

accomplishment something done or finishedsuccessfully:

ex: There’s a feeling of accomplishment (= achievement) from having a job and all that goes with it

PARALLEL

parallel means geometry [not gradable](of two or more straightlines) being the same distanceapart along all theirlength:, it also means similar or matching:

Ex. The wood was marked with parallel darkbands.

Parallel experiments are being conducted in Europe and the UnitedStates.

OVERSHADOW

overshadow means to cause someone or something to seem less important or noticeable:

Ex. Karen has always been overshadowed by her older sister.




  • drastically
  • dweller
  • tribe


DRASTICALLY

drastically means severe and sudden; extreme:

ex: Last year, Texas drastically cut its family-planning funding, the same way Mitt Romney says he would cut federal funding.

DWELLER

dweller means a person who lives in a particulartype of place:

Ex. But picture Ben and Betsy, two city dwellers, neither owning a car.

TRIBE

tribe means a group of people, often of relatedfamilies, who live in the same area and share the same language, culture, and history:

Ex. She has studiedNative American tribes from Mexico to Maine.


Section 3: Third Week
02:28

  • fracture
  • crack
  • immobile


FRACTURE

fracture means to crack or break something, esp. a bone:

ex: She fractured her skull in the accident.


CRACK

crack means to damage something by causing thinlines or spaces to appear on itssurface; breakslightly:, also If you crack a code (= message in symbols), you discover what it means.

Ex. He fellbackward, his head cracking against a tree.


IMMOBILE

immobile means a not moving, or not able to move or be moved:

Ex. He is in a cast to keep his spine immobile.




  • motionless
  • enclose
  • intact


MOTIONLESS

motionless means not moving:

ex: He looks made of stone, utterly motionless (= completely without movement).


ENCLOSE

enclose means to surround: , also means to send something in the same envelope or package as something else:

Ex. The garden is enclosed by four walls.


INTACT

intact means complete and in the originalstate:

Ex. He emerged from the investigation with his reputation largely intact (= not damaged).




  • artificial
  • quantifiable
  • permanent


ARTIFICIAL

artificial means made by people, often as a copy of something natural:, not sincere:

ex: clothes made of artificial fibres

an artificial heart

an artificial lake

QUANTIFIABLE

quantifiable means able to be measured:

Ex. The benefits of the new policy are not easily quantifiable.

PERMANENT

Permanent means lasting for a longtime or for ever:, Something that is permanent exists or happens all the time.

Ex. Are you looking for a temporary or a permanent job?


02:25
  • periodic
  • uniformly
  • potent


PERIODIC

periodic means happening repeatedly in a fixed pattern ; happening repeatedly although not necessarily frequently:
ex: He suffers periodic mental breakdowns.


UNIFORMLY

uniformly means in a uniform manner; "a uniformly bright surface", or spread, distributed, applied], the book has had uniformly bad reviews


POTENT

potent means powerful, persuasive, or effective:

Ex. This is the most potent headache remedy you can get without a prescription.




  • duration
  • sustained
  • uninterrupted

DURATION

duration means the length of time that something lasts:

ex: He planned a stay of two years’ duration.

SUSTAINED

sustained means continuing for a longtime: ; or determined:

Ex. The president's speech was greeted by sustained applause.

We must make a sustained effort to get this taskfinished this week.

UNINTERRUPTED

uninterrupted means without any pauses or interruptions

Ex. Most people do not get eight hours of uninterrupted sleep every night.





  • nevertheless
  • persistent
  • enduring

NEVERTHELESS

Nevertheless MEANS despite what has just been said or referred to:

ex: I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.

PERSISTENT

persistent means continuing to exist past the usualtime, or continuing to do something in a determined way even when facingdifficulties or opposition:

Ex. a persistent coughpersistent rumors

ENDURING

enduring means existing for a longtime:

Ex. I shall be left with many enduring memories of the time I spent in India.

02:46

  • exposing
  • deviate
  • detract


EXPOSING

exposing MEANS to make something covered or hiddenable to be seen: , it also means to publicly show that someone or something is bad or dishonest:

ex: He was exposed as a fraud and a liar.


DEVIATE

deviate to change from the usual way, or to go in a different direction:

Ex. He never deviated from his strictvegetariandiet.


DETRACT

detract means to make something seem less valuable or less deserving of admiration:

Ex. These smallfaults, however, do not detract from the overallquality of the book.




  • elaborate
  • delicate
  • endowing


ELABORATE

elaborate means containing a lot of connectedparts or many complicateddetails: to add more information or explain something that you have said:

ex: He refused to elaborate on why he had resigned.

DELICATE

delicate means needingcarefultreatment, especially because easilydamaged: needing to be done carefully:

Ex. Repairing damagednerves is a very delicate operation.

ENDOWING

Endowing means to give a largeamount of money to pay for creating a college, hospital, etc. or to provide an income for it:

Ex. The state of Michigan has endowed three institutes to do research for industry.





  • profound
  • striking
  • capacity

PROFOUND

Profound means felt or experienced very strongly or in an extreme way:

ex: Those two lines of poetryexpressperfectly the profound sadness of loss.

STRIKING

striking means very unusual or easilynoticed, and thereforeattracting a lot of attention:

Ex. She bears a striking resemblance to her mother.

CAPACITY

capacity means the amount or volume something can hold ability:

Ex. The hotel is full to maximum capacity; there are no empty rooms.


02:41

  • disastrous
  • exhausted
  • prestige


DISASTROUS

disastrous mean extremelybad or unsuccessful:

ex: Such a war would be disastrous for the country.


EXHAUSTED

exhausted means extremelytired:

Ex. By the time they reached the summit they were exhausted.


PRESTIGE

prestige means respect and admiration given to someone or something, usually because of a reputation for high quality, success, or socialinfluence:

Ex. No one would go into this sort of work for the prestige.




  • evaluation
  • paradoxically
  • prolonged

EVALUATION

evaluation means the process of judging something's quality, importance, or value, or a report that includes this information:

ex: Find out how much your property is worth with our freerealestate evaluation!

PARADOXICALLY

paradoxically means in a paradoxical manner; A statement that seems to contradict itself but may nonetheless be true:

Ex. paradoxically, ice ages seem to occur when the sun gets hotter"

PROLONGED

prolonged means continuing for a longtime:

Ex. Prolonged use of the drug is known to have harmful side-effects.




  • verify
  • criticize
  • attributes

VERIFY

verify means to make certain or prove that something is true or accurate:

ex: The report could not immediately be verified.

CRITICIZE

criticize means to express disagreement with or disapproval of something or someone:

Ex: It’s a lot easier to criticize (a plan) than to offer useful suggestions.

ATTRIBUTE

attributes means a quality or feature of a person or thing, esp. one that is an important part of its nature:

Ex. Self-confidence is a rare attribute in a 17-year-old.

She has the physical attributes to become a champion ship swimmer.

02:49
  • feat
  • complex solution
  • bulk


FEAT

feat means an act that showsskill, strength, or bravery:

ex: Getting the house painted was quite a feat.


COMPLEX SOLUTION

complex solution means involving a lot of different but related parts as an answer to a problem : Ex: The problem we have is very big, we need a more complex solution to solve it.


BULK

bulk means something very large, or a large amount, not divided into smaller parts:

Ex. We buy a lot of our groceries in bulk (= in large quantities) to save money.


  • interlocked
  • frozen
  • intermediate

INTERLOCKED

interlocked means to join together firmly, esp. by fitting one part into another

ex: The edges interlock to form a tightseal.

FROZEN

frozen means (of water) turned into ice, or (of food) preserved by freezing:, If a person, or a part of theirbody is frozen, they are very cold:

Ex: We don't have any freshvegetables, only frozen peas.

INTERMEDIATE

intermediate means being between two other related things, levels, or points:

Ex. There are three levels of difficulty in this game: low, intermediate, and high.




  • deceiving
  • exaggerated
  • static

DECEIVING

deceiving means to persuade someone that something false is the truth, or to keep the truthhidden from someone for your own advantage:

ex: The company deceived customers by sellingoldcomputers as new ones.

EXAGGERATED

exaggerated means to make something seemlarger, more important, better, or worse than it really is:

Ex: The media exaggerate the risks and benefits of researchfindings.

STATIC

static means staying in one place without moving, or not changing for a longtime: it can also mean noise on a radio or televisioncaused by electricity in the air:

Ex. Oil prices have remained static for the last few months.

There's so much static on this radio I can't hear what they're saying.



02:36

  • markedly
  • noticeably
  • exclude


MARKEDLY

markedly means obvious or noticeable:

ex: There was a marked improvement in my health when I startedexercising.


NOTICEABLY

noticeably means easy to see or recognize:

Ex: There has been a noticeable improvement in Tim's cooking.


EXCLUDE

Exclude means to not include, to not put in a list or group.

Ex. I eat almost anything, excluding spicy foods. I don't like spicy food.




  • superior to
  • postulated
  • hypothesized


SUPERIOR TO

superior to means better than average or better than other people or things of the same type: ex: For babies, breastfeeding is superior to bottle-feeding.

POSTULATED

postulated means to suggest or accept that a theory or idea is true as a starting point for reasoning or discussion:

Ex: Astronomers postulate that the comet will reappear in 4000 years.

HYPOTHESIZED

hypothesized means to give a possible but not yet proven explanation for something:

Ex. There's no point hypothesizing about how the accident happened, since we'll never really know.




  • interplay
  • sequence
  • analogous to

INTERPLAY

interplay means the action between two or more things or the effect they have on each other:

ex: the interplay of light and shadow in a photograph

SEQUENCE

sequence means a series of related things or events, or the order in which things or eventsfollow each other:

Ex: The first chapterdescribes the strange sequence of events that led to his death.

ANALOGOUS TO

analogous to means similar in some way

Ex. The experience of mystictrance is in a sense analogous tosleep or drunkenness

Section 4: Forth Week
02:31

  • authority
  • ethic
  • intrinsically


AUTHORITY

authority means the power to control or demand obedience from others:, An authority is someone with official responsibility for a particular area of activity:

ex: The police have no legal authority in these disputes.

No attacks were reported to the authorities.


ETHIC

ethic means a system of accepted beliefs that control behavior, esp. such a system based on morals:

Ex: Our schoolpromotes an ethic of service to the community.


INTRINSICALLY

intrinsically means to describe things that are a vital, important, or

Ex. great teachers are intrinsically associated with a great school





  • repudiate
  • revise
  • consensus

REPUDIATE

repudiate means to refuse to accept or obey something or someone; reject:

ex: The evidencepresented at the trial has since been repudiated.

REVISE

revise means to change or correct something, esp. a piece of writing:

Ex: With the finalexam, you don’t revise it after the teacherreads it.

CONSENSUS

consensus means a generally accepted opinion; wide agreement:

  • Ex. They’re trying to build a consensus on the need to improve the city’s schools.




  • devastate
  • inadvertently
  • unintentionally

DEVASTATE

devastate means to cause great damage or suffering to something or someone, or to violently destroy a place:

ex: Waves of corporatedownsizing have devastated employeemorale.

INADVERTENTLY

inadvertently means done or happening unintentionally::

Ex: That was an inadvertent mistake

UNINTENTIONALLY

unintentionally means not planned or intended

Ex. If I said something to offend you, I swear it was unintentional.

02:41
  • obstruction
  • resistance
  • derive


OBSTRUCTION

obstruction means the condition of being blocked so that things cannot move through easily , law Obstruction of justice is the act of preventing the police or law courts from doing their job.

ex: Obstruction of justice is the crime of trying to stop police from learning the truth about something.


RESISTANCE

resistance means the act of fighting against something that is attacking you, or refusing to accept something: means also the degree to which a substance prevents the flow of electricity through it:

Ex: Government troopsoffered no resistance


DERIVE

derive means to get or obtain something:

Ex. The institute derives all its money from foreign investments.




  • imitate
  • inflating
  • impediment

IMITATE

imitate means to copy someone’s speech or behavior, or to copy something as a model:

ex: My four-year-old daughter is always trying to imitate her oldersister.

INFLATING

inflating means to cause an object to increase in size and shape by filling it with air or gas, or (of an object) to become larger as a result of this process:

Ex: Air bags in cars are designed to inflate automatically on impact.

IMPEDIMENT

impediment means something that makes progress or movement difficult or impossible::

Ex. The lack of funds is a major impediment to research.




  • pursue
  • refine
  • conspicuous

PURSUE

pursue means to follow, to chase to try to achieve (a dream or goal)

ex: What do you pursue as your final goal?


REFINE

refine means to make a substancepure by removingunwantedmaterial:

Ex: Sugar and oil are refined before use.

CONSPICUOUS

conspicuous means easilynoticed; obvious:

Ex. He was conspicuous as usual with a bigyellowbowtie.


02:08
  • perceive
  • stimulus
  • obstacle


PERCEIVE

perceive means to be aware of, to sense or feel.

ex: If hunters are skilled, the animals will not perceive their presence.


STIMULUS

stimulus means something that causes growth, activity, or reaction:

Ex: Scientists are studying the cell’s response to stimuli.


OBSTACLE

obstacle means something that blocks your way so that movement or progress is prevented or made more difficult:

Ex. We suddenly encountered an obstacle along the trail.



  • electrifies
  • initiate
  • intensive

ELECTRIFIES

electrifies means to equip with electricity:

ex: They recently electrified this part of the railwayline

INITIATE

initiate means to cause something to begin:

Ex: Who initiated the violence?

INTENSIVE

intensive means needing or using great energy or effort:

Ex. We’re in the midst of intensive negotiations.



  • acquire
  • obtain
  • illuminate

ACQUIRE

acquire means to obtain or begin to have something:

ex: His family acquired the property in 1985.

OBTAIN

obtain means to get something, esp. by a planned effort:

Ex: She was finally able to obtain legal possession of the house.

ILLUMINATE

illuminate means to put light in or on something::

Ex. The buildings were illuminated at nigh.

02:38
  • empirical
  • tremendous
  • deduce


EMPIRICAL

empirical means based on what is experienced or seenrather than on theory:

ex: We have no empirical evidence that the industry is in trouble.


TREMENDOUS

tremendous means great in amount, size, or degree; extremelylarge:

Ex: She is under tremendous pressure at work.


DEDUCE

deduce means to come to a conclusion through logic and evidence, to figure out

Ex. By analyzing the bones, we can deduce when the animal lived and how it died.





  • partial
  • flaw
  • trigger

PARTIAL

partial means not complete:

ex: He made a partial repayment of the loan.

FLAW

flaw means a fault or weakness, esp. one that happens while something is being planned or made and that makes it not perfect:

Ex: A flaw in the steering mechanismled to a recall of 200,000 cars

TRIGGER

trigger means a part of a gun that causes the gun to fire when pressed:, also means to cause something to start:

Ex. I triggered the smoke alarm when I burned the potatoes.



  • extraordinary
  • abolish
  • progressive


EXTRAORDINARY

extraordinary means very unusual and special; different in type or greater in degree than the usual or ordinary::

ex: She was an extraordinary woman, and no one will ever forget her.

ABOLISH

abolish means to put an end to something, such as an organization, rule, or custom:

Ex: Massachusetts voters abolished rentcontrol.

PROGRESSIVE

progressive means A progressive disease is one that gets increasingly worse. Also can mean Progressive ideas or systems encourage change in society or in the way things are done:

Ex. She worked for women’s rights, labor reforms, and other progressive causes.

02:49

  • suppress
  • friction
  • rebellion


SUPPRESS

suppress means to end something by force. Also means to prevent something from being expressed or known:

ex: He either has to beginreforms, or he has to suppress the opposition.


FRICTION

friction means the force that works against an object as it slides along the surface of another object or moves through a liquid or gas. Also means disagreement or dislike caused by people having different opinions:

Ex: A gasolineengineloses over 70 percentof itsenergy to friction and heat.


REBELLION

rebellion means violentactionorganized by a groupof people who refuse to accept theirgovernment’s power and are willingto use force to oppose it. Also means feeling of strongdisagreement with an organizationor with people in authority:

Ex. Many students were in rebellion against the older generation.




  • neglect
  • entitled
  • circumstance

NEGLECT

neglect means to fail to give neededcare or attention to someone or something:

ex: He neglected to tell his employer that he would be taking the day off.

ENTITLED

entitled means to give someone the right to do or have something. Also means to give a title to a book, movie, etc.:

Ex: He’s entitled to his opinioneven if you don’t agree with him.

CIRCUMSTANCE

circumstance means an event or condition connectedwith what is happening or has happened:

Ex. The circumstances of the theft of the painting were not known.



  • substantiate
  • publicize
  • tendency

SUBSTSNTIATE

substantiate means to show something to be true, or to support a claim with facts:

ex: They have enough evidence to substantiate complaints of vandalism.

PUBLICIZE

publicize means to make information available about someone or something:

Ex: Luna has helped publicize the problem of homelessness.

TENDENCY

tendency means a likelihood to happen or to have a particular characteristic or effect:

Ex. She has a tendency to work late.

02:38

  • legitimately
  • accumulation
  • deposit


LEGITIMATELY

legitimately means allowed according to law, or reasonable and acceptable:

ex: a legitimate taxdeduction; legitimate concerns


ACCUMULATION

accumulation means an amount of something that has been collected:

Ex: Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastalbeaches.


DEPOSIT

deposit means an amount of money paid into an account, Also means a layer a substance.

Ex. She made a large deposit last Thursday.





  • heterogeneous
  • layered
  • resemble

HETEROGENEOUS

heterogeneous means consisting of parts or things that are very different from each other: ex: Switzerland is a heterogeneous confederation of 26 self-governing cantons.

LAYERED

layered means a thinsheet of a substance on top of a surface, or a level of material that is different from the material on either side:

Ex: a thinsheet of a substance on top of a surface, or a level of material that is different from the material on either side:

RESEMBLE

resemble means to be similar to someone or something:

Ex. everal of the women resemble one another closely enough to be sisters.




  • fringes
  • proliferation
  • cooperation

FRINGE

fringes means the outer or less importantpart of an area, group, or activity. Also means as verb to form a border around the edge of something:

ex: There is some industry on the fringes of the city.

PROLIFERATION

proliferation means to increasegreatly in number or amount, usually quickly:

Ex Amusement and themeparks are proliferating across the country.

COOPERATION

cooperation means the act of working together with someone or doing what they askyou: Ex. There's very little cooperation between the two countries.

Section 5: Fifth Week
02:28

  • superseded
  • equaled
  • divert


SUPERSED

supersed means to replace something older, less effective, or less important or official:

ex: Wireless broadband could supersede satelliteradio one day.


EQUALED

equaled means the same in amount, number, or size:

Ex Divide the class into equal groups.


DIVERT

divert means to cause something or someone to turn in a different direction:

: Ex. Our flight was diverted from San Francisco to Oakland because of the fog.




  • momentous
  • inhabit
  • cramp

MOMENTOUS

momentous means very important, esp. because of the effects on future events:

ex: a momentous decision/event

INHABIT

inhabit means to live in a place:

Ex These remoteislands are inhabited only by birds and animals.

CRAMP

cramp means a sudden, painful tightening of a muscle:

: Ex. He suffered from a stomach cramps.




  • confine
  • primitive
  • abruptly


CONFINE

confine means to keep someone or something within limits. Also means If something is confined to a particular group of people, it exists only among them:

ex: Let's confine ourdiscussion to the matter in question, please!

PRIMITIVE

primitive means of or typical of an early stage of development; not advanced or complicated in structure:

Ex The pioneers who settled the west had to cope with primitive livingconditions.

ABRUPT

abruptly means sudden and not expected, often with unpleasant results. Also means not friendly or polite; showing little interest in talking to other people:

: Ex. There was an abrupt change in her mood..

02:23

  • enhance
  • precise
  • prospect


ENHANCE

enhance means to improve the quality, amount, or strength of something:

ex: The marinade enhances the flavor of the fish.


PRECISE

precise means exact and accurate in form, time, detail, or description:
Ex The precise recipe is a closelyguardedsecret.


PROSPECT

prospect means the possibility or likelihood that something will happen:

: Ex. Losing the elections is a prospect that still appears unlikely.



  • practical
  • plentiful
  • abundant


PRACTICAL

practical means relating to actualexperience or to the use of knowledge in activitiesrather than to knowledge only or ideas:

ex: I know you’ve been trained as a teacher, but do you have any practical teachingexperience?.

PLENTIFUL

plentiful means If something is plentiful, there is a lot of it available:
Ex Strawberries are plentiful in the summer.

ABUNDANT

abundant means more than enough; a lot of:

: Ex. It is a region with abundant natural resources.




  • exploiting
  • contention
  • interpretation

EXPLOIT

exploit means a brave, interesting, or unusual act: also means to use something for your own benefit:

ex: The two companies joined forces to exploit the potential of the Internet.

CONTENTION

contention means disagreement resulting from opposing arguments:

Ex Their refusal to sign the treaty remains source of contention between the two countries.

INTERPRETATION

interpretation means an explanation or opinion of what something means:

: Ex. The rules are vague and open to interpretation.


02:17

  • ample
  • sufficient
  • elaboration


AMPLE

ample means enough, or more than enough, or (esp. of body size) large:

ex: There will be ample opportunity for everyone here to speak.


SUFFICIENT

sufficient means enough for a particular purpose:

Ex The company did not have sufficient funds to pay for the goods it had received.


ELABORATION

elaboration means containing a lot of connected parts or many complicated details:

: Ex. They had created elaborate computer programs to run the system.



  • pristine
  • ordinary
  • trapped

PRIATINE

pristine means original and pure; not spoiled or worn from use:

ex: The car seemed to be in pristine condition.

ORDINARY

ordinary means not different, special, or unexpected in any way; usual:

Ex His music was of the sort that ordinary Americans could relate to.

TRAPPED

trapped means a device or hole for catching and holding things:

: Ex. A bear was caught in the trap.



  • grant
  • enigmatic
  • mysterious

GRANT

Grant means to agree to give (something that was asked for)

ex: We are prepared to grant your wishes.

ENIGMATIC

enigmatic means mysterious and impossible to understand completely:

Ex The Mona Lisa has a famously enigmatic smile.

MYSTERIOUS

mysterious means strange, not known, or not understood:

: Ex. She's an actress whose inner life has remained mysterious, despite the many interviews she has given.


02:12

  • enormous
  • frightening
  • configuration


ENORMOUS

enormous MEANS extremely large or great:

Ex. He ate an enormous helping of pasta.


FRIGHTENING

frightening MEANS making you feel fear:, Frightening can also mean extreme:

Ex : My car insurance payments are frightening.


CONFIGURATION

configuration means the particular arrangement of the parts of something or of a group of things:

Ex: The two-lane configuration of the road leads to congestion.



  • utilization
  • legendary
  • astonishing

UTILIZATION

utilization means the use of something

Ex. The audit found there could be a better utilization of resources throughout the company.

LEGENDARY

legendary MEANS of or relating to an old story or set of stories from ancient times, or the stories that people tell about a famous event or person:, of or describing someone who is very famous and admired, usually because of an ability in a particular area:

Ex : he is the legendary magician Houdini

ASTONISHING

astonishing means very surprising:

Ex: Her first novel enjoyed an astonishing success.



  • infrequent
  • puzzling
  • discern

INFREQUENT

infrequent means not happening often; rare:

Ex. Wiggins made one of his infrequent trips into Manhattan..

PUZZLING

puzzling MEANS difficult to explain or understand:

Ex : It's a rather puzzling film.

DISCERN

discern means to see, recognize, or understand something that is not clear:

Ex: I could just discern a figure in the darkness.


03:42

  • exceedingly
  • attempt
  • collotype


EXCEEDINGLY

exceedingly MEANS to a very great degree; extremely:

Ex. He is exceedingly rich.


ATTEMPT

attempt MEANS to try to do something, especially something difficult:

Ex : He attempted to escape through a window.


COLLOTYPE

Collotype means a print made using the collotype process.

Ex: A complete edition of the Hebrew fragments in collotype facsimile was published jointly by the Oxford and Cambridge Presses



  • etching
  • engraving
  • authenticity

ETCHING

etching MEANS , the act of etching - a picture produced by printing from a metal plate that has been etched with acid

Ex. In the 17th and 18th centuries the processes of scratching, engraving and etching were brought to great perfection.

ENGRAVING

engraving MEANS a picture or design printed on paper from a hard, usually metal, surface in which cuts have been made, or this process:

Ex : The book describes the art of engraving.


AUTHENTICITY

Authenticity means the quality of being real or true:

Ex: Digital signatures ensure the authenticity of your documents.



  • genuineness
  • reluctant
  • embarrassed

GENUINENESS

genuineness MEANS being what something or someone appears or claims to be; real, not false:

Ex. genuine leather, a genuine masterpiece

RELUCTANT

reluctant means not wanting to do something and therefore slow to do it:

Ex : She had trouble sleeping but was reluctant to take sleeping pills.

EMBARRASSED

Embarrassed means feeling ashamed or shy:

Ex: She felt embarrassed about undressing in front of the doctor.




  • coordinate
  • allusion
  • modification

COORDINATE

coordinate MEANS to work with or communicate with the different people, groups, or pieces involved in a large product

Ex. Thank you for having you coordinate a schedule,and let's coordinate the details separately.

ALLUSION

allusion MEANS a brief or indirect reference:

Ex : He made some allusion to the years they lived apart.

MODIFICATION

Modification means something that is changed slightly, esp. to improve it or make it more acceptable or less extreme:

Ex: U] behavior modification[C] Several modifications have been made in the proposals.


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