Decoding 3 More Great Grammar Pieces

Language Exam Preparation: Learn about Reported Speech, Modal Verbs and Relative Clauses
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Instructed by Betty Zsoldos Language / English
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  • Lectures 23
  • Length 2 hours
  • Skill Level Intermediate Level
  • Languages English
  • Includes Lifetime access
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About This Course

Published 12/2015 English

Course Description

Hello,

In this course you will learn everything you need to know for the exam about 3 Great Grammar Pieces: Reported Speech, Modal Verbs and Relative Clauses. Probably you are over the previous courses - Decoding English Verb Tenses, Decoding 3 Great Grammar Pieces - and now with these additional 3 grammars you can complete the greatest grammars of the English Language.

What do I mean by the greatest grammars?

There are units of any languages that are so basic that without them your communication fails, even if you know the words. Let me tell you an example. Think of a house! What makes a house: strong foundations, pillars, walls, doors, windows and a roof. When you can see these things nicely put together you associate them with a house. All the others are simple decorations.

So, by now we have been over the foundation, that is: the verb tenses, and some other basic elements, like Conditionals. Now, with these 3 additional pieces we will complete our house!

You will have plenty of materials to aid your learning: more than 2-hour video, detailed description of each section, pdf-s and quizzes will help you!

"Don't put it off tomorrow, what you can do today" - So, NOW is the right time to start!

See you soon:-)

Betty

What are the requirements?

  • Students are recommended taking 'Decoding English Verb Tenses' (and Decoding 3 Great Grammar) as it is the foundation. If a student is familiar with the tenses, this course will give efficient help to advance their grammar.

What am I going to get from this course?

  • better understand and correctly apply Reported Speech, Modal Verbs, and Relative Clauses.
  • get higher scores at English language exams, as these 3 additional pieces are essential parts of the 7 Greatest Grammars.

What is the target audience?

  • Students are advised to be at or above (pre)intermediate level to be able to efficiently learn from this course. This course is probably not for students, who are at lower levels and/or do not understand at least 60-70 % or the promo and the free videos of the course.

What you get with this course?

Not for you? No problem.
30 day money back guarantee.

Forever yours.
Lifetime access.

Learn on the go.
Desktop, iOS and Android.

Get rewarded.
Certificate of completion.

Curriculum

Section 1: INTRODUCTION
02:14

Hello,

First of all thank you very much for trusting me to be your sherpa while learning about English Grammar!

In this course you will learn everything you need to know for the exam about 3 Great Grammar Pieces: Reported Speech, Modal Verbs and Relative Clauses. Probably you are over the previous courses - Decoding English Verb Tenses, Decoding 3 Great Grammar Pieces - and now with these additional 3 grammars you can complete the greatest grammars of the English Language.

What do I mean by the greatest grammars?

There are units of any languages that are so basic that without them your communication fails, even if you know the words. Let me tell you an example. Think of a house! What makes a house: strong foundations, pillars, walls, doors, windows and a roof. When you can see these things nicely put together you associate them with a house. All the others are simple decorations.

So, by now we have been over the foundation, that is: the verb tenses, and some other basic elements, like Conditionals. Now, with these 3 additional pieces we will complete our house!

In the next course: Decoding 66 Small Grammar Pieces we will decorate the house. But first, let's finish the building!

Ready, … steady, … go!!!!

03:32

Hello,

My name is Andrew, Betty's ex-student. I know her very well because she was teaching me for years and I owe a lot to her.

Probably you have also met her in her other courses Decoding English Grammar. If you have, it is unnecessary to introduce her and her high-quality work. If not, I strongly advise you to have those courses, too.

So, now let's speak about her:

This is Betty Zsoldos, a Hungarian-born lady who lives in Australia.

Well, don't think that speaking English was always easy for her! When I asked Betty about her learning, she recalled her story:

Till the age of 25 she didn't speak English at all. Then, one day she got into a situation when she said: never again. She met young foreigners, who loved her kids (yes, by the age of 25 she had 4 little kids:-) and she couldn't communicate with these people at all, apart from some body-language! They offered some languages, and she shook her head, and she felt so-so ashamed. So, the next day she rushed to friends to help her to learn some English.

Well, you know, learning another language is not easy. Getting used to another nation's way of thinking might be very strange – at least, it was for her. But she developed fast, and in 3 years she was asked to teach in language school, then soon she became one of the most popular English teachers in her hometown. Then she went to get her Cambridge Diploma in Teaching English as a Second Language for Adults. Plus she has had 22 years of experience in teaching. That's a lot!

The other professional part of her is a Master Coach, NLP Master and a trainer. These extras ensure that she really knows a great deal about how learning takes place.

So, trust her, and let her prove that she is the best sherpa, who will make you enjoy this journey!

Section 2: REPORTED SPEECH AND QUESTION
03:01

What is the difference between:

- Joe said: “I'm so much fed up with everything.”

- Joe said he was so much fed up with everything.

Or:

- I asked: “Where did you go?”

- I asked where you went


In the first example we quote from Joe, and in oral communication we must emphasise and intonate that way, how Joe said that sentence. However, in everyday communication we rather follow the second example.


Note that we are going to examine Reported Speech step by step, in 4 steps:

We will look at what happens in speech and in questions, and what about these forms if the main verb is in present and past.

We'll also find out what happens after certain words, for example: “I wonder” or certain questions, like: “Could you tell me…” - You'll see they also come to this category.

So, if you don't know the rules of Reported Speech you have no chance to speak correctly.

06:14

How do you know when to say “say” and when to say “tell”?

Here's the rule:

Say

- hello, good morning, thank you, a word, a sentence...

- (to someone) (that)....

Tell

- a joke, a poem, a story, a lie, the truth, ...

- someone(!!!) (that/what/where...) ....

- somebody to do something = ask somebody to do something!


In any other sentences it is optional, e.g.:

He says it is a brilliant software.

He tells me it is a brilliant software.

02:51

He says

- he is fine. / he works a lot. / he doesn't like cabbage.

- he will be at home. / won't stay long there. / he can't do that.

- he didn't work for Videoton. / he was in hospital.

No matter what tense you use after “says”, there is no change.

Typically Students have no problem with this use of Reported Speech

05:11

Reported speech in Past Tense:

He said:

- he was fine. / he worked a lot. / he didn't like cabbage.

- he would be at home. / wouldn't stay long there. / he couldn't do that.

- he hadn't worked for Videoton. / he had been in hospital.


You must understand why English uses different tenses after “said”.

When we say: “I am fine.” “I work at home.” “I can swim well.” - these sentences refer to the present.

However, the word: “said” refers to the past. As the time of “he/she said” is the point of reference we must look at everything from that time.

Where did the activity take place? Comparing to that point of reference, was the action at the same time? Then the verb also goes to past tense.

Was it about future? Take care: in Reported Speech “will” goes to “would”!

Did the activity take place before “he/she said”? This is Past Perfect, as we use Past Perfect to express the activity took place before another past activity!

What about auxiliaries or modal verbs? Most of them change:

Will – would, can – could, must – had to, may – might…

Some other words MIGHT also change – of course they depend on the context:

Here – there, this time – that time, today- that day, this month – that month, next week – following week, last year – previous year… A person also often changes: your boss – hiss boss

06:27

“How are you?” “How much does he work?” “Does your dad like cabbage?”

“Where will you be?” “How long will he stay here?” “Can you do that?”

“Who did he work for?” “Was he in hospital?”

Reported question in Present Tense:

She asks

- how you are. / … how much he works. / … if/whether your dad likes cabbage.

- where you will be. / … how long he will stay there. / if/whether he can do that.

- who he worked for. / … if/whether he was in hospital.


In Reported Question the sentence is not a question, that is why we use “straight word order” not a question word order!

Unfortunately, by the time students get here to learn Reported Speech they have fixed “question word order”, so it comes automatically. That's why they make mistakes like this: He asks that how are you.

xxx

The other important thing is what happens if there is no “question word” like what, how, where; because the original question is a yes-no question: e.g. Do you like bananas? Can you swim?

This time, instead of the question word we use “whether” or “if”. (Take care: “if” is not the same as conditionals!!!

xxx

It is important to note that instead of “ask” the following words can be also used correctly:

wonder, want to know, would like to know, etc. - which after the same rule apply!

E.g. I wonder how you are.

Reported Question in Past Tense
04:20
1 page

In this exercise you'll find not only 20 sentences as examples for Reported Speech but you'll need to do an interesting exercise:-)

12 questions

Now you can test what you have learnt about Reported Speech and Question.

Good luck!

Section 3: MODAL VERBS
Let's Talk about Modal Verbs
05:56
06:13

Keep in mind the following rules:

- modal + verb - It means that after a modal always there is a verb!!!

- when the verb is “be”, then “modal + be”, e.g. it would be, she must be, etc.

- modal is used without “to + verb” or “verb+ing” form – Exemption: have to!

- modals also can be used as question words in yes-no questions, e.g. Would you do it for me?

- present simple 3rd person singular “s” is lost after a modal: e.g. She can fly

Modals Used by their Functions
11:03
Modals in Past Tense
06:56
04:34

Let's revise first those modals, where their forms are simple in past tense

(of course take care of their functions, as it is just generalisation now)

- Skills, ability: can/could

- Obligation: must, have to / had to


Let's see those modals where their form is: modal + have + 3 rd form


1. Hypothesis: WOULD/COULD HAVE 3RD FORM

I would have done it better if you had helped me (but you didn't)


2. Advice: SHOULD HAVE 3RD FORM

You should have learnt more for the exam!


3. Supposition: MAY/MIGHT/MUST HAVE 3RD FORM

Supposition in negative or question: CAN/COULD (NOT) HAVE 3RD FORM

Who could have broken the window? Jas might have done it.

1 page

In this exercise you'll not only read 20 examples for Modal Verbs but you'll need to do an interesting translation exercise!


12 questions

Now you can test what you have learnt in this section.

Good luck! :-)

Section 4: RELATIVE CLAUSES
03:09

For lots of students preparing for a language exam have a headache because of the “Relative Clauses”. Their typical questions are about:

- what is the difference between “what” and “that”?

E.g. Give me back what/that I gave to you

- when can “who” and “that” be exchanged and/or left out?

E.g. Do you know that man who/that is staring at us?

- how should I know which is correct: “which” or “that” ?

E.g. This is the house which/that I was born in.

- what does comma mean in the sentence?

E.g. My daughter(,) who lives in Denmark(,) is a fashion designer.


Now, let's look into this grammar piece!

06:31

Step 1: “what” or “that”

Would you fix … what / that … you damaged?

When it is “that” you can use also “which” or you can leave it out!


The rule:

… what … = … object + that/which/- …

So, the above sentence is correct:

1. Would you fix WHAT you damaged?

2. Would you fix THE DAMAGE THAT/WHICH/- you caused?


Some more examples:

Can you give me back what you borrowed? / Can you give me back the money that you borrowed?

I can't see what you point at. / I can't see the issue that you point at.

She was surprised at what I told. / She was surprised at the story that I told.


Step 2:

In the above examples, that = which, so, instead of “that” you can also you “which”, and you can also leave these pronouns out.

- Would you fix the damage which/- you caused?

- Can you give me back the money which/- you borrowed?

- I can't see the issue which/- you point at.

- She was surprised at the story which/- I told.


Of course, speaking about a person, we use: “who”

He is a man who is so well-off.

02:47

What if the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition?

There are these proper ways of use:

1.a. This is the house where I was born.

1.b. This is the house which I was born in.

1.c. This is the house which I was born in.

1.d. This is the house in which I was born.

1.e. This is the house --- I was born in.

03:41

Compare the two types of sentences, and find out the rule:


1. This is the house that is so run-down.

2. The girl whose hair is violet is my niece.

3. This is what you must remember for ever.

4. The Malaysian aircraft that/which was shot has been found.


Rule:

Never drop out:

- “what” and “whose” (Don't forget: “whose” can be used not just for a person, but also for a thing!)

- “that” or “which” if they are in passive sentence

- if the pronoun does not go with a preposition (e.g. This is the house that is expensive. This is the house (that/which) is expensive.


05:57

We wouldn't speak about commas if they were not important.

Look at these examples:

I. My dad, who was a priest, died at the age of 81.

2. The church, which is the only one in the village, will be renovated next year.

3. The managing director, who is so bad tempered, gave me a pay rise.

4. The house, which was completed before the war, was famous for its staircase.


In these examples the information given between the two commas are additional, I could put them in brackets, too, so, even without them you would know exactly who or what I refer to.


1. My daughter who lives in Denmark is a fashion designer.

2. The church which was renovated last year is my favourite.

3. That manager who is so bad tempered gave me a pay rise.


In these examples comma cannot be used, because this information is essential to know who or what I'm speaking about! E.g. in the first example: I have 4 daughters, and I must tell you which of them I'm speaking about when saying: who lives in Denmark…

In the second example you must know again which church I mean, because there are several ones.

The third example is the same: “who is so bad tempered” refers to only one manager out of some.


Xxxx


Comma + which


He played the violin which was so expensive.

He played the violin, which annoyed everyone in the house.


In the first example we refer to the noun (see the above examples). This time there is no comma!

In the second example we refer to the action (the verb). This always comes with a comma!!!


1 page

In this exercise you'll not only read 20 examples for Relative Clauses but you'll need to do an interesting translation exercise :-)

12 questions

In this section you can test what you have learnt about Relative Clauses.

Good luck!

Section 5: COURSE SUMMARY
10:48

Let's revise what we have learnt about Reported Speech and Question, Modal Verbs and Relative Clauses!

Section 6: MY LAST WORDS AND YOUR NEXT STEPS
03:24

Thank you very much for this journey! I have really enjoyed it and I hope you also have.


If you are still with me, it means you are really committed and engaged. These qualities will lead you to great success!


With these 3 grammars, plus with my previous courses of Verb Tenses, Conditionals, Causatives and Passive Voice you have accomplished the 7 Greatest Grammar of English.

Let me tell you that very soon my next exam preparation courses are coming out with these titles:

Decoding 66 Small Grammar Pieces

Decoding 100 Test-Questions


But now, your turn comes: Practise!

I often experience that students love to get new information, they love to have “ahha” moments when they recognise something new, or when “penny drops”. However, real learning takes place if it is engages not just the cognitive part of the brain but when we “stretch”, when we make certain effort to put the theory into practice.

While you do it, enjoy it, love it! Your mind is much more open when you are interested, curious, joyful and playful.


You should also know that I run skypelessons, too. If you are interested, find me: BettyTheTeacher123@gmail.com


And as I've told you, the other side of me is a Master Coach and NLP Master. I feel very honoured if I can accompany a person to help them climb their personal Himalayas. I'm going to run online courses on these subjects and also do coaching sessions. If you need me you can find me on the same address: BettyTheTeacher123@gmail.com


I would love to get any feedback from you, and please, rate the course. Also keep in mind, that I will answer all your questions that you post.


Thank you very much for all your attention, all your focus, all your wish for development!

Good luck if you take an exam.

Betty

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Instructor Biography

Betty Zsoldos, English Teacher: Cambridge Diploma + 22 years teaching

I am known as Betty Zsoldos, officially: Erzsebet Zsoldos; a Hungarian-born woman living in Australia.

I am an English teacher with a Cambridge Diploma in teaching English for Adults as a Second Language, plus I have 22 years of experience in teaching! I have had very different kind of learners from people with special needs to managing directors.

The other professional side of me is a Master Coach, a trainer, and an NLP Master. I also hold a diploma in educational psychology. These extras allow me to know a great deal about meta-learning, e.g. how our memory works, how real learning takes place, and how to help different types of learners to build quickly new neurological pathways to promote and fix learning.

My little secret is that: at the age of 25 I didn't know even one word of English: I started from zero, I had to learn even: "yes" and "no". I felt awkward and clumsy while learning; yet, I developed fast and in 3 years I was asked to teach in language schools. Soon I was the most popular English teacher in my hometown.

Why? Just because I understood all the difficulties grown-up learners were going through...

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