Quality is defined as “the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements.” Customer Satisfaction is defined as “conformance to requirements and fitness for use”. Grade is defined as a design intent – is a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics. Accuracy is defined as the degree of closeness to the actual value. Precision is defined as the granularity of measurement. Quality management includes creating and following policies and procedures that meet the product’s defined quality needs. The aim of quality management is to ensure that the specified approach to quality is implemented for the processes.
‘Total Quality Management’ or ‘TQM’ may be defined as a continuous pursuit of excellent quality by creating the right skills and attitudes in people to prevent defects and satisfy customers/users totally at all times. You should understand that TQM is an organization-wide activity that involves an integration of various processes and has to reach every individual within an organization.
Oakland has defined TQM as follows:
•“Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to improving the effectiveness and flexibility of business as a whole. It is essentially a way of organizing and involving the whole organization; every department, every activity, every single person at every level.”
Zaire and Simintiras have defined TQM as follows:
•“Total Quality Management is the combination of the socio-technical process towards doing the right things (externally), everything right (internally) first time and all the time, with economic viability considered at each stage of each process.”
The first stage of TQM evolution is ‘Quality Inspection’. Human beings have always been conscious of ‘Quality’.
However, the first conscious step towards quality was seen in the first stage of TQM development in the 1910s.
In the 1910s, the Ford Motors introduced its new ‘T’ Model car. However, before the new cars hit the market, Ford Motors employed teams of inspectors to compare or test the product with the project standard.