Scrum Product Owner Certification Prep & 160+ Prep Questions
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Scrum Product Owner Certification Prep & 160+ Prep Questions

Scrum Product Owner training + Prepare for the PSPO I ® certification + PSPO 1 ® Practice exam questions
4.6 (1,706 ratings)
Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately.
6,035 students enrolled
Last updated 8/2020
English, Spanish
Current price: $13.99 Original price: $19.99 Discount: 30% off
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This course includes
  • 6.5 hours on-demand video
  • 28 articles
  • 4 downloadable resources
  • 2 Practice Tests
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Assignments
  • Certificate of Completion
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What you'll learn
  • Test your Scrum understanding with 2 complete prep tests x 80 questions
  • Prepare for the PSPO I ® exam
  • Ask questions in the Q&A section
  • Attend Scrum webinar (exclusive for Udemy students)
  • Exam tips
  • How to pass the Scrum Product Owner test
  • Feature teams vs component teams
  • Learn about burn-down charts, technical debt, velocity
  • Evidence based management (EBM)
  • Functional requirements vs non-functional requirements
  • Good understanding of English
  • Good internet connection
  • Interest in learning the Scrum framework
  • Desire to pass the PSPO I ® exam

== Disclaimer ==

This course and practice exams are neither endorsed by, nor in partnership, nor affiliated with Scrum . org.

This course will help you prepare for Scrum .org Professional Scrum Product Owner® I (PSPO I ®) exam also known as PSPO 1 ®.

The terms Scrum Open, Professional Scrum™, Professional Scrum Master™, Professional Scrum Product Owner™, PSPO I, PSPO 1, etc. represent the protected brand of Scrum . org. This course, quizzes, course materials, and practice exams are neither endorsed by nor affiliated with Scrum . org.

The term "The Guide", "the Scrum Guide", "Guide" refer to the official The Scrum Guide™ available online at scrumguides (dot) org.

Anywhere in this course there the Scrum Guide is cited or mentioned, it is referring to The Scrum Guide™.

The statements made and opinions expressed herein belong exclusively to the creator of this course and are not shared by or represent the viewpoint of Scrum .org.  This training does not constitute an endorsement of any product, service or point of view.  Scrum .org makes no representations, warranties or assurances of any kind, express or implied, as to the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, availability or currency of the content contained in this presentation or any material related to this presentation.  In no event shall Scrum .org, its agents, officers, employees, licensees or affiliates be liable for any damages whatsoever (including, without limitation, damages for loss of profits, business information, loss of information) arising out of the information or statements contained in the training.  Any reliance you place on such content is strictly at your own risk. 

The price of the PSPO I ® exam is not included in the price of this online course and needs to be paid separately.


== About the Scrum PSPO Certification Exam ==

Scrum . org is a certification and training organization that has a focus on developing professionalism in product delivery. This is also the organization that is publishing the official Scrum Guide. At Scrum . org you take many Scrum certifications at a relatively affordable price.

Scrum is not only geared toward product delivery but can also be extended to several other industries, including telecommunications, healthcare, or higher education.

Scrum is not only for Agile users, but it is also for those non-Agile team members who are considering switching to an Agile Framework.  At the core of Scrum is a small team of people. Scrum takes an approach that permits a team to self-organize and can make quick changes. One of the most relevant certifications for building products is the PSPO certification, which stands for Professional Scrum Product Owner.

If you pass the PSPO I examination, then you will demonstrate that you know how to build up and implement a product vision. You will get a sense of reviewing, testing, and then accepting a product, and you can participate in writing the features of products.

Scrum Product Owners must get input from the stakeholders in the organization. Skills such as facilitation, creative thinking, and innovative questioning are key for this role.

Moreover, before becoming a Professional Scrum Product Owner, you need to get complete knowledge about the Scrum framework. There are multiple ways to get familiar with Scrum by reading the Scrum Guide or why registering in this online course created for existing and potential Product Owners interested in taking the PSPO certification.

To take the PSPO I exam, you don't need to attend any courses, and all you need to do is to be familiar with the contents of the Scrum Guide but also to additional resources as the EBM Guide (Evidence-Based Management) or the Scrum Glossary.

From the business point of view, one of the most essential roles in any Scrum team is Product Ownership as the Product Owner (PO) is ultimately responsible for the business outcomes and maximizing the values of the Product.

This is a challenging role, so you should keep certain things in mind before becoming a Product Owner (PO). It is not enough to understand the role of the Product Owner as it is described in the Scrum Guide.

You have to get familiar with different empirical methods and need to learn testing products hypothesis and working with the Product Backlog (list of features that the Product has).

The PSPO I certification is relatively similar to another popular certification called PSM I (Professional Scrum Master I ). Even if you have passed the PSM I exam, it does not mean that the PSPO I exam will be the same.

While the focus on the PSM I exam was on the general Scrum rules and the role of the Scrum Master in different situations, the PSPO I exam is more focused on the role of the Product Owner in different circumstances and how the Product Owner can maximize value.

== What to expect in the PSPO I ® exam ==

The Scrum PSPO I exam contains 80 questions that you need to answer in  60 minutes. All questions are in English, and there is no way to change the language to take the PSPO I exam in Spanish, French, or Portuguese.  You could use Google Translate to translate the page, but don't expect that the quality of the translation will be very good.

The PSPO exam questions are in the form of multiple choices. While most of the questions indicate the number of answers that are expected, in some questions, you need to select multiple answers, without knowing which one is the correct one.

The good part is that there is no expiration date after passing the exam for your PSPO I certificate. 

== Is this PSPO I ® prep course for you? ==

This course is for those who are interested in working within an Agile team especially from the role of the Product Owner.

You might be:

- an aspiring Business Analyst who wants to improve his or her knowledge with more critical thinking skills

- an experienced Project Manager who wants to transition to agile projects

- an existing Product Owner who wants to give their skills recognition

- a Scrum Master who wants to enhance their mastery in Scrum

-an experienced developer who knows the development process inside-out and what to take their career to another level.

== How does this course help me? ==

The course explains the Scrum Guide in an easy to understand way. It also tests your understanding of the Scrum framework with quizzes and assignments.

What you should expect:

- High-quality video lectures (depending on your internet connection speed)

- Downloadable handouts (PDF and other formats)

- Quizzes and assignments

- One on one support anytime you have questions

- Lifetime access to the course content

- Practical examples of how Scrum is applied in organizations

== Frequent questions ==

On which version of the Scrum Guide is this course based?

This course is compliant with the 2017 version of the Scrum Guide (which is the latest version).

Can I earn PMI PDUs (Professional Development Units) by taking this course?

By attending this course some students have successfully claimed 4.5 PDUs. I cannot make any guarantees that your claim will be approved.

Can I claim PMI PDUs (Professional Development Units) by taking the PSPO 1 exam?

Unfortunately not. PMI PDUs are obtained for attending a course and NOT for passing a PSPO I exam.

Who this course is for:
  • Business Analyst who wants to improve his or her knowledge with more critical thinking skills
  • Project Manager who wants to transition to agile projects
  • Scrum Master who wants to enhance his/her mastery in Scrum
  • Developer who to take their career to another level
Course content
Expand all 87 lectures 06:46:37
+ Introduction
6 lectures 15:11
Legal Disclaimer

This lecture introduces the imaginary mobile phone provider and the team designated to create a new app using the Scrum framework. This scenario has been designed to provide you with a better picture of how Scrum is applied in real-world scenarios.

Mobi5G is a recently launched mobile phone provider offering high-speed mobile internet in some of the major cities in the country. It has experienced high growth, especially among youngsters who continuously need a reliable and fast internet connection on their phones to be able to share photos and videos with their friends.

The Management of Mobi5G wants to build a mobile app that will allow their young customers to easily manage their plans, upgrade or view their current data usage. They have brought on board a team of 6 professionals to create an app that they hope will relieve their overwhelmed call center and restore customer satisfaction.

Together they will learn what Scrum is and how it can apply to complex real-world problems.

Preview 01:56

This lecture contains the most important documents that you need to download and print in order to successfully prepare for the PSPO I test and to understand the basics of Scrum.

This includes the Scrum Guide (in PDF format), the Scrum Glossary (online), EBM Guide (in PDF format) as well as the Scrum Guide in 30 different languages (including Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and many others).

Important Scrum PDF resources to download and print

Just before we get started with the actual contents, there are a few points I wanted to address. I promise I will keep this as short as possible.

I have designed this course to give you an introduction to Scrum and, at the same time, to help you pass the Professional Scrum Product Owner I ™ certification.

First of all, to successfully pass this certification, you need to invest some time in studying the Scrum Guide. And trust me, there is no way around it.

The most important things to know about the PSPO I Scrum certification

This lecture provides an overview of the Scrum framework in under 5 minutes by focusing on the most important aspects.

Scrum is a framework for dealing with complex work, such as new product development, including software development but also other types of products and industries.

Nowadays, with constantly changing market conditions and technology improvements, giving a high level of uncertainty, it is impossible to predict from the beginning how a product should be developed.

Right from the first Sprint, a Scrum Team will try to create a working, tested, and potentially releasable product increment, even if it is not released to the end-user yet.

After each Sprint, the Scrum Team demonstrates what they have accomplished and plan what they should do next.

The Scrum Guide defines three roles: the Product Owner, the Development Team and the Scrum Master, all being part of the Scrum Team.

Preview 03:53

I have designed this course in preparation for the Professional Scrum Product Owner® I (PSPO ® I) exam.

Please note that all exams are in the English language only!

Once you have passed the test, the certification does not expire, and you don't need to do anything to renew it during your career.

If you are a PMI member, unfortunately, you cannot earn PDUs (Professional Development Units) by taking this course nor by taking the PSPO I exam.

The exam is not only a cost-effective way to get certified but also leaves you the freedom to decide how you want to prepare.

Pre-requisites for taking the PSPO I Scrum test
+ Scrum Artifacts
11 lectures 45:29

In this section, we will discuss the Scrum artifacts.

The Scrum Guide defines three artifacts:

  • Product Backlog

  • Sprint Backlog

  • Increment

Artifacts in Scrum represent work or value. They provide transparency and opportunities for inspection and adaptation.

What are the Scrum Artifacts?

The Product Backlog is made up of an ordered list of everything that is needed in the Product. The Product Backlog is a list of requirements that contains new features, improvements, fixes, or any other changes that need to be done on the Product. As long as the Product exists, so will its Product Backlog.

The items in the Product Backlog are referred to as Product Backlog Items, which have a few characteristics such as description, order, estimate, and value. Product Backlog Items could also include a description of what will help test if the work performed is completed.

Product Backlog and Product Backlog Items

Scrum does not have a section dedicated to how the first Sprint should start, but initially, just a simple Product Backlog with some ideas is enough to get started.

Remember, the Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog.

The Product Owner will talk to the stakeholders and possibly to the customers as well to understand what is needed from a business standpoint.

For the Product Backlog, the Product Owner can use a simple whiteboard, post-its, or anything else to write the Product Backlog, most companies nowadays prefer to work with a software tool. It is important to remember that the Scrum Guide does not impose any specific tool or way of handling the Product Backlog.

There are many options available on the market, a very popular tool is Jira, created by Atlassian.

So any other features or simple ideas regarding the product will land in the Product Backlog.

As you can observe, right from the start, anyone who is involved with building the app, can view the Product Backlog in Jira and its current state. So the Product Backlog is now transparent.

Preview 02:36

How a Product Backlog Item is described, it is left to the Scrum Team. The Scrum Guide does not offer any templates or make any recommendations regarding the format itself. In practice, it is quite common for Scrum Teams to use the User Stories. It is actually so common that the Product Backlog items written as User Stories are simply referred to as stories.

User Stories are short descriptions of a feature explained from the perspective of the person who desires the new feature, usually a user or customer of the product.

The template for a user story looks more or less like this:

As a < kind of user >, I want < some objective > so that < some reason >.

Remember that the Scrum Guide makes no references to User Stories, and they are by no means mandatory in Scrum.

Depending on how Scrum is used, User Stories may or may not be a good way to express that is needed in the Product.

User Stories in Scrum

The Product Backlog is continuously changing and evolving, and managing the Product Backlog is something that the Product Owner can not do without getting input from the rest of the Scrum Team.

During the Product Backlog Refinement meeting, the Product Owner and the Development Team, work on making sure that the items are small enough to fit in one Sprint and add details, estimates, and order to the Product Backlog.

Product Backlog Refinement
Backlog Grooming vs Product Backlog Refinement

During the Product Backlog Refinement meeting, the Product Owner and the Development Team collaborate and try to make the User Stories (Product Backlog Items) as clear as possible.

If the Development Team thinks a User Story is too large, the best approach is to work with the Product Owner and to try to reduce the size but at the same time preserve the value.

Product Backlog Refinement in practice

An "estimate" in the usual sense is the best guess of the effort necessary to carry out a given task, for example, one Product Backlog item. But as I said, it is the best guess, not a commitment. There is always some uncertainty, and that is fine.

Most teams use an estimation technique called "Planning Poker". The Development Team members will write down a number, without the others seeing it, and they will show their "cards" at the same time. This ensures that they don’t influence each other.

Once a consensus is reached, the Product Owner will write down the estimation.

How to estimate User Stories ( Product Backlog Items ) in Scrum?
Product Backlog Quiz
4 questions

The Sprint Backlog makes transparent all the work that the Development Team deems as necessary to reach the Sprint Goal.

You can view the Sprint Backlog as a temporary artifact that exists only during the Sprint. While the Product Backlog is the responsibility of the Product Owner, the Sprint Backlog is the responsibility of the Development Team. In Scrum, we say that the Development Team "owns" the Sprint Backlog. Nobody else can make changes to it.

Preview 02:17

The Sprint Backlog is created during the Sprint Planning meeting by pulling Product Backlog Items from the Product Backlog into the Sprint Backlog.

In this video, I will show you how you can use Jira to create a Sprint Backlog and how to start a new Sprint.

Sprint Backlog in Practice
Sprint Backlog Quiz
2 questions

The increment is represented by all the Product Backlog Items completed during a Sprint and plus the value of all Increments from all previous Sprints. You can view it like a building block that is placed on top of all the previous work completed.

The development team works to deliver a new product increment with each sprint. Each new increment is an improved and usable version of the product.

Product Increment and the Definition of Done

Before attempting this quiz, please read at least once the following section from the Scrum Guide:

- Increment

- Definition of "Done"

Product Increment and the Definition of Done Quiz
1 question
+ Scrum Events
9 lectures 23:50

Scrum uses prescribed events (or call them meetings or ceremonies if you prefer) to create a routine and to reduce the need for other meetings that are not defined in Scrum.

Overview of the Scrum Events (Scrum Ceremonies, Scrum Meetings)

A Sprint has a time-box of one month or less in which a potentially shippable product Increment is created. If the duration of the Sprint is too long, the complexity and risk may increase. Having these relatively short horizons is easier to plan what is being built and to get early feedback. It is common for Sprints to be 2 or 3 weeks long.

The Sprint

Canceling a Sprint before the time-box expires is a very very rare occurrence. Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel the Sprint.

A Sprint can be canceled if the Sprint Goal becomes obsolete or if there are some significant and sudden changes on the market or if the company decides to change direction. In other words, the Sprint can be canceled if the work that the Development Team produces is no longer needed.

Cancelling a Sprint

Before attempting this quiz, please read at least once the following section from the Scrum Guide:

- The Sprint

- Cancelling a Sprint

The Sprint Quiz
3 questions

The work that will be done in the Sprint will be decided during the Sprint Planning meeting.

This meeting ensures two outcomes: to understand WHAT can be delivered in the Sprint and HOW to make this happen by creating a plan.

Sprint Planning
Sprint Planning Quiz
2 questions

The Daily Scrum is held every day during the Sprint, and it is an event intended for the Development Team. During this event, the Development Team plans what work will be performed in the next 24 hours.

This is a key "inspect and adapt" meeting in Scrum. The Daily Scrum helps the Development Team check progress toward completing the work in the Sprint Backlog and reaching the Sprint Goal.

Daily Scrum
Daily Scrum in Practice
Daily Scrum Quiz
3 questions

The Sprint Review is held at the end of the Sprint to inspect the Product Increment and adapt the Product Backlog if needed.

The Product Owner owns this meeting and will invite the key Stakeholders to this event. Also taking part are the Development Team and the Scrum Master.

The demonstration of the Increment is done to obtain feedback and encourage collaboration on what needs to happen next.

Sprint Review

Before attempting this quiz, please read at least once the following section from the Scrum Guide:

- Sprint Review

Sprint Review Quiz
3 questions

The goal of the Sprint Retrospective is to inspect and adapt the process. The Sprint Retrospective is an internal Scrum Team event where no external parties are involved.

So the purpose is to: look into how the Sprint went with regards to people, relationships, processes, and tools.

By the end of the meeting, the Scrum Team should have identified improvements that it will implement in the next Sprint. Once the most significant improvements are identified, it is time to create a plan for achieving those improvements in the next Sprint.

Sprint Retrospective

The Scrum Guide does not go into many details when it comes to the Sprint Retrospective and only explains the rules, purpose, and desired outcome.

While the Scrum Guide does not make it explicit, the Scrum Master is typically the one who can plan and organize this meeting.

There are many resources available to help the Scrum Master find such activities. One of the websites I particularly like is called

Sprint Retrospective in practice

Before attempting this quiz, please read at least once the following section from the Scrum Guide:

- Scrum Events

- Sprint Retrospective

Sprint Retrospective Quiz
6 questions
+ The Scrum Team and the Scrum Team Roles
9 lectures 15:07

The Scrum Team consists of a Product Owner, the Development Team, and a Scrum Master.

What is important to remember is that Scrum Teams are self-organizing and cross-functional.

An Overview of the Scrum Team: The Scrum Team and the Scrum Team Roles

The primary responsibility of the Product Owner is to maximize the value of the product resulting from the work of the Development Team.

The Product Owner is one person, not a committee, a group of people, or anything else. The Product Owner may represent the desires of a committee, the CEO, or the Stakeholders in the Product Backlog. Still, those wanting to change a Product Backlog item's priority must make it through the Product Owner.

The role of the Product Owner in a Scrum Team
What should the Product Owner consider when ordering the Product Backlog?
The Product Owner Quiz
3 questions

The Development Team consists of specialists who have all the skills required to do the work needed. Their goal is to create a potentially releasable Increment at the end of each Sprint. It is worth mentioning that only the Development Team members can work on the product Increment.

The Development Team is structured and empowered by the organization to plan and manage their work. In this way, the efficiency and effectiveness of the Development Team are optimized.

The role of the Development Team in a Scrum Team

How big should the Development Team be?

If a development team is too small, it may encounter skill constraints during the Sprint, causing the Development Team to be unable to deliver a Product Increment.

Having more than nine members requires too much coordination between them, so the entire process becomes too complicated.

What is the optimal size of the Development Team?
The Development Team Quiz
9 questions

The Scrum Master assists the Development Team and the Product Owner and is responsible for promoting and supporting Scrum within the organization.

You can see the Scrum Master as a "Scrum coach". The Scrum Master is doing this by helping everyone understand the Scrum theory, practices, rules, and values.

The role of the Scrum Master in a Scrum Team

The Scrum Master has to defend the empowerment that the Development Team has. The Scrum Master will continually coach the team on self-organization and cross-functionality.

One important focus is to help the Development Team create high-value products. The Scrum Master is successful if the team is successful.

The Scrum Master is also facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed.

How is the Scrum Master serving the Development Team?

The Scrum Master coaches the Product Owner to understand better and practice agility and Scrum. The Product Owner needs to understand and apply the benefits and best-practices of Agile and Scrum.

It also ensures that goals, scope, and product domains are understood by everyone on the Scrum Team as well as possible.

It is also imperative that the Development Team and Product Owner understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog Items, and the Scrum Master is there to help with this as well.

To maximize value, the Scrum Master will mentor the Product Owner on how to manage the Product Backlog to ensure it is ordered and in a healthy state.

How is the Scrum Master serving the Product Owner?

The Scrum Master is leading the change process within the organization and is responsible for the Scrum adoption and planning Scum implementations.

For example, the Scrum Master can interact and collaborate with different departments that are in the process of adopting Scrum in order to succeed. The Scrum Master has to explain why change is necessary and to lead the organization in that direction.

The Scrum Master can collaboratively work with other Scrum Masters within the organization to achieve these goals.

How is the Scrum Master serving the Organization?
The Scrum Master Quiz
5 questions
The Scrum Team Quiz
1 question
+ Multiple Teams working on the same Product (Scaling Scrum)
3 lectures 00:49
Dependencies between Development Teams
The most important rule you need to remember
+ The Agile Method and Scrum
7 lectures 24:44

What does the term Agile mean and what where does it come from?

Agile, especially in software development, describes a way under which business requirements and potential solutions emerge through the joint effort of cross-functional, self-organizing teams and their customers or end-users.

The term Agile, used in this context, comes from the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.

Agile manifesto and the birth of SCRUM

Scrum is a process framework used to manage work on complex products, not only in software development.

Using the framework helps people address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.

Definition of Scrum

To better understand where Scrum is coming from, it is important to understand what has happened before Scrum was introduced. A lot of software development in the past has been done and is still done using the Waterfall model.

The Waterfall Model originated in the manufacturing and construction industries but since the 1950s it has been used for software development as well. It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use but it does not always produce the desired outcome.

In a Waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. Similarly to the way water flows the process goes only in one direction.

Waterfall Model

Scrum helps with the development of products and enhancements. It can also help sustain and renew existing products. But Scrum can also be used to research and identify viable markets, technologies, and product capabilities.

So Scrum is not only used for software development but, along with the Agile mindset, is one of the most common approaches to software development nowadays.

Where can be Scrum used / applied? Only for software development?

Scrum is founded on empiricism. In case you are not familiar with the term, empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience. The three pillars of the empirical process control: transparency, inspection, and adaptation.

Scrum Theory

The Scrum Guide defines a few values on which the Scrum Teams should be built on: Commitment, Courage, Focus, Openness, Respect. When these values are followed, there is trust.

Scrum Values
Summary of the Agile Method and Scrum section
Introduction to the Agile Method and Scrum - Quiz
4 questions
+ Evidence-Based Management Guide (Scrum EBM Guide)
7 lectures 03:53

One important part of the exam is understanding the EBM Guide.

Please read it a few times and understand the key aspects.


Organizations that have adopted the Scrum framework and Agile principles have already significantly increased the value they offer to their customers and end-users.

Having already some success behind them, some organizations fall into the risk of assuming that everything they do is valuable, merely by using Scrum, and this is rarely the case.

Some organizations focus more on optimizing the output of their Development Teams and want to make sure they are constantly busy with work, but more output from the Development Team does not necessarily equal more business value being created.

As you remember, the Product Owner orders the Product Backlog to maximize the value of the Product. New features are regularly added to the Product, but without completing the feedback loop and validating the assumptions made initially, it is easy to lose track of what is going on.

Just because the Product is doing well on the market, it does not mean that what has been built into the Product has directly contributed to the success.

Evidence-based management is all about measuring the impact that the changes made to the Product have on the value delivered. It is all about measuring results and making improvements in the form of a continuous loop.

EBM consists of four Key Value Areas (KVAs):

  • Current Value (CV)

  • Time-to-Market (T2M)

  • Ability to Innovate (A2I)

  • Unrealized Value (UV)

Evidence-Based Management (EBM) and the Key Value Areas (KVAs)
Key Value Area - Current Value (CV)
Key Value Area - Time-to-Market (T2M)
Key Value Area - Ability to Innovate (A2I)
Key Value Area - Unrealized Value (UV)
How is the EBM Guide relevant for the PSPO I exam?
Evidence-Based Management in Scrum Quiz
1 question
The real exam typically includes 2-3 questions that are directly related to the EBM Guide. I recommend dedicating some time reading and understanding the EBM Guide.
Testing your understanding of the EBM Guide
3 questions
+ Terms and tools used in Agile and Scrum implementations
9 lectures 18:46

In this section, we look at the most important terms used in the Scrum Guide and which you can often encounter in the exam questions.

Terms used in Scrum and the Scrum Glossary

One or two questions in the real exam could contain a reference to the term technical debt. While technical debt is a term does not appear in the Scrum Guide it is mentioned in the Glossary.

Generally speaking, technical debt is something that should be constantly dealt with and not postponed. It is part of the development process and it is a continuous process (similar to the architecture of the product which is constantly being worked on and improved).

It is tightly coupled with the quality of the product and the Development Team should constantly work together with the Product Owner to keep the technical debt manageable.

Technical debt

One of the charts that Agile projects can use is a Burn-Down chart.

A burndown chart is a graphical representation of work (usually represented in estimated time or story points) left to do versus the remaining time of the Sprint. The remaining work is generally on the vertical axis, with time along the horizontal axis.

In Scrum, this chart can be used to estimate when all of the work in a Sprint will be completed and especially if it will be completed on time.

JIRA offers multiple reporting options, including the Burn-Down chart.

Burndown charts

The Burn-up Chart provides a visual representation of a Sprint's completed work related to its total scope, which is represented by the number of selected Product Backlog Items (or Stories).

Burn-up charts

Velocity is a measure of the amount of work a Development Team can handle during a typical Sprint.

This is calculated by averaging the amount of work performed in the previous Sprints.

Remember that this is an optional metric and intended only for the Scrum Team.

Velocity / What is the team velocity?
The "cone of uncertainty"

Another term that you may encounter during the exam is related to Feature teams and Component teams and, again, unfortunately, the Scrum Guide does not mention them.

A Feature Team works through all the layers of the application to fulfill a customer or a user need. A Feature team is cross-functional and cross-component because it has all the skills needed to complete a feature and does that by working through all the layers or components of the application.

A Component team (sometimes called a layer team) is focused on a single or multiple components of the system. A component team alone will typically not be able to deliver a new functionality that alone will fulfill a customer need.

Feature teams vs Component teams

A functional requirement describes a function of the Product: for example the possibility of changing the payment information within the app.

Non-functional requirements describe qualities, behaviors, attributes, and constraints of the Product and can be placed into multiple categories: performance, security, availability, and usability, to name just a few examples.

Many Scrum exam questions may include references to both functional and non-functional requirements.

Functional and non-functional requirements
Other Scrum terms
+ Scrum - The Weird Parts / Commonly asked Scrum questions
2 lectures 02:32

One of the confusing parts in Scrum is how can the Development Team collaborate with the Product Owner to change the Sprint Backlog without affecting the Sprint Goal.

How can the Sprint Goal remain intact if the Sprint Backlog is modified?