# Statistics / Data Analysis in SPSS: Inferential Statistics

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Try Udemy for Business- In this course, you will gain proficiency in how to analyze a number of statistical procedures in SPSS.
- You will learn how to interpret the output of a number of different statistical tests
- Learn how to write the results of statistical analyses using APA format

The one sample t test is covered in this lecture.

**The SPSS data files (for the entire course) are available under "downloadable materials" in this lecture. **

Also, a pdf file of the results (the output file) is also available. The output file for this lecture is located below and is titled, "One sample t example 1 output"

All other output files are located within their respective lecture. For example, the output file for the second example on the one sample t test is located in the lecture "one sample t_example 2".

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one sample t_example 1.**

This lecture continues with the example from the previous lecture, with a focus on how to interpret the section of the output labeled, "95% confidence interval of the difference".

*Learning Tip*: If the confidence interval includes the value of zero, the test is not statistically significant. If it does *not *include zero, the test *is *statistically significant.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one sample t_example 1.**

In this lecture, how to calculate and interpret the effect size for the one sample t test is presented.

*Learning Tip*: Cohen's effect size standards for t are: small = .20, medium = .50, large = .80. The effect size indicates the number of standard deviation units of a difference that exist between two groups. For example, an effect size of 1.00 indicates one standard deviation of a difference between the sample mean (the treated group) and the population mean (the untreated group).

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one sample t_example 1.**

In this lecture, a second example utilizing the one sample t test is illustrated.

*Learning Tip*: Try running and interpreting the one sample t test on your own (using the data file "one sample t_example 2.sav") prior to watching this lecture. This will help both increase your understanding and retention of the subject matter.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one sample t_example 2.**

In this lecture, the first example on the independent samples t test is covered.

*Learning Tip*: The independent samples t test is used when two separate or unrelated groups are compared. Mathematically, unrelated groups are known as being "independent".

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****independent t_example 1.**

In this lecture, the confidence interval for the independent samples t test is covered.

*Learning Tip*: If the confidence interval includes the value of zero, the test is not statistically significant. If it does *not *include zero, the test *is *statistically significant.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****independent t_example 1.**

In this lecture, the effect size for the independent samples t test is covered.

Learning Tip: Cohen's effect size standards for t are: small = .20, medium = .50, large = .80. The effect size indicates the number of standard deviation units of a difference that exist between two groups. For example, an effect size of .50 indicates one-half of a standard deviation difference between the two groups.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****independent t_example 1.**

In this lecture the dependent samples t test is covered.

*Learning Tip*: The dependent samples t test is used when the two samples are naturally dependent. This usually consists of the same people in each group such as a when people take a pretest and then a posttest. However, instead of being the same people, the two groups can also be related, such as with identical twins. The key with this test is that the groups are naturally related in some way (as opposed to the independent samples t test).

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****dependent t_example 1.**

In this lecture, the effect size for the dependent samples t test is covered.

Learning Tip: Cohen's effect size standards for t are: small = .20, medium = .50, large = .80. The effect size indicates the number of standard deviation units of a difference that exist between the two groups. For example, an effect size of .25 indicates one-quarter of a standard deviation difference between the two groups.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****dependent t_example 1.**

In this lecture, the one-way between subjects ANOVA is covered.

*Learning Tip*: The one-way between subjects ANOVA may be used when *2 or more *separate or unrelated groups are compared. Many people think of this test being used with *3 or more* groups, but it is perfectly fine to use it for two groups as well. (Either the ANOVA *or* the independent samples t test can be used when there are two unrelated groups).

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one way ANOVA_example 1.**

In this lecture, post-hoc tests are covered.

*Learning Tip*: "Post-hoc" means "after the fact"; post-hoc tests are typically conducted after a significant result is found for the ANOVA. If the ANOVA is not significant, then post-hoc tests typically are not interpreted.

While there are many different post-hoc tests available, Tukey's test is covered here as (1) it is one of the more commonly used post-hoc tests and (2) research has shown that Tukey's test does a good job at keeping the overall alpha level at .05 (assuming one is using an alpha of .05).

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one way ANOVA_example 1.**

In this lecture, the one-way within subjects ANOVA is covered.

*Learning Tip*: The one-way within subjects ANOVA may be used when *2 or more *dependent or related groups are compared. Many people think of this test being used with *3 or more* groups, but it is perfectly fine to use it for two groups as well. (Either the within ANOVA *or* the dependent samples t test can be used when there are two related groups).

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****one within ANOVA_example 1.**

This lecture covers the Pearson r correlation coefficient. How to produce a scatterplot of the two variables in SPSS is also illustrated towards the end of the lecture.

**SPSS Data file for this video: ****Correlation_example 1.**

In this lecture, how to add a number of variables together to create a total score using the compute procedure is illustrated. Whereas the previous lecture manually added the variables (using SPSS), in this lecture the variables are added together using the SUM function in SPSS.

**SPSS Data file for this video: Compute Procedure_Sum Function**

**.**This lecture illustrates how to use the sort command in SPSS. The sort command is illustrated first on a single variable in SPSS; afterwards, a set of cases is sorted on two variables simultaneously.

**SPSS Data file for this video: Sort Example**

**.**- Introduction to statistics course (either currently taking or already have completed) is recommended but not absolutely necessary
- Access to IBM SPSS Statistical software (strongly recommended)

**November, 2019. **

**Join more than 1,000 students and get instant access to this best-selling content - enroll today!**

**Get marketable and highly sought after skills in this course that will substantially increase your knowledge of data analytics, with a focus in the area of significance testing, an important tool for A/B testing and product assessment.**

**Many tests covered, including three different t tests, two ANOVAs, post hoc tests, chi-square tests (great for A/B testing), correlation, and regression. Database management also covered!**

**Two in-depth examples provided of each test for additional practice.**

This course is great for professionals, as it provides step by step instruction of tests with clear and accurate explanations. Get ahead of the competition and make these tests important parts of your data analytic toolkit!

Students will also have the tools needed to succeed in their statistics and experimental design courses.

Data Analytics is an rapidly growing area in high demand (e.g., McKinsey)

Statistics play a key role in the process of making sound business decisions that will generate higher profits. Without statistics, it's difficult to determine what your target audience wants and needs.

Inferential statistics, in particular, help you understand a population's needs better so that you can provide attractive products and services.

This course is designed for business professionals who want to know how to analyze data. You'll learn how to use IBM SPSS to draw accurate conclusions on your research and make decisions that will benefit your customers and your bottom line.

**Use Tests in SPSS to Correctly Analyze Inferential Statistics**

Use the One Sample t Test to Draw Conclusions about a Population

Understand ANOVA and the Chi Square

Master Correlation and Regression

Learn Data Management Techniques

**Analyze Research Results Accurately to Make Better Business Decisions**

With SPSS, you can analyze data to make the right business decisions for your customer base. And by understanding how to use inferential statistics, you can draw accurate conclusions about a large group of people, based on research conducted on a sample of that population.

This easy-to-follow course, which contains illustrative examples throughout, will show you how to use tests to assess if the results of your research are statistically significant.

You'll be able to determine the appropriate statistical test to use for a particular data set, and you'll know how to understand, calculate, and interpret effect sizes and confidence intervals.

You'll even know how to write the results of statistical analyses in APA format, one of the most popular and accepted formats for presenting the results of statistical analyses, which you can successfully adapt to other formats as needed.

**Contents and Overview**

This course begins with a brief introduction before diving right into the One Sample t Test, Independent Samples t Test, and Dependent Samples t Test. You'll use these tests to analyze differences and similarities between sample groups in a population. This will help you determine if you need to change your business plan for certain markets of consumers.

Next, you'll tackle how to use ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), including Post-hoc Tests and Levene's Equal Variance Test. These tests will also help you determine what drives consumer decisions and behaviors between different groups.

When ready, you'll master correlation and regression, as well as the chi-square. As with all previous sections, you'll see illustrations of how to analyze a statistical test, and you'll access additional examples for more practice.

Finally, you'll learn about data management in SPSS, including sorting and adding variables.

By the end of this course, you'll be substantially more confident in both IBM SPSS and statistics. You'll know how to use data to come to the right conclusions about your market.

By understanding how to use inferential statistics, you'll be able to identify consumer needs and come up with products and/or services that will address those needs effectively.

**Join the over 1,000 students who have taken this best-selling course - enroll today!**

- Students seeking help with SPSS, especially how to analyze and interpret the results of statistical analyses
- Professionals desiring to augment their statistical skills
- Anyone seeking to increase their data analytic skills