Fluid Mechanics & Physics of Gravitation (AP Physics -2019)
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- What is Pressure in Fluids?
- Fluid Pressure in Static Fluids
- How to find Pressure in Fluids?
- Archimedes Principle
- Bernoulli's Equation
- Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
- Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
- Gravitational Force inside Earth
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- What is Escape Velocity
- Kepler's 3 Laws
- Kinetic and Potential energy of a Satellite
- Each lesson starts with basic physics before it reaches advanced level. You'll understand faster if you have some foundation in physics (say class 10)
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This physics course includes 28 videos totaling 3 hours of run time. Once you are enrolled in the course, all you need is a note book and a pen to get cracking on these topics
Pressure in fluids
How to measure pressure in fluids
Bernoulli's equation and Archimedes principle
Fluid pressure in static fluids
Newton's universal law of gravitation (gravitation near earth's surface, gravitational force inside earth)
Gravitational potential energy and escape velocity
Kepler's 3 Laws (kinetic and potential energy of a satellite)
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What exactly is Pressure in fluids. Welcome to another very interesting chapter in Mechanics.
Well!, when we hear the word mechanics, we often think about blocks and pulley, speed and velocity, friction, projectiles and so on. But this chapter is unique, and here we will talk about mechanics of fluids. And it is so important to study this because fluids play such an important role in our lives, from blood pressure to pressure in a water dam, or hydraulics of a car to that used in ships.
Fluid pressure in static fluids is often confusing for students. The Physics behind it is actually quite simple. The fluid pressure at any point within a liquid can be found by measuring the height of the liquid column above the point and calculating the force and pressure exerted by that column. This could then be expressed as gauge pressure at a point or the absolute pressure.
Watch this video to understand the topic and Newton's second law can be used to great effect in deriving solution of pressure in static fluids.
How to find pressure in fluids?, is a common question students ask. This is primarily due to several variations that are possible when dealing with fluids. This lesson brings conceptual clarity around pressure calculations for manometers, barometers and U tube setup and also elaborates on how numerical problems can be solved with a systematic approach.
Archimedes principle is often not understood well despite its simplicity. To make complete sense of it, watch this video.
The lesson dives into how you can find the buoyant force on a body and then when you substitute that body with any other, like iron or wood, how the body behaves. You'll learn why a piece of iron sinks and why wood pops up to float. Understand in this lesson various forces that act on a body and make the body behave in certain ways.
Bernoulli’s equation is a fantastic piece of work in Physics that makes use of energy conservation to connect 3 variables -velocity, pressure and height, that describe fluids in motion.
You’ll be surprised to know that this equation, given by the famous scientist Daniel Bernoulli in 1700's, is used to analyze plumbing systems, hydroelectric power generation stations and even flight of planes.
So let us go ahead and derive Bernoulli’s equation. Well, before we derive Bernoulli’s equation, we need to make 2 important assumptions. (1) The fluid under consideration is in-compressible and (2) it also does not offer any friction or has zero viscosity.
How does a fish change altitude or height in water so easily. The physics around it has to do with the ability of a fish to change its volume and change its density to either stay in one place or go up or down. When it is in one place the force of buoyancy is equal to the force of gravity on the fish. Thus it makes use of Archimedes principle to swim at will!
Blood pressure generated by the heart of an Argentinosaurus is to be found using principles of fluid mechanics. Thus the pressure generated at the heart should be sufficient to pump it up to the brain so that the animal can walk and function
Newton's universal law of gravitation explains so many things that happen in the universe. From why we are able to walk easily on earth and not fly of, when we take a step, to why an apple falls towards the earth. It is amazing that the entire solar system, galaxies with its stars and the universe itself is in a breathtaking equilibrium and does not really collapse. In fact, it does a cosmic dance.
If Earth is considered a uniform sphere of mass M then the gravitational force on any particle of mass m at a distance R from the center of Earth can be given as F = GMm/R (sq). Then this force can be equated with the product of its mass and the acceleration in the classic Newton's equation F = m X a. Well if the mass is close enough to earth surface, this a = g.
The concept of Gravitational Potential Energy is often misunderstood. However, a systematic step by step approach to it can make it a very simple and useful.
When we consider distances that are comparable to earths radius, we cannot really make the assumptions of gravitational force being a constant mg. Well the gravitational force changes as the distance from the earth increases. Hence the PE.
If you throw a ball up in the air, we know it will come back to us on earth. If you throw it harder, or in other words give it “more” initial velocity, it will go up higher but still come back. What if you were to build a super cannon that can give enough velocity to the ball so that it “never” comes back to earth.
Well, some of you might think that I am talking science fiction, but the truth is that if you can impart a velocity of 11.2 km/s to this ball, this ball will never come back to earth. This is then what we call the “escape velocity”. Theoretically, this ball would keep moving away from earth and to infinity. So let us go ahead and find how we can find this escape velocity of 11.2 KM/s
For centuries the movement of planets around the Sun was a big mystery till Johannes Kepler, after a long time established some empirical laws that explained the nature of motion of planets around the Sun.
In fact, later, Newton found that his law of gravitation also lead to Kepler's law. What amazes me and would surprise most of you is all these great scientists figured out the nature of motion without any telescope or modern observatories we have today.
Learn more about Kepler's laws in this lesson
Kinetic and Potential energy of a Satellite in Orbit is determined by its position and velocity. While the Kinetic and Potential energy may vary at different times, the total energy remains constant. Thus the KE is dependent on the velocity of the satellite and the potential energy depends on the position or the distance from the Earth.
Watch this video to see how the total energy, often denoted by symbol E connects with Kinetic Energy KE and Potential Energy U
What is the gravitational force due to a ball that has a cavity in it on another mass at a distance d. The answer lies in first finding the mass of the ball scooped out of the large ball and finding the force on account of that. We then subtract this force from what the force would have been due to the ball if there was no cavity.
What is the gravitational force of a red planet when you are standing on it and then when you are standing inside it? The problem requires you to understand the relevance of mass to be taken when plugging into Newton's law of gravitation