This course gives instruction and information regarding Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System surveying techniques used in the collection of topographic data. The course teaches skills needed in the practice of this modern surveying and mapping procedure
The objective of “GPS RTK Topographic Procedures” is to provide information that will assist the surveyor in using GPS Real Time Kinematic surveying techniques in preparing topographic surveys.
The technique of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a viable alternative to differential methods for precise positioning using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). PPP is very cost effective since there is no need for data from local or regional reference stations. Especially in remote areas the logistic is greatly simplified. The PPP method has a potential for centimetre accuracy for static applications and sub-decimeter accuracy for kinematic applications. PPP-software developed at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences has after a successful verification been used by the Hydrographic Survey of Norway in seafloor mapping since 2003. Based on experiences regarding ease of operation, cost-effectiveness and positional accuracy, a commercial software has been developed by the company Terratec AS. In the presented course the PPP approach is outlined with emphasis on kinematic measurements. Advantages and drawbacks compared to differential methods are discussed.
Many applications in navigation, land surveying and general geo-referencing have been simplified and made more precise due to the availability of signals from radionavigation satellites. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) include military systems like GPS from the United States, GLONASS from Russia, as well as the future civilian system from Europe named GALILEO. It is fair to mention that GPS has been, and still is, the cornerstone of satellite positioning, and the system has been available for civilian use with a remarkably consistency. The first GPS satellite was put into orbit in 1978. Up until 1985 a total of 10 experimental block I satellites were launched. In 1989 the first operational block II satellite was launched, and the system reached full operational capability in 1994. Since then block IIA, IIR and IIRM satellites of different generations have been launched, and at the time of writing 29 GPS satellites are available
The NAVigation Satellite Time And Ranging (NAVSTAR) system, better known as the Global Positioning System (GPS), is one the most successful satellite systems to date. GPS is a one way radio ranging system which provides realtime knowledge of one's own position and a very accurate time reference. GPS is said to provide Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) functionality, which is very valuable not only for the US military, for which it was first developed, but also to a myriad of commercial activities as well as the general public at large. The GPS system consists of 3 segments. 1. The space segment, consisting of 24, or more satellites, with accurate atomic clocks on board, continuously transmits ranging signals to the Earth. 2. The control segment, consisting of a number of ground stations, which monitors the satellites, computes their orbits and clock offsets, and uploads this information to the satellites, which in turn encode this information on the ranging signal. 3. The user segment, simply consisting of a GPS receiver, which tracks 4 or more GPS satellites, and computes its own position.