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An introduction to metallurgy and corrosion mechanisms for AIM(asset integrity management) & RBI (risk based inspection)
4.3 (21 ratings)
Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately.
74 students enrolled
Last updated 4/2020
English [Auto-generated]
Price: $199.99
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This course includes
  • 33.5 hours on-demand video
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
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What you'll learn
  • Metallurgy , Material selection , Welding , Corrosion monitoring & Control for Asset Integrity Management
  • Damage mechanisms & Risk Based Inspection
  • High school level chemistry

Module 1 covers the following

  • A short overview of AIM/RBI

  • Why AIM/RBI programs fail and how to make it a success.

  • Insight & lesson learnt from past major global catastrophes

  • Making , shaping & heat treating of metals & alloys

  • Understanding of material behaviour alloying, corrosion & metallurgical degradation through Fe-C phase diagram & periodic table in Oil & Gas and power industries.

  • Material selection and Materials used in Oil & Gas industries and power industries.

  • Metallurgical degradation due to welding and working of metals and corrective measures.

  • Mechanical Metallurgy for fatigue & fracture mechanics & mechanical testing.

  • Heat Treatment and its impact on corrosion resistance & mechanical/metallurgical properties.

  • Metallography / SEM/& other NDT techniques  for condition monitoring of in-service ageing assets.

  • Metallurgy in casting, forging and forming

  • Overview of Damage mechanisms in Oil & Gas & power industries

Who this course is for:
  • Professionals working in the Oil & Gas Industry
Course content
Expand 20 lectures 33:22:48
+ Introduction
20 lectures 33:22:48

Know your faculty, Mahendra Kumar Rastogi

Online fundamental foundation building tacit training workshops .

Are , we addicted of fossils fuels ?

Major catastrophes, which affected , life, environment and sustenance of industries.

Why "oil to solar"  and why it need the enhancement of life in ageing assets.?

How life enhancement is possible in ageing assets?

Impact of ageing assets on climate of change.

Global scenario of static ageing assets.

Cost reduction & ageing assets : A vicious circle in managing the mechanical integrity in ageing plant.

Why codified approach  of RBI collapsed and need 360 degree proactive reliability culture by enterprising ?

AIM need continuous monitoring & analysis : AIM is a process, not a project.

Simple key performance indicators for AIM.

AIM need right data & right analytics through right tacit expert.

Titles of our online training workshops.

Preview 40:46

Why reliability of static assets is important?

Main factors affecting the Mechanical integrity of ageing static assets.

Geography, feed stage design , plant design & material selection for preventing corrosion.

Ensuring Mechanical integrity during Material procurement & construction stage .

Avoiding the loss of mechanical integrity during start up & commissioning

Importance of RBI during design & construction stage.

IOW to control maloperation & integrity of assets in operating stage.

Frequent steam & power failure

Over capacity utilization beyond design.

No company owned standards & practices.

Main actors of ageing in static assets

Module 1- Part 1

Brief on ageing assets

Ageing assets need deeper tacit expertise rather than explicit codified expertise only.

Burning problem in ageing assets

Localized Corrosion

Corrosion under support in plant piping



Corrosivity of crude oil

Chloride corrosion in CDU main column overhead piping

High temperature sulfidation

High temperature oxidation & its mitigation

Offshore Oil & Gas Platforms

Corrosion control framework

Brief on corrosion mechanisms: Atmospheric corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion

External corrosion on subsea pipelines

Internal corrosion of gas pipelines

Module 1 - Part 3

Corrosion control & Management in O & G

Material Selection & Corrosion Allowance

Internal Corrosion control in Oil & Gas pipelines

Onstream operational pigging for monitoring & controlling corrosion.

External corrosion control & mitigation in subsea pipelines.

Internal corrosion monitoring of pipelines.

MIC monitoring & control

Diver inspection of subsea pipelines & Jackets

Above water inspection of pipelines & structures

Common forms of electro-chemical corrosion.

Basic internal corrosion in oil pipelines.

Internal corrosion by H2S & CO2

Sweet CO2 corrosion mechanism

Mechanism Bernacle type corrosion

Sour water corrosion (Bell Curve)

Wet H2S cracking damages in carbon steel & Low alloy steels piping & equipment.

Environmentally Affected Stress Corrosion Cracking : SSC/HSC/CSCC/PTASCC/ASCC

Module 1 - Part 4

Wake up call: past failures & catastrophes , a big resource for insight and learning.

Highly corrosion resistant components may also have serious degradation in ageing assets.

Mining the hidden data need expertise.

Degradation due to creep.

Equipment design against creep.

Creep degradation mechanisms : Spheroidization & Creep voids microcracking on grain boundaries.

Benefit in selecting P91/92 metallurgy.

Challenges in P91/P92 material.

Challenges in corrosion monitoring in non-piggable pipelines & piping.

Challenges in monitoring corrosion in critical zone of bottom annular plate in above ground storage tanks.

Horten sphere gas explosion due to DBTT by liquid nitrogen during testing.

Titanic catastrophes due to DBTT.

Metallic corrosion , a serious threat by ageing assets.

Explosion at Philadelphia refinery.

Explosion in hydrocracker in Mahul refinery in Mumbai (India)

Bhilai steel plant gas pipeline explosion.

Nigeria Pipelines failure.

Elbow rupture due to erosion corrosion in Conoco Philips refinery.

Flixo-borough incident : birth to PSM


Module 1 - Part 5

Role of operator for the MIQA ( Mechanical Integrity & Quality Assurance)

Fast ageing and it’s impact on company.

Types of ageing.

How further life is expected in ageing assets?

Damage factors causing ageing.

Why ageing is an unique problem?

AIM is the game of identification, detection & monitoring and mitigation of damages.

Drivers to corrosion.

How corrosion of ageing assets can cause climate of change?

Why corrosion is maximum during idling of assets.

How scale formation causes corrosion & prevent corrosion?

How SRB & IRB causes MIC?

How corrosion a complex problems and need simple , economic & practical solutions?

How corrosion , not only material dependent but system dependent?

How codified knowledge is not enough to prevent & control the corrosion in ageing assets?

Corrosion in austenitic stainless steels and Mechanism of pitting & CSCC in SS 316.

Corrosion damages in CS & LAS

Effect of periodic maintenance & inspection to avoid the risk of failure of equipment.

Ageing assets needs first FFS for repair replacement & then RBI .

Why RCA is needed for each and every failure in critical ageing assets?

Ageing assets need data mining and analysis.

Globally, are we to nowhere on the problems of ageing assets?

Module 1 - Part 2

Insight & learning from past failures

2014, GAIL Gas pipeline Failure in Andhra Pradesh (India)

Hydrocracker fires in refinery , Canada

Explosion in LGO Piping from crude distillation main column in Richmond refinery (USA).

NHT exchanger shell rupture in Tesoro refinery

Cold dead leg Elbow embrittlement : LPG fire at Valero, Mckee Refinery.

Crude overhead exchanger repetitive failure due to shock condensation causing HCl corrosion .

Perforation & paper thinning in 410S top trays in main CDU column.

San Bruno, PG&E pipeline explosion.

Explosion at mixing point ( Hot & Cold HC streams) in VGO-HDT piping in Indian refinery.

Premature severe corrosion in crude pipeline due to poor topography.

Leak & Corrosion in insulated of Alaska Prudhoe Bay oil field pipeline .

California , crude pipeline spillage due to corrosion.

ϕ 28” gasoline pipeline failure rupture on defective weld seam.

Pipeline failure due to denting causing fatigue.

Catastrophic hydrogen embrittlement of LAS fasteners due to CP in Subsea pipeline.

CSCC in SS 304 /303 fasteners of vertical SS 304 line in insulated cryogenic piping in coastal area.

PTA SCC in 304H trim heater tube in LNG plant in coastal area.

CSCC in SS 304L vessel absorber column in nitric acid plant in coastal area.

Repetitive failures of internals of product stripper column in DHT (HCU)

Module 1 - Part 6

Repetitive failures of internals in product stripper column.

Lube oil cooler tube failure

Out of containment in crude oil storage tank due to bottom plate welding rupture.

Full surface tank fire : Jaipur terminal fire

ONGC plant fire in Mumbai.

Fatigue & corrosion fatigue

Corrosion & Metallurgical degradation in monuments.

What’s the road to reliability in ageing plants ?.

How RBI becomes unreliable approach ?

Integrity operating window for life enhancement.

RBI & FFS : complementary technologies , not interacting each other , needed in ageing assets.

mining & analysis, the past data & history of equipment , a challenging task in managing the integrity of ageing assets

Ensuring the genuineness of data is a vital factor for risk calculation.

Why FFS?

FFS reactive & proactive evaluation.

Why NDE & FFS assessment in lieu of hydrotesting in ageing assets?

Repair replacement decisions implementation based on criticality in phase wise manner to save time & cost .

Repair / replacement on RCA and need deep expertise not based on construction codes, stds, & specifications.

How life enhancement is possible in ageing assets?

Technical Skill needed for managing the integrity in ageing assets.

Module 1 - Part 7

Managing the integrity in ageing assets : a vicious circle due to high maintenance cost & competition in petroleum industries.

Three expertise namely DM, RBI & FFS needed in managing the integrity.

Direct RBI implementation not feasible without repair/ replace through FFS

How corrosion & AIM, most challenging, demanding & rewarding career today ?

How to become successful corrosion & AIM expert?

Why corrosion engineers needed for AIM ?

Right data & right analytics through right corrosion expert needed for AIM.

Hidden problems of corrosion & metallurgical degradation in ageing assets.

Maintaining the integrity of ageing assets: visible & invisible task.

Why corrosion & metallurgical degradation: a complex problem.

Solutions to integrity in ageing assets lie in tacit skill i.e. tacit knowledge through tacit thinking.

Two world class document for AIM : Periodic table & Fe-Fe3C phase diagram

Classification of elements in periodic table.

Material behaviour ls govern by interaction of atoms through size of electrons & electronegativity causing corrosion & degradation.

Bonding in metals /alloys & corrosion products.

Metallic & intermetallic bonding.

Solid solutions : substitutional & interstitial.

Imperfection & irregularities in lattice structure of metals & alloys.

What's the difference in defect & irregularity.

Dislocations : edge & Screw dislocations.

Strain hardening or work hardening.

Fe-Fe3C phase diagram 

Module 1 - Part 8

Fe-Fe₃C phase diagram

Steel & cast iron

TTT & CCT diagram

Carbon steel, C-Mn Steel & HSLA Steels

Why we use low carbon steel in Oil & Gas & power industries

Ultra low & ultra high carbon steel : Eutectoid, Hypo & Hyper eutectoid Steel

Equilibrium (slow cooling) & Non-Equilibrium (fast cooling) microstructures

Pig Iron making in Blast Furnace.

Direct reduction of iron ore (sponge iron )

Primary steel making : Bessemer converter , Acid vs basic steel making

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or LD converter steel making

Electric Arc Furnace steel making

Secondary steel making : Ladle processing

Mechanical properties : function of chemistry & microstructure

Difference in normalized & annealed steels

Solid solution strengthening

Crystal defects, dislocations and dislocations slips, Anisotropy due to grain orientation & grain size

Microstructure : grain size homogeneity & why we prefer finer grain material at low temperature application

Rolling: hot rolling & cold rolling

Continuous casting & killed steels.

Segregation of impurities

Mech properties in thick & thin section

Preview 01:34:52
Module 1- Part 10

What's Metallurgy: Making shaping & treating of metals & alloys

Extraction of pig iron from iron ore in blast furnace.

Primary & Secondary Steel Making.

Atomic Structure & Periodic Table.

Bonding : Covalent, Ionic & Metallic Bonding.

Crystal Structures, Lattice  Imperfections & Plastic Deformation.

Incubation period , nucleation , Grain Growth & Grain Boundary Development in Solidification of Metals/Alloys

Polycrystalline & Mono crystal solid solution.

Pig Iron making processes in Blast furnace.

Direct reduction of iron ore in Shaft Furnace.

Electric Arc Furnace for Steel Making .

Induction furnace for steel making.

Red shortness & hot shortness in steels

Desulphurization & calcium treatment.


Module 1- Part 11

Vicious circle of poor mechanical integrity & competition affecting the management of ageing assets.

Enterprising approach & proactive maintenance reliability culture needed for ageing assets.

Effect of electronegativity & atomic size of alloying elements in governing the mechanical & corrosion properties.

Trend of electronegativity of elements in periodic table.

Transition elements : why different type of bonding and variation in physical properties?

Mechanism of metallic bonding in transition elements.

Pure metal & Alloy melting temperature mechanism.

Inter metallic bonding among transition elements.

Why Alloying done and how alloying elements affect the corrosion resistance & mechanical properties in an alloy?

Role of alloying elements in C - Mn  API 5L-65

Classification of ferrous alloys

Iron & steel making: Pig iron & primary and secondary steel making.

Methods of forming : Extrusion, rolling, drawing, casting, forging, welding & piercing

Fabrication of tubes & seamless pipes manufacturing.

Review of Fe-Fe3C diagram : Peritectic reaction, eutectic reaction & eutectoid reaction.

Solid solution strengthening

Fe-Fe3C diagram , carbon steels microstructures in slow & fast cooling.

Heat Treatment - temperature time transformation diagram.

Why mild steel or extra low carbon steel is difficult to hardened and how they can be hardened by alloying.?

Module 1 - Part 12

TTT & CCT diagram for carbon steels & alloy steels.

Heat Treatment

Surface Heat treatment for surface wear Resistance.

Impact of Ferrite Stabilizers & Austenite Stabilizers Alloying Additions .

Effect of Alloying Additions on strength of material.

Secondary hardening

Composition & property linkages in stainless steels family of alloys.

Schaeffler -Delong stainless steel construction diagram.

Cr-Mo creep resistant alloys composition.

Impact of Vanadium addition in Cr-Mo alloys.

2 1/4 Cr- 1 Mo 0.25 V vanadium modified steels for hydrocracker reactor construction.

Difference in P91 & P92 material.

P 91 metallurgy need precision control of chemistry & heat manufacturing & welding.

Main advantages of P91 material.

Challenges in P91 material during manufacturing & welding.

Type IV cracking in HAZ

Induction heating for heat treatment.

Joint design & Fabrication.

Welding with no multiple repair.

Limit of both upper and lower hardness limit.

Creep Degradation Mechanisms: Spheroidization & Creep voids micro cracking.

Module 1 - Part 13

Other alloys: stainless steels

Stainless steel family :Ferritic, Austenitic , Duplex, Martensitic & Precipitation hardened.

Types of localised corrosion in stainless steels

SCC tendency of stainless steels & Fe-Ni-Cr & Nickel base alloys.

Passivation VS Electropolishing

Common Ferritic, Duplex, & Martensitic Stainless steels.

Relative comparison in stainless steels mechanical properties.

Austenitic stainless steels 200 series (Fe-Cr-Mn-Ni) & 300 series ( Fe-Cr-Ni-C) .

Intergranular Corrosion in austenitic stainless steels

Ferritic stainless steels.

Duplex stainless steels : Standard duplex stainless steel (2205) & Super duplex stainless steel (2507)

Ageing in duplex stainless steels (Delta ferrite - origin of sigma phase formation)

Sigma phase embrittlement in HAZ of multi run weldment in duplex stainless steels.

Precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steels.

Degradation on reheating in duplex stainless steel: TTT phase diagram

Type of cast iron & their chemistry.

Nickel Base Alloys: Monel (Ni-Cu) , Inconel (Ni-Cr-Mo), Incoloy ( Ni-Fe-Cr) , Haste Alloy (Ni-Cr-Mo-W)

Cupro-nickel phase diagram

Titanium Alloys

Learning Material Behavior and Corrosion & Metallurgical Degradation through interactions of atoms in periodic table due to difference in atomic size and electronegativity.

Module 1- Part 14

Reliability needs innovations and innovations needs perspectives of operators & employees.

Management of integrity in ageing assets need : management vision. deep & wider tacit technical skill, resources, incentives & timely action.

Defects in materials ,

Work hardening & strain hardening.

How sulfur is detrimental to mechanical properties both during forming & in-service .

Effect of minor addition of alloying elements in HSLA of subsea pipelines in Oil & Gas.

Discussion on ASTM Cr-Mo & Cr-Mo-V steels products & it's composition.

Discussion on composition of standard stainless steels.

Austenitic stainless steels

Ferritic stainless steels.

Duplex stainless steels

Martensitic stainless steels.

Composition of nonstandard stainless steels.

Corrosion : natural & unnatural combinations of material & environment.

Type of corrosion

Localized corrosion is more insidious than uniform or general corrosion.

Macroscopic & microscopic corrosion.

Stress corrosion cracking.

Factors affecting rate of corrosion.

Sea water corrosion mechanism.

why corrosion : A complex problem ?

Damage factors causing corrosion & metallurgical degradation.

What's stainless steels and why all elements in periodic table are not equally corroded?

Design factors in corrosion control & prevention.

Relative impact on corrosion rate by  oxygen, carbon dioxide  & hydrogen sulfide wet corrosion.

Mechanism of atmospheric corrosion.

Mechanism of pitting corrosion.

Material degradation during hot & cold forming, machining and welding.

Metallurgical effect of welding on microstructure & mechanical properties.

How codified RBI approach is not reliable if the plant is being poorly designed and constructed.


Module 1- Part 15

Mechanism of Mechanical Fatigue, Thermal Fatigue & Corrosion  Fatigue.

Solid solution & Micro & Macro Segregation during solidification.

Crystal imperfections & Plastic Deformation,

Effect of alloying on yield strength (Zinc in copper)

Elastic Vs Plastic deformation.

Stress Strain diagram,

Ludder's Bands & Yield Point Phenomenon.

Defects in crystal & their Dynamics.

Dislocation slips.

Crystal Anisotropy.

Solid solution & precipitation hardening mechanisms in steel & alloys.

How does microstructure influence the mechanical properties & material degradation?

Why dislocations & vacancies don't cross but get pile up at grain boundaries?

Continuous casting for killed steel with vacuum degassing & Al addition to get Killed steels.

Precipitation Hardening Mechanism through dislocation movement.

Twin GBs in Brass & Austenitic stainless steel.

Slip direction , slip plain  & Slip systems in BCC & FCC.

Iron lattice  parameter& Allotropes & carbon solubility.

Metallography & optical microscopy to study microconstituents  & micro cracks  & GBs micro-voids.

ASTM grain size no. measurement in microstructure.

Creation & Diffusion of vacancies by heating the material.

Why different metals & alloys have different melting point and melting point range.

Why iron lattice structure changes on cooling & heating.

Module 1- Part 16

Review & Concluding :

Iron & steel making

Forming (Hot & Cold Forming), Hot & Cold Rolling, Grain Size Control during rolling.

Manufacturing processes

Seamless pipe & Tube manufacturing

ERW pipe manufacturing.

Strengthening  Mechanisms :

Grain Size reduction, Alloying, Strain hardening (cold working)

Solid solution & strain hardening in Cu-Zn  alloys.

Precipitation hardening by alloying.

Precipitation hardening in Cr-Mo steels.

Strengthening by grain size reduction. Grain size control by - by rate of solidification, by plastic deformation, and by heat treatment.

Solid solution strengthening.

Strengthening by cold working / strain ageing  / strain hardening.

Recovery , recrystallization & grain growth.

Brittle VS. Ductile Fracture

Stress Raisers & Stress Concentration.

Notch toughness test.

Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT)

Metallurgical Factors affecting ductile to brittle transition temperature.

Module 1 - Part 17

Review & Concluding

-Review of Fe-Fe3C phase diagram.

- Phase changes in pure iron (three allotrope of iron - Delta, Austenite & Alpha Ferrite)

- Phase transformations in Fe - C alloys.

- Phase transformation prominent reactions : Peritectic , Eutectic, & Eutectoid

- why we use low carbon steel in Oil & Gas & Power.

- Why Fe-Fe3C diagram is nonequilibrium phase diagram.

- Hypo eutectoid, Eutectoid & Hypereutectoid Carbon steels.

- Difference in Fine & Coarse pearlite morphology, which is better from mechanical properties point of view.

- Phase transformation & microstructural changes in carbon steels in equilibrium slow cooling condition .

- Phase changes & microstructural changes in carbon steel in non-equilibrium fast cooling condition.

- How cementite in pearlite provide strength to carbon steels.?

- Mechanism behind transformation austenite to alpha ferrite & pearlite and austenite to martensite .

- How BCC to BCT transformation causes increase in volume.?

- Microstructures of hypo eutectoid and hyper eutectoid steels.

- Martensite morphology (lathe & plate type)

- Difference in martensite (diffusion less)  & pearlite (diffusion of carbon with time & temperature)  morphology.

- Mechanism of pearlite transformation .

- Microstructure variation  in 0.3 % C, A 106  pipe in HAZ .

- Why welded components are welded .  Why the CS material above 19mm & 25 mm thickness requires SR (PWHT)

- Why in CS  vessels need preheating & PWHT for thickness more than 32 mm & 38 mm and above respectively.

- Nonequilibrium (partial diffusion & diffusion less ) transformation resulting bainite & martensitic structure.

- Why extra low carbon steel can't be hardened by quenching?

- TTT  & CCT diagrams for carbon steel.

- Impact of alloying on TTT & CCT diagram.

- Why mild steel can't be hardened by quenching and how alloying elements enable the hardenability in CS .?

- What's critical cooling rate & mechanism of Widmanstatten ferrite microstructure in C-Mn steel weld & HAZ ?

-  Behavior of transition metallic element.

- Difference in melting of metals & Alloys.

- Why in metal crystal lattice atoms vibrate while in intermetallic compound atoms are fixed ?.

-   Solidification from liquid to solid in metals and alloys.

- Alloying in carbon steels (carbide & non carbide formers )

- Relative carbide forming tendency of carbide forming elements.

- Relative impact of carbides / nitrides & borides of ferrite stabilizers.

- How relatively fine dispersion of carbides/nitrides & borides govern the strengthening in precipitation hardening.?

- Impact of carbide formers & non carbide formers on TTT diagram.

- Effect of alloying element on hardness after nitriding.

- Effect of alloying elements on eutectoid temperature & eutectoid carbon content.

- Impact of Mn, Mo, Cr & Ti alloying on microstructural transformations  in Fe-Fe3C diagram.

- What's secondary hardening?

- How molybdenum causes secondary hardening & how to avoid it?

- Why titanium is more effective nitride former than vanadium.

- What's intermetallic compounds and what's inter metallic bonding?

-How to calculate the sigma factor ratio in Cr-Ni- Fe alloys  & its susceptibility to sigma phase formation.

- Nickel base alloys 800/800H/800HT and its relative susceptibility to sigma phase formation and IGC.

- Why sigma phase can't be detected by visual inspection.

- Why in SS 304H weld joints are more prone to sigma embrittlement than base metal.?

- Why sigma phase formation take place on curving grain boundary rather than twinned grain boundary.

-Why , we don't use vanadium/molybdenum  as a stabilizing elements in austenitic stainless steels?

- Stress strain diagram.

- Why hydrotest at high pressure not recommended for inservice equipment while for new construction , it is beneficial?

- what's the difference in solid solution & precipitation hardening?

- Cr-Mo alloys

- Why P92 is superior to P91?

- Why microstructural changes are concern during  manufacturing, welding  and stress relieving in P91 material.

- What's type IV cracking and why it take place in inter critical HAZ region?

- Microstructure evaluation of ferritic steels as per ISPES (degree of spheroidization) against creep damages.

- Microstructural phase evaluation generic aspect to predict creep damages in Cr-Mo alloys.

- Mechanism of creep voids formation and micro cracks formation on grain boundaries . ISPESL- simplified Neubauer classification.

- Stages of creep damages for remaining life prediction.


Module 1- Part 18

Review & Concluding

- High temperature flue gas sulfidation corrosion   in austenitic stainless steels & Ni base alloys.

- Why oxidation by sulfidation is more destructive than oxidation in Nickel base alloys.

- Effect of alloying Aluminum  in controlling high temperature flue gas sulfidation of stainless steels & Ni base alloys.

- Risk of high temperature sulfidation flue gas corrosion in using Inconel filler wire in Cr-Mo & Fe-Cr-Ni alloys.

- Deriving family of stainless steels by alloying or dealloying SS 304 composition.

-Shaeffler -Delong stainless steels constitution diagram for filler wire selection & welding procedure qualification.

- SCC tendency of stainless steels nickel alloys.

- Fe-Cr equilibrium phase diagram & TTT diagram.

- Why industrial application of duplex stainless steels limit to lesser than 250 deg. C  temperature range?.

- What's 475 deg. C embrittlement degradation damage mechanism?

- Comparison of 2304, 2205 and 2507 for susceptibility to sigma phase embrittlement.

- Why ASS 347 is more prone to sigma embrittlement than ASS 321?

- Put304, 316, 321 & 347 in ascending order to their tendency to sigma phase embrittlement with reasoning.

- Why sensitization is a short term degradation while sigma phase is a long term embrittlement.?

- Nickel base alloys : Monel, Inconel, Incoloy & haste alloys.

- Why nickel base alloys can't be hardened by heat treatment and how they can be strengthened?

- What's precipitation hardening through gamma prime for hardening nickel base alloys?

- Titanium Alloys

- Why titanium alloys can't be used above 135 deg. C in sea water service?

- What's corrosion? How & why corrosion degradation of metals & alloys follows the law of nature?

- Types of corrosion: Uniform or General Corrosion & Localized Corrosion.

- Localized Corrosion : Macroscopic & Microscopic Corrosion.

- Galvanic Corrosion

- Corrosion Allowance : why CA  is design based on uniform corrosion while equipment fails due to localized corrosion?

- Corrosion Basics : Corrosion cells in hydrocarbon lines & equipment exhibiting cathodic & anodic corrosion reactions.

- How corrosion is governed by oxidizing or reducing reaction on cathode?

- Fundamental of corrosion: Corrosion drivers - Oxidizing agents & stimulating agents.

- What is the difference in HCl corrosion & SO2 corrosion in saline environment in offshore / onshore installations.?

- Alloy selection chart : cathodic oxidizing & reducing reactions.

- Design factor in corrosion prevention & control : Environment, Equipment design, metallurgy , geometry & geography

- Natural & unnatural combinations of material & environment.

- Galvanic series in sea water .

- HAZ microstructure degradation due to welding.

- Fatigue

- Plastic deformation : two mechanism- slip by dislocations & twinning of planes

- Slip system in BCC & FCC: why FCC materials are more ductile than BCC & HCP?

- Grain Size & ASTM Grain Size measurement.

- Ingot casting micro- structure after solidification .

- Heat Treatment classification of CS & LAS wrt soaking temperatures.

- Microstructure changes during heat treatment.

- What's tempered martensite  and why under / over tempering must be avoided ?

- Cast iron : White & Grey Cast iron

- Killed steels: why formation of pipe  occur in top side of ingot in killed steel?

- What's the difference in killed, semi killed , capped & rimmed steels.

- Forging : Crane hook

- Why forging are superior products than cast, rolled  & machined products.

- Finding the susceptibility of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy to sigma embrittlement.

- Material selection in varying temperature service including cryogenic & elevated temperature

- Conclusion

- Content of Module M-2

- Why Corrosion is a complex problem?

- How RBI success lies in identification / detection / monitoring & mitigation of Corrosion & Metallurgical Degradation?

- Classification of damage mechanisms in Oil & Gas & Power (Onshore & Offshore) 

Module 1 - Part 19