Communication Skills for Beginners
4.4 (31 ratings)
Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately.
1,325 students enrolled

Communication Skills for Beginners

Everything you want to know about how to EXACTLY communicate like a pro even if you don''t know anything about it
4.4 (31 ratings)
Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately.
1,325 students enrolled
Created by Mayur Bardolia
Last updated 11/2015
English [Auto]
Current price: $34.99 Original price: $49.99 Discount: 30% off
5 hours left at this price!
30-Day Money-Back Guarantee
This course includes
  • 4 hours on-demand video
  • 17 downloadable resources
  • Full lifetime access
  • Access on mobile and TV
  • Certificate of Completion
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What you'll learn
  • Know what is communication and what is purpose of communication
  • Understand the types of communication so that you will know what is the best suitable medium for you to communicate
  • Learn exactly how to minimize or eliminate misunderstanding by understanding the process of communication
  • Find out the advantages and disadvantages of oral, written and non-verbal communication, so that you can realize where to use the right medium of communication
  • Learn incredible power of non-verbal communication and how to perform non-verbally for impact
  • Understand how the way you speak directly affects the results you want. It's a powerful way to understand your tonality to say what you want to say
  • No matter how good you are at communication, there are some limitations of communication. You need to understand these barriers to communication so that you know where things will probably go wrong and you will avoid blaming yourself for being the failure in communication
  • Learn how to listen. Yes, listening is an art to understand others and to grow our relationship
  • Know how to write with impact because written communication is unavoidable part of our life. You will learn how to write a letter to build your professional image
  • Learn how to present your ideas, thoughts, product and service powerfully. The way you present directly decides the way people perceive your idea.
  • Learn how to prepare powerpoint slides that stand out from others
  • Discover some techniques and etiquette of doing discussion in groups
  • Ability to put everything they learn into practice
  • open mind for learning

**Limited 24 Hours sale**

The key to perfecting your communication strategy

Great communication skills can make all the difference in your personal and professional life, and expert author Mayur Bardolia with you his top tips for successful communication in any situation.

Packed with advice on the exact process of communication, verbal and non–verbal communication, written communication, powerful presentation skill, communicating using email and lots more, Communication Skills For Beginners is a comprehensive communication resource no professional should be without!

  • Get ahead in the workplace
  • Get noticed in a group by communicating your ideas
  • Get recognised in people
  • Create powerful image using powerful communication
  • Use effective communication skills to secure that new job offer
  • Convince friends and family to support you on a new venture

Utilising a core of simple skills, Communication Skills For Beginners will help you shine in no time!

Learn to:

  • Communicate successfully, whatever the situation
  • Build trust, engage with empathy and listen carefully to develop relationships
  • Express yourself clearly in writing and over the phone, as well as in person
  • Manage conflict and effect a positive outcome

Get your message across and connect with anyone for greater success in your career and social life

Great communicators aren′t born, they′re made. The simple yet powerful tools and techniques you′ll find in this guide can transform anyone into a great communicator in no time.

Inside,you′ll find easy exercises for building your messaging muscle,along with quick fixes for simple communication problems, and priceless insights and advice on everything from non–verbal communication to communicating over digital media.

  • Listen, learn, communicate find out how to improve relationships through active listening and clearly defining what you really want to communicate
  • Tear down the barriers to effective communication learn to zero–in on and shed prejudices and preconceptions that can get in the way of making a connection
  • Show them you mean it, discover how to control every aspect of your physical delivery including hand gestures,facial expressions and tone of voice for maximum effect
  • Adjust your attitude find out how your attitude impacts the content and delivery of your message, and how it can make or break your chances of delivering your presentation and communication

Enroll in this course and find:

  • Strategies for overcoming any communication obstacle
  • Tips for becoming an active listener
  • Techniques for controlling body language and voice modulation
  • Simple exercises for building your communication skills fast
  • Tips for communicating effectively in writing
  • Techniques for making the most of communication technology


Mayur Bardolia is a Result Coach and Inspirational International Trainer who tailors coaching programmes and workshops to individuals and teams across the world.

Who this course is for:
  • Who want to understand the communication from scratch
  • who want to know the fundamentals of communication to be master at the skill
  • Who want to communicate the idea to the people but don't know exactly what is communication
  • Who want to be competent communicator from an absolute beginner
Course content
Expand all 19 lectures 03:49:09
+ 1. Introduction to the Course
2 lectures 05:16
  • What you get out of this subject depends on what you put into it.
  • In order to gain mastery over the subject and techniques, You must practice.
  • Learning Occurs only when it comes out from your behavior after learning
  • Pay undivided attention
  • Write as much as possible
  • Watch and listen over and over again
  • Have an open mind to learn
  • Do exercises (It’s compulsory)
Preview 05:16
Notes- Introduction to the course
1 page
+ Definitions & purpose of communication
1 lecture 16:47

Importance of communication skill

  • It is an important aspect of human behavior and symbolises human beings’ ability to convey opinions, feelings, information and ideas to others through words (written or spoken), body language or signs.
  • Communication is an integral part of life.
  • It includes oral, written, formal, informal, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, inward, outward as well as non-verbal communication
  • It’s the most important part of everyone's life, career and business
  • The achievement of your objectives largely depends on proper coordination and integration of others in your life
  • In any organisational growth, coordination and integration of various human activities is possible only if there is an effective system of communication within the organisation, which provides for exchange of information and sharing of ideas.
  • Everything you now have or ever will have, become, do or experience, you will get with and through other people


  • For communication to be effective there has to be both information and meaning in it’s context and meaning requires communication” –Peter Drucker
  • Communication is the sum total of all the things, a person does when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.” –Allen Louis
  • “Communication has been defined “as the transfer of information from one person to another, irrespective of whether or not it elicits confidence.” – Koontz & O’Donnell
  • “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions, by two or more persons”- George Terry
  • “Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It builds bridges of meaning between people, enabling them to safely cross the rivers of misunderstanding.” – Keith Davis
  • “Communication is an interchange of thoughts, opinions or information through speech, writing or signs.” – Robert Anderson
  • “Effective communication is ‘purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and the receiver of a message.” –George Vardman
  • “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others.” – Theo Haimann

Purpose of Communication

  • To Inform: Information is power and needful within and outside the organisation.
  • To Persuade: Businesses work through persuasion
  • To Educate: To spread knowledge and develop skills and attitudes among people in the organisation
  • To Train: Communication is part of any training program
  • To Motivate: Communication provides a means to keep these motivation levels high
  • To integrate: Large business organisations have different business units, departments and territorial divisions which pursue different targets. Communication provides the means for an integrated approach in pursuing organisational goals
  • To relate: communication provides the means for building and nurturing mutually beneficial relationships
  • To Entertain: communication facilitates social bonding and brings lighter moments that help in creating lighter moments and in relieving tension
  • Some of the common objectives of official communication are to get or give information; ask for or give instructions, advice or suggestions; to make requests and to persuade other people to agree with us
  • In order to caution, counsel, clarify, apprise, evaluate, reprimand, organise and fulfill numerous such objectives, we must make use of communication
Definitions & purpose of communication
+ Classification of Communication
1 lecture 07:57

Classification of Communication

1. Based on number of persons

  • Intrapersonal Communication:
    • Involves to oneself in one’s own mind.
    • For example, Self Talk, Monoacting
  • Interpersonal Communication:
  • Group Communication:
    • Held among small or large groups
    • Large group, Group Discussion, Classroom
  • Mass Communication:
    • Occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people
    • Large group of people, TV, Radio, Newspaper, Internet video/radio, Group Discussion, Classroom
    • In this process, each person becomes a faceless individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback
  • Exchange of messages between two persons.
  • For example, Meeting, Discussion, interview, Arguments. Even Books, articles, letter, email

2. Based on Medium Used

  • Verbal Communication: entails use of words to convey messages either in speech or through writing
  • Verbal consists of
    • Speaking - Listening - Writing -
    • Reading - Thinking
  • It’s further be classified as Oral- Written Communication
  • Written Communication
    • Report
    • Circulars
    • Graphs/Charts
    • Newsletter
    • E-mail
    • Fax
    • Form/Questionnaire
    • Notice, Agenda
    • Advertisement
    • Press Release
    • Invitation
    • Leaflet/Brochure
    • Manuals
    • Letter
  • Visual Communication
  • Audio-visual
  • Non-Verbal Communication:
  • It is an unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language.
  • It includes using of pictures, signs, gestures and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons
  • Done through sign language, action language or object language
  • Non-verbal communication flows though all acts of speaking or writing
  • It’s a wordless message conveyed through gestures (sign), movements (action language), and object language (pictures/clothes)
Classification of Communication
+ Process of communication
1 lecture 14:43

Process Of Communication

  • Behind our every communication, our goal is to have a ‘Productive Relationship’.
  • A process is “ A systematic series of actions or operation of a series of changes directed to some end.”
  • Communication is a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually acceptable direction or goal.
  • The process of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information or message for a particular purpose which is mutually understood by both the sender and receiver
  • Everyone is selfish!!!! Everyone asks him/herself, “What is in it for me?”
  • Only when these conditions are fulfilled, a significant communicative situation will take shape and what transpires between the two parties, viz. the sender and the receiver, whether spoken or written, will be the communicative event

Elements of the Communication process

  1. Sender/Encoder/Speaker
  2. Receiver/ Decoder/ Listener
  3. Message
  4. Medium
  5. Feedback

1. Sender/Encoder/Speaker

  • The person who initiates the communication process
  • He/She selects ideas, encodes and finally transmits them to the receiver
  • The entire burden of communication rests upon the sender or encoder
  • He/she transmits, spreads or communicates a message and is the one who conceives and initiates the message with the purpose of informing/influencing/changing the attitude, opinion or behaviour of the receiver (audience/listener)
  • If the message can be formulated in accordance with the expectations of the receiver, the level of acceptance will be a higher
  • Encoding: Encoding is changing the message (from it’s mental form) into symbols, that is patterns of words/gestures/pictorial forms or signs (physical or of sounds) of a specific visual/oral language

The meaning of communication is the response you get.

2. Receiver/Decoder/Listener

  • Receiver is the targeted audience of the message
  • The receiver gets the message, understands, interprets and tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender
  • This process is carried on in relation to the work environment and the value received in terms of the work situation
  • If the goal of a sender is envisioned as similar to his/her own, the listener becomes more receptive
  • Decoding : This is the act of translating symbols in communication into their ordinary interpretation.
  • This would consist of meanings of the words (symbols) together with the tone and the attitude of the sender, as reflected by the structure of the message and the choice of words used by him (the sender)

3. Message

  • It is the information, written or spoken, which is to be sent from one person to another.
  • Message is the encoded idea, transmitted by the sender making the formulation of the message extremely important, for an incorrect patterning can turn the receiver hostile making him lose interest altogether.
  • The sender has to be extremely cautious because he/she must know the order in which he would like to present his ideas and how the message should be formulated and transmitted.
  • It should be based on the requirements of the listener, so that it’s significance is immediately grasped

4. Medium/ Channel

  • It’s vehicle or medium which facilities the sender to convey the message to the receiver.
  • It should be oral, written or non-verbal
  • Each medium follows it’s own set of rules and regulations.
  • Each medium has it’s own benefits and limitations. For example, oral communication can be informal but special care needs to be taken for written communication

5. Feedback

  • It ensures that the receiver has received the message and understood it as intended by the sender
  • Effective communication takes place only when there is feedback
  • The errors and flaws that abound in business situations, are a result of a lack of feedback
  • If feedback is solicited on all occasions, the error in communication can be minimized or even completely eliminated
  • The process of feedback assures the initiator of the action as also about it’s correctness and possible impact

Effective Two-Way Communication

One way Process

  • The sender, according to his ideas, bahaviour patterns and intention, selects a message
  • He then encodes the message
  • Then, he transmits it to the receiver through a medium (verbally or non-verbally or both)
  • Then the receiver decodes it and gives an internal response to the perceived message. This response is not in the relation to the actual content but rather to the ‘perceived content’ of the original message

Two –Way Process

  • Until now, the sender does not come to know whether his message has been understood by the receiver or not.
  • In this second phase, receiver formulates his message, encodes it and transmits it to the original sender- now turned receiver
  • If the feedback is in tune with the original intent of the sender, communication can proceed without a hitch
Process of Communication
+ Oral Communication
1 lecture 12:43

Classification of Communication Based on Expression

  • Oral
  • Written
  • Non Verbal


  • Research studies have shown that 80% of communication by executives of a company is in the oral form.
  • Modes of Oral Communication include:

– Telephone/Mobile phone

– Messages

– Intercom

– Face-to-face discussion

– Meetings/Conferences

– Presentation

– Conversation

– Radio

– Tape-recorder

– Teleconferencing/Videoconferencing

– Speeches

– Brainstorming sessions

– Grapevine

– Interview

Visual Communication

  • Picture
  • Poster
  • Slideshow
  • Advertisement


  • Movie
  • Advertisement
  • Video Calling/Conferencing

Characteristics of Oral communication

  • Instantaneous Two-way process- Communication travel back and forth instantaneously without any loss of time, making it highly interactive
  • One-off exercise- It’s not repeated and no written record to which any references can be made
  • Day to day language
  • Presence of sender and receiver is required
  • Effect of body language and speech modulation
  • It can not be erased and mended

Advantages of Oral Communication

  • Immediate feedback and clarification. So the dialogue is more purposeful.
  • Better relationship-It builds a healthy climate in the organisation by bringing people together.
  • Time saving
  • Effective tool of persuasion in management- It helps to create Win-Win situation
  • Effective tool for group communication
  • Economical
  • It is the only way out during an emergency
  • Oral Communication Helps to Convey the Message more Appropriately with Suitable Tone, Voice and Use of Words.

Disadvantages of Oral Communication

  • Lack of retention/Documentation
  • Distortion in passing the message
  • No legal validity
  • Possibility of misunderstanding
  • Unsuitable for long messages
  • Difficulty in assigning responsibility
  • It is constrained by physical barriers: noise, environment, seating arrangement, technical faults in mike, telephone
  • Not effective when the target group is spread out
  • Depends on the Sender/Receiver’s Attitude
  • Communication is not a One Sided Activity. You will get response based on your words you use in your conversation
  • Bad/partial Listening Affects Message
  • Its Economy is Control Specific

Oral Communication
+ Written Communication
1 lecture 10:46


  • One of the best methods to communicate
  • Writing is one of the oldest known forms of communication
  • In today’s age of information and technology, writing has become a lost art

Examples of Written Communication

  • Report
  • Circulars
  • Graphs/Charts
  • Newsletter
  • E-mail
  • Fax
  • Form/Questionnaire
  • Notice, Agenda
  • Advertisement
  • Press Release
  • Invitation
  • Leaflet/Brochure
  • Manuals
  • Letter

Characteristics of Written Communication

  • Most formal type of communication- Written mode is preferred in formal communication
  • Used for documentation
  • Used for circulation of information
  • Conventional by nature – It has to follow definite pattern as per rules laid down by the language.
  • Presence of both sender and receiver is not necessary at the same time.
  • A Creative Activity- it requires conscious and creative effort.
  • Time Factor: The receiver will take his own time in filtering it through his mind and responding to it.
  • It has fewer cycle: In just one or few cycle the communication is completed (message is sent and received and that is the end of the event)

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Ready reference- In the absence of ready reference, great confusion may be created and the working of the organisation will virtually comes to a halt.
  • Legal defense- Maintenance of proper records, letters, reports and memos builds up legal defenses of the organisation. Necessary for legal and binding documentation
  • Promotes Uniformity- clear guidelines, policy and procedure
  • Mass Access- It gives access to a large audience through mass mailing to reach out to people at large and to win customers through wisely drafted mail-shots or circulars. Easily distributed
  • Suitable for distance communication
  • Image building- Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image.
  • Accurate and unambiguous- Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Permits substitution and revision
  • Allows you to store information for future reference
  • All recipients receive the same information
  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Limited to literate world
  • Time Consuming- as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Lot of paper work and also, extra care should be taken to keep sensitive or confidential material in their own custody
  • Needs expertise in expression- Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use.
  • Costly- It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Lack of immediate feedback
  • No immediate clarification
  • Communication in writing suffers from lack of congruence with non-verbal communication.
  • The inadequacies of the first message may only be revealed when the reply arrives.
  • More men hours needed- It takes much more time to compose a message in writing. Therefore it is expensive.
Written Communication
+ Non-verbal Communication
1 lecture 18:59

Non-Verbal Communication

  • The word “Non-Verbal Communication” means communication which does not involve speech or words
  • This is the wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space, style of writing and choice of words.

Characteristics of Non-Verbal Communication

  • Instinctive: It indicates attitude, instincts and feelings of the speaker
  • Less conscious: The non-verbal part of communication, on the other hand, is less deliberate and conscious as most expressions and gestures are mostly unconsciously expressed, for the speaker too may not be aware of these signs
  • Subtle: it needs to be understood and expressed
  • Complimentary to verbal communication: it makes verbal communication more effective and meaningful
  • Forms the larger parts of the overall communication activity:
  • 55 Percent- Facial Expression, Body Posture, Gestures
  • 38 Percent - Tone of Voice and inflection
  • 7 Percent - Words

Classification of Non-Verbal Communication

  • Body Language
  • Paralanguage

Body Language

  • Body language is the reflection of thoughts, feelings and position
  • “We talk with our vocal cords, but we communicate with our facial expressions, tone of voice and our entire body.”- Paul Ekman
  • It includes:
  • Facial Expressions
  • Eye contact
  • Gestures
  • Body shape and posture
  • appearance

Facial Expressions

  • “The face is the index of the heart.”
  • We convey so much without speaking a word.
  • Every facial muscle is an instrument of communication with a significant role to play.
  • The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication

Eye Contact

  • Looking at somebody for a long time shows the intensity of our interest in him.
  • If the eye contact is brief or we take our eyes off the person very soon, it indicates nervousness or an embarrassment on our part.
  • Direct eye contact of more than 10 seconds can create discomfort and anxiety


  • Gestures are the physical movements of arms, hands, torso and head, which help one to express thoughts and/to emphasize one’s speech.
  • Gestures showing aggressiveness
  • Gestures showing rudeness


  • These gestures illustrate the words, which a speaker is saying
  • For example, “My third and final point is….” and holds up three fingers, this gesture is an illustrator


  • Regulators control oral communication by alerting the sender to the need to hurry up, slow down or repeat something.
  • For example, drumming finger on the table when someone is talking with another person.
  • When someone is delivering a long speech and the other person wants to restrict him, he/she may show his watch to regulate or moderate him


  • Indicates emotional states, such as anger or embarrassment, occurring usually in our facial expressions.

Positive Gestures

  • Leaning a little towards the speaker
  • Tilting the head
  • Eye Contact with the speaker
  • Gently nodding the head in agreement
  • Keeping palms open and avoiding clutching or folding them across the chest
  • Walking with the head upright, hands swinging freely by the sides

Negative Gestures

  • Signs of Nervousness
    • Hands in pocket
    • Covering the mouth with the hand while speaking
    • Biting nails
    • Scratching
    • Glancing sideways
    • Drumming fingers
    • Tapping feet
    • Crossed arms or legs
    • Setting the hair with hands
    • Sitting on the edge of the chair
    • Speaking too fast or too slow
    • Clearing the throat too often
    • Blinking the eyes a lot
    • Clicking the pen
    • Playing with paper weight
  • Staring
  • Pointing at someone
  • Showing fist
  • Folding both arms
  • Shake hands too hard
  • Give a very limp handshake
  • Stand too close
  • Whisper at a social gathering
  • Work while someone talks to you
  • Yawn
  • Artificial smile
  • Start gathering or folding papers before a meeting is over
  • Gestures showing lack of good sense
  • Banging the table
  • Chewing pen
  • Waving hands around you while talking
  • Wiping hands across face
  • Touching nose time and again
  • Attending meeting with the cellphone on
  • Staring pointedly at someone

Advantages of Body Language/Non-verbal Communication

  • It’s visible, so it helps the receiver of the message in decoding the message.
  • In Face-to-face communication, No message can be completely sent across without the accompaniment of facial expressions and gestures
  • Helps to establish rapport
  • Adds intensity to the process of communication

Disadvantages of Body Language/Non-verbal Communication

  • Can’t rely on it completely.
  • As people come from different background, they send out different body signals. So, it may be misinterpreted
  • Facial expressions, gestures and postures also tend to become ineffective if the listener is inattentive.
  • Not everyone is good at using their expressions appropriately
Preview 18:59
+ 'How to say what you want to say?' - Paralanguage- Nonverbal communication
1 lecture 14:02

'How to say what you want to say?'

Paralanguage- Nonverbal communication


  • It is defined as “a type of non-verbal communication that includes articulation, pronunciation, rate, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities.
  • With verbal communication consists of the ‘what’ or the content of words, paralanguage involves the ‘How’ of a speaker’s voice or the way in which he speaks
  • Your tone shapes the meaning of your word or sentence.


  • Tells us about person’s gender, background, education, training and temperament
  • Kinds of voices- clear, musical, raucous (harsh/rowdy), cultivated, pleasant, unpleasant and so on

Take care of the following points in the use of your voice

  • Pitch Variation
  • Keep fluctuating your tone. Monotonous = Boring
  • High pitch indicates nervousness, anxiety, tension, fear, surprise, dynamism, anger, joy, cheerfulness or impatience
  • Low pitch indicates affection, sadness, boredom, pleasantness, intimacy or empathy
  • Speaking speed:
  • We should present the easy parts of a message at a brisk pace, because it is likely to be understood easily and soon
  • The difficult, complicated and highly technical part of information should be conveyed slowly
  • Increase in rate could indicate impatience, urgency, nervousness or anxiety
  • When we are relaxed, we speak at a comfortable speed.
  • Pause
  • Volume variation
  • Advantages of Paralanguage
  • Pauses at the right point is more important.
  • It can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subject and in gaining the listener’s attention.
  • Frequent, arbitrary pauses spoil the speech and distract the listener’s attention
  • We must speak loud enough for our audience to hear us, but also remember not to be too loud
  • Softness and loudness in volume alters meaning specifically.
  • Loud voice= anger, cheerfulness, joy, strength, fearlessness, activity and high status
  • Softness in volume = affection, boredom, sadness, intimacy, empathy, fear, weakness, low status
  • Word Stress
  • By placing stress or emphasis in the same sentence or utterance can change the entire meaning.


I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

  • It’s closely allied to language and no oral message is complete without it.
  • It’s a sufficiently dependable indicator of the speaker’s place in the organisation. On the basis of his voice-quality one can easily guess his position in the hierarchy.
  • It tells us quite clearly about the speaker’s educational background
  • It speaks volumes about the speaker’s national and regional background.
  • It gives us clues regarding the speaker’s mental state.
  • It has important educational value in that a careful listener can learn from an effective speaker.

  • Limitations of Paralanguage
  • Can’t fully rely upon
  • What is said and how it is said must be blended. Since this does not happen often, it requires extra care to get to the exact content of the message.
  • The voice quality and pitch of the speaker may unnecessarily prejudice the receiver of the message who has to be very open minded and patient
  • It may sometimes misguide or mislead, as there may be a difference in the speech and the intention behind the spoken words
  • As speakers belong to different speech communities, it is difficult to achieve uniformity in oral communication
  • It’s likely to be misunderstood. The receiver of the message has to be in a proper frame of mind to decode the message/information conveyed by visuals or sound signals
'How to say what you want to say?' - Paralanguage- Nonverbal communication
+ Barriers to communication
1 lecture 17:46


Categorization of Barriers

  • Semantic Barriers
  • Organisational Barriers
  • Interpersonal Barriers
  • Individual Barriers
  • Cross Cultural (Geographic) Barriers
  • Physical Barriers

Semantic Barriers

  • Due to the problems with meaning, significance and the sending and reception of the meaning and content of the message
    • Words have similar pronunciation but multiple meaning- For example, sight, site, cite etc.
    • Badly expressed message - Lack of coherence, awkward sentence structure and jargons are common faults
  • Wrong Interpretations- Whenever one interprets a symbol, one’s own understanding may be different from that of others.
  • Unqualified Assumptions - The sender may send information which is not clarified to the receiver, as he does not understand the assumption clearly.
  • Technical Language - Sometimes technical jargons creates tension, confusion and misunderstanding between the sender and receiver

Organisational Barriers

  • Due to the problems with physical distance between members with respect to their functional specialization of tasks, power, authority and status relationship, values held and ownership of information
  • It may originate in contradictory management policies, too many levels of management or the clash between line and staff operations
  • a)Organisation Culture & Climate – It influences the freedom, thrust and interaction pattern among it’s people
  • b)Organizational Rules and Regulations – E.g. Rigid rules
  • c)Status Relationship – Status, power and position. Fear of position and power of the other party
  • d)Complexity in organisational structure
  • e)Lack of co-operation between superior and subordinate

Interpersonal Barriers

  • It’s based upon the relationships, values held and attitudes of the participants in the process of communication
    • Barriers arising from Superiors
  • Shortage of time for employees due to busy schedule
  • Lack of trust
  • Lack of consideration for employee’s needs
  • Wish to capture authority – superior may hide confidential and important information from an employee
  • Fear of losing power of control
  • Bypassing inner feelings of employee
  • Barriers arising from Subordinates
  • Lack of Proper channel – may not feel free to communicate because of pressure of position power and authority
  • No interest to communicate
  • Lack of co-operation & mutual understanding
  • Lack of trust
  • Poor relationship between superior and subordinate
  • Fear of Penalty

Individual Barriers

  • Due to differences in individual competencies to think and act, which would include physical aliments or handicaps
  • They also have personal feelings, desires, fears, hopes, likes, dislikes, attitudes, views and opinions
  1. Style- A manner in which a person communicates
  • Linguistic Accent
  • The form of expression
  • Types of humor
  • The quality of credibility and charisma

2. Selective Perception – The receiver projects his interest and expectations as he/she decodes messages

3 Status relationship- Higher authorities tend to speak less

4. Poor Attention & Retention

5. Defensiveness

6 Closed Mind- Limited intellectual background, limited reading and narrow interests

7 State of health – Poor health

Cross Cultural (Geographic) barriers

  • Due to time, geographic locations and the effects of time upon reception of the message and other cross cultural factors
  • Culture, values, attributes of a group
  • National Character/basic Personality
  • Language

Physical Barriers

  • Noise
  • Temperature
  • Lighting
  • Room size
  • Arrangement of seating
  • Distance between speaker and listener/audience/participant
  • Voice and Visual Qualities
Barriers to communication
+ How to listen? - Listening Skill
1 lecture 10:42


What is Listening?

  • Listening is the accurate perception of what is being communicated. It is the art of separating fact from statement and accusation
  • Listening involves following:
    • Hearing
    • Understanding
    • Retaining
    • Recalling
  • It is a two-way exchange in which both parties involved, must always be receptive to the thoughts, ideas and emotions of the other.
  • Difference between Listening & Hearing: Listening is a mental activity and hearing is a physical activity. While listening includes hearing in hearing, we receive sounds but we do not use the mind. In listening, we have to understand, retain and recall also.
  • We can’t fully retain what we hear and understand. We forget most of what we hear after sometimes. The reason for poor listening ability is the educational system which lays greater emphasis on the speaker than the listener. The system focuses major attention on reading, writing and speaking skills- not on listening skills.
  • Writing and speaking skills improve with practice. Although this is not in the case of listening skills. It will improve only by consciousness and concentration.

Do’s Of Listening

  • Keep Quiet while listening
  • Look for central themes and main ideas
  • Let the speaker finish without interrupting him
  • Control and minimize distractions
  • Be friendly towards the speaker
  • Avoid pondering on a single point
  • Keep your mind open to every subject and speaker
  • Accept criticism without losing temper
  • Communicate feedback to the speaker
  • Ask questions to encourage speaker
  • Try understand the opinions, views and values of the speaker

Don'ts of Listening

  • Interrupt the speaker
  • Thinking too much about a single point
  • Listening with negative attitude towards the speaker
  • Close-mindedness
  • Hesitation to give oral or non-verbal feedback
  • Listening to several people at a time
  • Working whilst listening
  • Daydreaming
How to listen? - Listening Skill