Master the basics of Organic Chemistry
- 1 hour on-demand video
- 5 downloadable resources
- Full lifetime access
- Access on mobile and TV
- Certificate of Completion
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- Take your exam in absolute confidence and get superb grades!
- Have a strong foundation in organic chemistry, ready to take more advances courses
- You can join clueless on what's organic chemistry is all about and leave with an inquisitive mind wanting to learn more (I hope)! However, some general chemistry knowledge would be helpful so you could absorb stuff faster.
What's Organic Chemistry?
Organic Chemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry, originally limited to substances found only in living organisms, dealing with the compounds of carbon.
- What's with all the hype?
Most science majors would have to undergo an organic chemistry module which has been proven to be a very daunting and challenging field to excel in. Students often struggle to even pass the subject. Organic Chemistry can get progressively tough especially when the core foundation is not strong.
- So why should you take this course?
This isn't a typical organic chemistry course where I explain to you concepts just for you to memorize. I'll make you understand the most basic principles and show you how simple questions are when you've got your foundation solid. In addition, I'll drop some tips and tricks for typical questions so that you have it all covered! At the end of the course, you'll be able to take your exam in absolute confidence and get superb grades!
- How's this course gonna be like?
3 different sections with bite-sized lectures each covering different concepts. There is no rush, you can take things slowly and re-watch the lectures till you get it. At the end of every section, there will be an 'exam' for to test what you've learned.
- Anyone and everyone who is interested! This is a basic course that covers the underlying principles of organic chemistry for the high-schoolers or even the pre-meds!
You should also be able to easily tell what type of covalent bonds in an organic molecule, and thus infer the hybridization of an organic atom (C,N,O,H).
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons aka it is 100% single bonded and composed of ONLY hydrogen and carbon.
A molecular formula tells us the chemical composition of the compound, whereas a structural formula gives us the bonding pattern. A compound which has the same molecular formula but different structural formula is known as an isomer.
An example of a pair of isomer is butane and isobutane. An isomer can be made by manipulating its parent chain by
(1) adding substituents from the chain itself
(2) transforming the compound into a cycloalkane (be sure to check with your teacher if this method is acceptable)
In organic chemistry, the term 'name' is coined 'nomenclature'.
Be sure to remember the first 8 nomenclatures for alkanes and this will get you a far in organic chemistry.
Meth, Eth, Prop and But can be remembered as "Monkey Eats Peeled Bananas". You can follow that or simply make your own mnemonics. Get creative!
A conformational isomer or a conformer, arises due to the free rotation about the C-C bond.
A conformer mainly has to projection, sawhorse and newman projection. Both of these are the 'bigger umbrellas', and each of them has 2 ways to represent the projection.
In sawhorse projection, the molecule is viewed from the side.
In newman projection, the molecule is viewed 'face to face'.
In both projections, the molecule can be in an eclipsed or staggered configuration. When it is eclipsed, all the atoms aligns exactly. However when it is staggered, the one of the carbon atom rotates by 60 degrees, and the bond in front is in between the bond behind.
Always remember, conformers are NOT structural isomers. Most of the molecules that exist in nature are able to form isomers, but little forms conformers.
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning they have double bonds in a molecule fully composed of carbon and hydrogen. Alkenes has a C=C double bond at any point of the molecule, it does not necessarily be at the end.
A test to distinguish alkenes from alkanes is to add bromine water in the absence of ultraviolet light. Bromine water is essentially bromine dissolved in water. Alkanes have no reaction with bromine in the absence of UV light, thus they turn brown. Imagine adding a drop of brown sauce to a cup of plain water. The plain water will turn brown and the sauce and the water has no reaction.
It's a different case with alkenes. When bromine is added to alkenes, an addition reaction occur to form a colourless compound. As such, it does NOT turn brown.
In all, ALKANE + BROMINE = BROWN
ALKENE + BROMINE = COLOURLESS
Carbon can form rings and they're aromatic! Aromatic compounds starts off with benzene which undergoes electrophillic substitution to produce a wide range of compounds used nowadays (eg Phenol, Paracetemol etc).
Benzene has resonance structures as the delocalised pi electrons are able to circulate the ring.
When benzene undergoes reactions, it may have two or more substituent attached to it. For disubstituted benzenes, it is able to form three different isomers namely ortho-, meta- and para and they are relative to the position of the substituents.