Ancient Ireland: Culture and Society
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- Insights into an ancient and advanced civilisation.
- New perspectives on history and social values.
- A deep understanding of early Irish history
- Lifetime Access
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- Lots of bonus material for further study
- No prior knowledge or materials are needed to take this course.
- Developed with the beginner in mind
- Guides you through a logical progression of sections
- Lots of extra learning materials for free download
Embark on a journey into Ireland's ancient past as we explore the culture and society of this early civilization. For lovers of Irish history and those wishing to learn about a new fascinating topic.
We'll lay a broad yet detailed foundation ranging from the tribe and family, to the intricate social order of varying grades. The royal rituals of kingship and the people of skill and art.
Education, Festivals, Burial Rites and Spirituality; to name just a few!
Upon completing this course you will have a deeper understanding and appreciation for ancient Ireland, its culture and its heritage.
- Anyone with an interest in ancient civilizations, classical studies, culture and society.
- Anyone wanting to learn more about Ireland.
- Anyone who wants to learn more about Ireland’s native culture, its kings, rituals and social order.
- Anyone with Irish ancestry.
We'll begin our journey by taking a broad overview of the society of early Ireland.
Naturally, this was very different from our own in many ways. It's important to get an idea of this structure early on, to give us a foundation to build upon in subsequent lectures.
The Túath was the main political, territorial, or "tribal" unit. Though markedly different, these túatha most closely resemble our modern understandings of 'Independent States'.
They were essentially petty-kingdoms whose people were autonomous, chose their own leaders, and governed their own affairs.
The Fine was the family unit, the central and primary sub-group of the túath. These were people who united together under a common name, usually taken from some common ancestor.
In this lecture, we'll explore the the concepts of the "túath" and the "fine" and learn how they relate to each other.
The concept of the 'family' extended further than our modern conceptions.
Ultimately, all descendants from a common great-great-grandfather were part of the fine, though there were various levels of familial relationship.
In this lecture we will learn about the 3 Primary Family Units
In this lecture we'll explore the key roles and duties of the men in society.
As the protector and provider of his wife, children, and dependents, men in early Irish society fulfilled what might now consider 'traditional roles'.
From tending the land, educating and guiding their children, settling disputes around the family table, tending to the livestock, and securing their dwelling, the early Irish man had to be ever vigilant against attack from foreign neighboring túatha.
A man had to be leader and an honorable representative.
First of himself, then of his household, and ultimately for his people.
A man's home was his castle.
A statement that's as true today as it was in early Ireland.
Dwellings were not just homes, they were personal and private sanctuaries.
As such, a man was the authority in his own demesne.
The property was surrounded by an imaginary boundary line, the extent of which marked the extent of the individual's area of influence.
In this lecture we'll look at the importance of the homestead, how it related to status, and discover the method used in the Brehon Laws for determining the reach of the boundary.
Though the rights of women in early Ireland are popularly referred to in high regard, a closer examination reveals they were not as equitable as we might like to hear.
Unless a woman had established a higher status than her husband; whether by learning a skill or art, or by having more wealth than he, her status was dependent upon her husbands.
A woman's testimony was not given the same weight in the laws and it was generally disregarded except for in limited circumstances.
That said, women were not excluded from holding high social and professional positions, they could recover damages against their husbands for wrongdoing, had the right to be consulted on matters affecting the household, could overturn contracts entered into by her husband where the family wealth was affected, and, for the most part, women had much greater rights than other societies existing at those times.
In this lecture we'll take a more detailed look at the attitudes towards women in early Irish society.
As an addition to the Lecture on the Rights of Women, this Lecture will explore the feminine archetype in Irish legends and the Irish heroine in history.
From Queens Macha and Maeve, to Bridget, half goddess half saint, to the Pirate Queen Grace O'Malley, up to the more recent contributions of women during the 1916 Easter Rising and subsequent War of Independence.
The Mná na hÉireann are the Women of Ireland whose shoulders bear the burdens and the victories of the country, along with the men.
Love and marriage, do they have to go hand in hand?
While attitudes to marriage in Early Ireland could be described as progressive and practical, they differed quite starkly from our own.
Marriage was an arrangement to forge family allegiances, and pool wealth for the purposes of producing heirs to inherit.
Polygamy was widely practiced; both men and women could have multiple partners.
The laws recognised various 'forms of coupling' or 'degrees of union'.
In this Lecture we will explore the attitudes to marriage, sexual union, and the various types of coupling given legal status.
Early Ireland had a fairly liberal approach to divorce and separation, though it was best not to take the matter lightly.
Just like with trial-marriages, the laws also allowed for trial-separations.
Divorce meant a final termination of the marriage contract and it concerned both the wider family units who had invested wealth into the arrangement.
In this lecture we'll talk about how attitudes to divorce shifted in Ireland and consider the various grounds for divorce open to both husbands and wives.
The good rearing of the children was in the interest of the whole community. Families had a personal responsibility to ensure their offspring grew up to be strong, educated and honorable people; the family name depended on it.
There are two key legal manuscripts dealing with children.
In this section we learn about the attitudes to children and explore the common Irish custom of fosterage in greater detail.
As the provider of nourishment and shelter, the land was very important to the early Irish.
Interestingly, they had very different perspectives on land ownership than we are familiar with today.
Beginning by setting out an understanding of these attitudes, this Lecture goes on to discuss the 5 ways land could be held and finally we'll learn about how possession of land could pass from one to another.
In a land as wealthy as ancient Ireland inheritance was serious business.
Who could inherit and what could they get?
A legal manuscript called the Maccslechta sets out the rules and guidelines for inheritance.
Though children could be easily 'recognised', entitling them to the usual rights of the free-men of the túath, there were a number of excluded categories of children, known in the laws as 'the Sons of Darkness'.
In this Lecture we will learn about the basic rules of inheritance.
Plus, learn an old Irish trick for ensuring property got fairly divided!
Now it's time to introduce the very intricate and well ordered social hierarchy that was based upon an individual's own status.
It is central to understanding how early Irish society operated.
We'll begin by outlining the three key features that determine status, then we'll consider a few of the ways status came into play in everyday life.
Of the Unfree Classes there were 3 primary sub-groups.
The term 'unfree' refers to their status within the túath. Unlike the grades of the Free Classes, members of these grades had none of the usual rights of the túath.
In this Lecture we will explore the sub-groups known as:
- Bothach, and
The bulk of society was made up of the free classes, but there was a large spectrum within this.
From the lowest grade free farmers who had little to no personal property, to the wealthy farmers, the nobles, artists, academics and the grades of kings; all of varying degrees of wealth and merit.
In this Lecture, we outline the the different types of free classes, we will explore the two primary grades of the aes trebtha or farming people; the Céile and the Bó Aire, and we will gain a better understanding about how a freeman could gradually increase their status by increasing their signs of visible wealth.
The highest grades of free-men were part of an upper privileged social group called the nemed.
There were different ways to occupy this class but the most obvious of the nemed were the grades of nobles (flaith), but one could also become nemed through their own merits or wealth.
In this Lecture we will particularly focus on the flaith or 'noble' grades.
The early Irish revered members of society who had great skill and learning, making no distinction between males or females.
From poets, musicians, and craftsmen to historians, judges and doctors, we’ll learn about the value given to these members of society.
In this Lecture we will learn about the aes dana and pay particular attention to three of the highest grade professions:
- An Filid - The Poet
- An Briethimh - The Judge
- An Cruitire - The Harpist
An tSaer refers to the grades of craftsman, artisans, masons, and smiths who had the special knowledge and trade secrets needed to work raw materials into an array useful finished products.
Though they were a of lower grade of Aes Dana than the filid (poet), britheamh (judge), or cruitire (harpist), for example, they were still held in high regard.
The word saer means 'free', signifies the Craftman's ability to support himself with his own hands, as a sole-contractor.
In ancient times, there was a belief in the supernatural power of the smiths to take a lump of metal ore and work it into a beautiful or lethal object.
In this Lecture we learn about the basic features of the Saer grade and the mystical significance attributed to blacksmiths in the mythological accounts.
Women were not excluded from working and often held high ranking positions as druids, poets, judges, etc.
Although a woman's status was generally based upon her husband's, this changed if she was a member of one of the professional grades. In such case her grade was based upon her own merit and her level of formal training.
In this Lecture we will consider the role of women in relation to work and the affect this had on her personal status.
With about 139 túatha (small kingdoms) situated across the island, each with its own leader, Ireland was truly a land of many kings. And, because of the high regard for keeping genealogical records it is Ireland that can boast the oldest lists of kings in all of Europe.
In this Lecture, we'll take a look at the office of king in closer detail and lay a foundation for the other Lectures in this topic. Take a look at some of the key characteristics of Gaelic kingship, how they were elected, what were their duties and what sort of powers did they have?
There were four primary grades of king in early Ireland.
The most common of these was a simple 'Rí' or King of a Túath, but these lesser kings often in turn owed tribute to kings of higher-grades, such as a Rí-Túath-Mór or a King of a Province.
Ultimately this chain of tribute and submission ended with the highest grade of kingship - the Ard Rí na hÉireann, High-King of all Ireland.
In this Lecture, we'll explore these primary grades in a bit more detail.
There was no inherent right to rule in early Ireland. Instead, leaders were chosen from among all the eligible males.
Although there were certain social and legal requirements, thus making not everyone eligible for election, all free-men of the rank of aire had a say in the outcome.
In this Lecture we'll learn more about the process of election and take a look at the Irish custom of 'tanistry' that came about as a means of avoiding disputes over succession.
Hostage-taking was very common in early Ireland, particularly in relation to kingship.
While hostages were commonly used to pledge forms of surety in important contracts, they were also frequently offered or taken as signs of submission to a higher chieftain.
In this Lecture we will explore the system of hostage-taking in more detail and develop a better understanding about what was going on.
With lists of kings dating back to pre-Christian times, a time when the function of 'king' was more akin to that of a ceremonial priest, it should come as no surprise to find a very religious and sacred significance attached to the inauguration of the rí.
In this Lecture we discuss how the royal inauguration rituals symbolised a form of marriage, a union of the chieftain to his people but ultimately to the land and nature in the form of the Goddess of Sovereignty.
We'll also learn about some of the key features of these ceremonies and find out if those strange rumours about what they did to horses in Tirconnaill are true?
30 ancient sites described as having royal significance to the old Gaelic families testify to Ireland being an island of many kingdoms.
And, given the spiritual significance of the kingship in pagan times, it's no surprise to learn that these royal sites had spiritual significance, too.
First we'll look at some of the key characteristics found across these sites, then we'll learn about six of these sites in greater detail by exploring the myths and history associated to them.
They had no coins but it worked!
The Irish did not mint coinage as the other European nations were prone to do.
Instead, they had a very basic, yet effective means of exchange and trade flourished relatively unhindered.
In this Lecture we'll learn about what the Irish used as an alternative to coins, and how value was measured according to two set units of measurement: the sét and the cumál.
Across the land we find the custom of Hospitality held in high regard and importance. Travelers could expect to be welcomed in a foreign land and there were free-hostels set up for the free use and enjoyment of all who needed them.
In this lecture we'll go through the various grades of education starting with the elementary grades an then on through the 7 Grades of Wisdom.
Before the coming of Christianity Ireland was a significant centre for the Druids, a strange and elusive group of priestly magicians who had a presence all across western Europe. In those times, the religion and beliefs of the Irish were tied more directly with nature, the movement of the sun throughout the year, and the celebrations of death and fertility.
Much of what we understand about early Irish spiritual and religious beliefs originate from our analysis of archaeological findings scattered across the island.
In this Lecture we will explore the beliefs surrounding death and burial from the earliest times, considering the customs of the wake and keening.
Next we we will consider the influence of the fairy-faith on death rites and the old Irish superstions around death omens, before finally considering the shift from pre- to post-Christian times.
A discussion of early Ireland would not be complete without considering the impact of the advent of Christianity.
This new religion from the Eastern World would with first compete with and eventually replace the older customs with new beliefs and ideals.
Writing would become increasingly important and the Irish monasteries would produce many ornate artifacts and manuscripts.
In this Lecture we will explore how Christianity completely altered the nature of the Irish people and the character of Irish cultural heritage.