There are already innumerable courses/tutorials on internet/Udemy which teaches almost every aspect of C programming language. All those courses sound same, talk same and deliver more or less same knowledge. How is this course different from others ?
The intention of this course is to make you ready for System programming Technical interviews, interview level - from Beginner to Intermediate. This course is for (future) Developers, not for testers or System Administrators.
I choose to create this course to fill the gap between novice/beginner and intermediate/Advanced Programmers. This course assumes that you are at-least above average in programming (in any programming language, but preferable in C/C++) - know memory allocations, all kinds of loops, function calls, pointers etc. In this course, I won't teach C/C++ (there are already many courses on it online), but would teach programming techniques and low-level details regarding how C program works behind the scenes - All topics very important from interview point of view. My Target is to grow this course into Linux/C Bible.
Yet, I always feel, you need to outsmart your fellow colleagues in this era of stiff competition, and therefore, I tried this attempt to present you the wisdom and knowledge which is of utmost importance for a programmer. I have seen though students could write good C/C++ programs, yet they lack the clarity on how one should write better organized, Manageable, extensible and programmable codes in the form of libraries. For example, Students too good in competitive programming, yet do not know how to write a simple Makefile, reason being, Academics do not teach and students do not care to learn.
In this course, I will cover the topics related to creating Linux System Libraries (release 1) with Advanced language-agnostic Programming Concepts (release 2) which can be well applied if you happen to become a programmer in other languages tomorrow.
The Concepts like MultiThreading, Thread-Synchronization, Socket Programming, IPCs etc demands a separate course on each topic altogether. Currently, I have a course on IPC, pls check it out. These topics are out of scope for this course.
The Course shall be delivered into two Releases :
Release 1 Building and Managing a Library: This covers basics regarding how one should create and organize his code as a Library.
Release 2 Memory Management Concepts: This covers Advance concepts on Linux Memory Management specifically. Please check Table of Contents for more info.
Why you should *NOT* do this course?
1. Please Excuse this course if you are the ultimate beginner in C programming !!
2. There is no point of doing this course if you don't like hitting the keyboard, and lazy enough to watch lecture VDOs only
3. If you want everything cooked and served on your plate.
Course Pre-requisite :
No Third Party libraries
Whatever logic you implement, you need to implement it from scratch. Like all my other courses, this course do not suggest taking help of any third party library to get the jobs done. Use of external libraries completely defeats the purpose of the course.
Warning: This course has auto system-generated subtitles which may not be perfect. Please disable subtitles as per your convenience.
Release 1 Building and Managing a Library
Section 1 : Introduction to Libraries
Section 2 : Header Files
Section 3 : Preprocessing Directives
Problem of Duplicate inclusion of Hdr files
Solution to Duplicate inclusion of Hdr files
Section 4 : Correct way of Using Structures and Functions
Structures - Define and Use thumb Rule
Functions - Declare and Use thumb rule
The problem of Recursive Dependency
A solution to Recursive Dependency
Section 5 : Creation of Static and Dynamic Libraries
Resuming with Doubly Linked List Library
Quick Creation of Static and Dynamic Libraries
Linking with Static Library
Linking with Dynamic Library
Section 7: Understanding four stages of Compilation
Four stages of C/C++ Compilation
How Dynamic Library works ?
Dynamic Linking : Linking with Dynamic Library
Comparison - Static Vs Dynamic Linking
Section 8 : Building using a Makefile
Section 9 : Run-time Programmable libraries
What are Programmable Libraries?
Steps to Program the libraries
Registering of the callbacks with Libraries
Delegation of Application-specific operations to Libraries
Section 10 : Writing Iterators using Macros
What are Iterative Macros ?
Why we need Iterative Macros ?
How to Write Iterative Macros - For Trees and Linked Lists
Section 11 : Glue Based Libraries and Data structures
What are the Glue Based Libraries?
Introducing Glthreads - A Glued LinkedList
Glthreads Vs Traditional Linked List
Structure field offset
Release 2 Memory Management Concepts
Section 12 : Memory Layout of Linux Process
Section 13 : Stack Memory Management
Stack Memory Basics and Contents
Stack-Overflow and Prevention
Stack Memory Corruption
Common Cpu Registers
Procedure Call Mechanism - Step by Step
Purpose of Base Pointer register (ebp)
Procedure Return Mechanism - Step by Step
Section 14 : Heap Memory Management
Introduction and Goals
How Malloc Works
Top of Heap Memory region - break pointer
Heap Memory Mgmt Sys Calls - brk and sbrk
Meta and Data Blocks
How free() works
Memory Illness - Problem of Fragmentation
Section 15 : Concept of Paging
Introduction to Paging
Byte Addressable Memory
32 bit and 64 bit Machine Architecture
Address Bus and Data bus
Physical Vs Virtual Address
Physical Memory Frames
Virtual Address Composition
Paging In Action
Shared Physical Memory
Section 16 : Multilevel Paging
Section 17 : Demand Paging
Section 18 : Memory Management for Multi-threaded Process
The intention of this course is to make you ready for System programming Technical interviews from beginners to upto 8-9 yrs of experience.
Q. What are the frequently asked questions by interviewers in a technical round when someone writes C/C++/System Programming language on their resume?
Answer : If i am interviewer, what questions i would ask depends on his no of years of experience in C.
1–3 yrs of experience — I would have asked:
design a Macro to return the size of the structure
Two Dimensional Arrays, passing and returning arrays from a fn
Different stages of C program compilation
how fork() works
What are various ways to debug memory corruptions.
Heap and Stack memory-based Question
4–6 yrs of experience - I would have asked:
How memory is allocated by the OS
Internal and external fragmentation, what can be done to avoid it
System calls, strace()
Trade-of of one IPC over other
various ways to communicate with kernel and comparison
Data (De)Serialization in C
RPC in C
callbacks advanced application
typedef Vs #define
Generic programming in C using macros
Heap and Stack memory based Question
7+ yrs of experience - I would have asked
Have you designed any system module to solve any problem
Design thread library 0 what functionalities would you incorporate in and how ?
What are Dos and Dont’s for writing a robust and flexible library
How to write generic code in C
Various ways to implement timers in C, and comparison of approaches
How Interrupts work ?
IPCs and comparison
How would you convert a C code to C++ and vice versa
How to write a tool to detect memory leaks, Or garbage collection
Design your own memory allocation tool. Why would you write your own memory allocation scheme ?
When to go for Multi-process design over Multi-threaded design and vice versa
How ValGrind tool works
In production code, would you favor recursive but simple logic, Or Non recursive but complex logic, and why ?
If you analyze the pattern,
Candidate with 1–3 yrs of experience, I would chose to ask more of a direct and straightforward Questions.
Candidate with 4–6 yrs of experience, I would chose to ask more advanced technical C Question plus some comparison of approaches based Questions
Candidate with 7+ yrs of experience, I would chose to ask more of a design and Analysis based Question.
Note that, since Question pertains to C and System Programming, so i have not mentioned Data structures and Algorithms.