Communication Skills for Beginners

Everything you want to know about how to EXACTLY communicate like a pro even if you don''t know anything about it
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  • Lectures 19
  • Length 4 hours
  • Skill Level Beginner Level
  • Languages English
  • Includes Lifetime access
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    Available on iOS and Android
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About This Course

Published 11/2015 English

Course Description

**Limited 24 Hours sale**

The key to perfecting your communication strategy

Great communication skills can make all the difference in your personal and professional life, and expert author Mayur Bardolia with you his top tips for successful communication in any situation.

Packed with advice on the exact process of communication, verbal and non–verbal communication, written communication, powerful presentation skill, communicating using email and lots more, Communication Skills For Beginners is a comprehensive communication resource no professional should be without!

  • Get ahead in the workplace
  • Get noticed in a group by communicating your ideas
  • Get recognised in people
  • Create powerful image using powerful communication
  • Use effective communication skills to secure that new job offer
  • Convince friends and family to support you on a new venture

Utilising a core of simple skills, Communication Skills For Beginners will help you shine in no time!

Learn to:

  • Communicate successfully, whatever the situation
  • Build trust, engage with empathy and listen carefully to develop relationships
  • Express yourself clearly in writing and over the phone, as well as in person
  • Manage conflict and effect a positive outcome

Get your message across and connect with anyone for greater success in your career and social life

Great communicators aren′t born, they′re made. The simple yet powerful tools and techniques you′ll find in this guide can transform anyone into a great communicator in no time.

Inside,you′ll find easy exercises for building your messaging muscle,along with quick fixes for simple communication problems, and priceless insights and advice on everything from non–verbal communication to communicating over digital media.

  • Listen, learn, communicate find out how to improve relationships through active listening and clearly defining what you really want to communicate
  • Tear down the barriers to effective communication learn to zero–in on and shed prejudices and preconceptions that can get in the way of making a connection
  • Show them you mean it, discover how to control every aspect of your physical delivery including hand gestures,facial expressions and tone of voice for maximum effect
  • Adjust your attitude find out how your attitude impacts the content and delivery of your message, and how it can make or break your chances of delivering your presentation and communication

Enroll in this course and find:

  • Strategies for overcoming any communication obstacle
  • Tips for becoming an active listener
  • Techniques for controlling body language and voice modulation
  • Simple exercises for building your communication skills fast
  • Tips for communicating effectively in writing
  • Techniques for making the most of communication technology


Mayur Bardolia is a Result Coach and Inspirational International Trainer who tailors coaching programmes and workshops to individuals and teams across the world.

What are the requirements?

  • Ability to put everything they learn into practice
  • open mind for learning

What am I going to get from this course?

  • Know what is communication and what is purpose of communication
  • Understand the types of communication so that you will know what is the best suitable medium for you to communicate
  • Learn exactly how to minimize or eliminate misunderstanding by understanding the process of communication
  • Find out the advantages and disadvantages of oral, written and non-verbal communication, so that you can realize where to use the right medium of communication
  • Learn incredible power of non-verbal communication and how to perform non-verbally for impact
  • Understand how the way you speak directly affects the results you want. It's a powerful way to understand your tonality to say what you want to say
  • No matter how good you are at communication, there are some limitations of communication. You need to understand these barriers to communication so that you know where things will probably go wrong and you will avoid blaming yourself for being the failure in communication
  • Learn how to listen. Yes, listening is an art to understand others and to grow our relationship
  • Know how to write with impact because written communication is unavoidable part of our life. You will learn how to write a letter to build your professional image
  • Learn how to present your ideas, thoughts, product and service powerfully. The way you present directly decides the way people perceive your idea.
  • Learn how to prepare powerpoint slides that stand out from others
  • Discover some techniques and etiquette of doing discussion in groups

Who is the target audience?

  • Who want to understand the communication from scratch
  • who want to know the fundamentals of communication to be master at the skill
  • Who want to communicate the idea to the people but don't know exactly what is communication
  • Who want to be competent communicator from an absolute beginner

What you get with this course?

Not for you? No problem.
30 day money back guarantee.

Forever yours.
Lifetime access.

Learn on the go.
Desktop, iOS and Android.

Get rewarded.
Certificate of completion.


Section 1: 1. Introduction to the Course
  • What you get out of this subject depends on what you put into it.
  • In order to gain mastery over the subject and techniques, You must practice.
  • Learning Occurs only when it comes out from your behavior after learning
  • Pay undivided attention
  • Write as much as possible
  • Watch and listen over and over again
  • Have an open mind to learn
  • Do exercises (It’s compulsory)
Notes- Introduction to the course
1 page
Section 2: Definitions & purpose of communication

Importance of communication skill

  • It is an important aspect of human behavior and symbolises human beings’ ability to convey opinions, feelings, information and ideas to others through words (written or spoken), body language or signs.
  • Communication is an integral part of life.
  • It includes oral, written, formal, informal, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, inward, outward as well as non-verbal communication
  • It’s the most important part of everyone's life, career and business
  • The achievement of your objectives largely depends on proper coordination and integration of others in your life
  • In any organisational growth, coordination and integration of various human activities is possible only if there is an effective system of communication within the organisation, which provides for exchange of information and sharing of ideas.
  • Everything you now have or ever will have, become, do or experience, you will get with and through other people


  • For communication to be effective there has to be both information and meaning in it’s context and meaning requires communication” –Peter Drucker
  • Communication is the sum total of all the things, a person does when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.” –Allen Louis
  • “Communication has been defined “as the transfer of information from one person to another, irrespective of whether or not it elicits confidence.” – Koontz & O’Donnell
  • “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions, by two or more persons”- George Terry
  • “Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It builds bridges of meaning between people, enabling them to safely cross the rivers of misunderstanding.” – Keith Davis
  • “Communication is an interchange of thoughts, opinions or information through speech, writing or signs.” – Robert Anderson
  • “Effective communication is ‘purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and the receiver of a message.” –George Vardman
  • “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others.” – Theo Haimann

Purpose of Communication

  • To Inform: Information is power and needful within and outside the organisation.
  • To Persuade: Businesses work through persuasion
  • To Educate: To spread knowledge and develop skills and attitudes among people in the organisation
  • To Train: Communication is part of any training program
  • To Motivate: Communication provides a means to keep these motivation levels high
  • To integrate: Large business organisations have different business units, departments and territorial divisions which pursue different targets. Communication provides the means for an integrated approach in pursuing organisational goals
  • To relate: communication provides the means for building and nurturing mutually beneficial relationships
  • To Entertain: communication facilitates social bonding and brings lighter moments that help in creating lighter moments and in relieving tension
  • Some of the common objectives of official communication are to get or give information; ask for or give instructions, advice or suggestions; to make requests and to persuade other people to agree with us
  • In order to caution, counsel, clarify, apprise, evaluate, reprimand, organise and fulfill numerous such objectives, we must make use of communication
Section 3: Classification of Communication

Classification of Communication

1. Based on number of persons

  • Intrapersonal Communication:
    • Involves to oneself in one’s own mind.
    • For example, Self Talk, Monoacting
  • Interpersonal Communication:
  • Group Communication:
    • Held among small or large groups
    • Large group, Group Discussion, Classroom
  • Mass Communication:
    • Occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people
    • Large group of people, TV, Radio, Newspaper, Internet video/radio, Group Discussion, Classroom
    • In this process, each person becomes a faceless individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback
  • Exchange of messages between two persons.
  • For example, Meeting, Discussion, interview, Arguments. Even Books, articles, letter, email

2. Based on Medium Used

  • Verbal Communication: entails use of words to convey messages either in speech or through writing
  • Verbal consists of
    • Speaking - Listening - Writing -
    • Reading - Thinking
  • It’s further be classified as Oral- Written Communication
  • Written Communication
    • Report
    • Circulars
    • Graphs/Charts
    • Newsletter
    • E-mail
    • Fax
    • Form/Questionnaire
    • Notice, Agenda
    • Advertisement
    • Press Release
    • Invitation
    • Leaflet/Brochure
    • Manuals
    • Letter
  • Visual Communication
  • Audio-visual
  • Non-Verbal Communication:
  • It is an unspoken or unwritten message that uses body language.
  • It includes using of pictures, signs, gestures and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons
  • Done through sign language, action language or object language
  • Non-verbal communication flows though all acts of speaking or writing
  • It’s a wordless message conveyed through gestures (sign), movements (action language), and object language (pictures/clothes)
Section 4: Process of communication

Process Of Communication

  • Behind our every communication, our goal is to have a ‘Productive Relationship’.
  • A process is “ A systematic series of actions or operation of a series of changes directed to some end.”
  • Communication is a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually acceptable direction or goal.
  • The process of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information or message for a particular purpose which is mutually understood by both the sender and receiver
  • Everyone is selfish!!!! Everyone asks him/herself, “What is in it for me?”
  • Only when these conditions are fulfilled, a significant communicative situation will take shape and what transpires between the two parties, viz. the sender and the receiver, whether spoken or written, will be the communicative event

Elements of the Communication process

  1. Sender/Encoder/Speaker
  2. Receiver/ Decoder/ Listener
  3. Message
  4. Medium
  5. Feedback

1. Sender/Encoder/Speaker

  • The person who initiates the communication process
  • He/She selects ideas, encodes and finally transmits them to the receiver
  • The entire burden of communication rests upon the sender or encoder
  • He/she transmits, spreads or communicates a message and is the one who conceives and initiates the message with the purpose of informing/influencing/changing the attitude, opinion or behaviour of the receiver (audience/listener)
  • If the message can be formulated in accordance with the expectations of the receiver, the level of acceptance will be a higher
  • Encoding: Encoding is changing the message (from it’s mental form) into symbols, that is patterns of words/gestures/pictorial forms or signs (physical or of sounds) of a specific visual/oral language

The meaning of communication is the response you get.

2. Receiver/Decoder/Listener

  • Receiver is the targeted audience of the message
  • The receiver gets the message, understands, interprets and tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender
  • This process is carried on in relation to the work environment and the value received in terms of the work situation
  • If the goal of a sender is envisioned as similar to his/her own, the listener becomes more receptive
  • Decoding : This is the act of translating symbols in communication into their ordinary interpretation.
  • This would consist of meanings of the words (symbols) together with the tone and the attitude of the sender, as reflected by the structure of the message and the choice of words used by him (the sender)

3. Message

  • It is the information, written or spoken, which is to be sent from one person to another.
  • Message is the encoded idea, transmitted by the sender making the formulation of the message extremely important, for an incorrect patterning can turn the receiver hostile making him lose interest altogether.
  • The sender has to be extremely cautious because he/she must know the order in which he would like to present his ideas and how the message should be formulated and transmitted.
  • It should be based on the requirements of the listener, so that it’s significance is immediately grasped

4. Medium/ Channel

  • It’s vehicle or medium which facilities the sender to convey the message to the receiver.
  • It should be oral, written or non-verbal
  • Each medium follows it’s own set of rules and regulations.
  • Each medium has it’s own benefits and limitations. For example, oral communication can be informal but special care needs to be taken for written communication

5. Feedback

  • It ensures that the receiver has received the message and understood it as intended by the sender
  • Effective communication takes place only when there is feedback
  • The errors and flaws that abound in business situations, are a result of a lack of feedback
  • If feedback is solicited on all occasions, the error in communication can be minimized or even completely eliminated
  • The process of feedback assures the initiator of the action as also about it’s correctness and possible impact

Effective Two-Way Communication

One way Process

  • The sender, according to his ideas, bahaviour patterns and intention, selects a message
  • He then encodes the message
  • Then, he transmits it to the receiver through a medium (verbally or non-verbally or both)
  • Then the receiver decodes it and gives an internal response to the perceived message. This response is not in the relation to the actual content but rather to the ‘perceived content’ of the original message

Two –Way Process

  • Until now, the sender does not come to know whether his message has been understood by the receiver or not.
  • In this second phase, receiver formulates his message, encodes it and transmits it to the original sender- now turned receiver
  • If the feedback is in tune with the original intent of the sender, communication can proceed without a hitch
Section 5: Oral Communication

Classification of Communication Based on Expression

  • Oral
  • Written
  • Non Verbal


  • Research studies have shown that 80% of communication by executives of a company is in the oral form.
  • Modes of Oral Communication include:

– Telephone/Mobile phone

– Messages

– Intercom

– Face-to-face discussion

– Meetings/Conferences

– Presentation

– Conversation

– Radio

– Tape-recorder

– Teleconferencing/Videoconferencing

– Speeches

– Brainstorming sessions

– Grapevine

– Interview

Visual Communication

  • Picture
  • Poster
  • Slideshow
  • Advertisement


  • Movie
  • Advertisement
  • Video Calling/Conferencing

Characteristics of Oral communication

  • Instantaneous Two-way process- Communication travel back and forth instantaneously without any loss of time, making it highly interactive
  • One-off exercise- It’s not repeated and no written record to which any references can be made
  • Day to day language
  • Presence of sender and receiver is required
  • Effect of body language and speech modulation
  • It can not be erased and mended

Advantages of Oral Communication

  • Immediate feedback and clarification. So the dialogue is more purposeful.
  • Better relationship-It builds a healthy climate in the organisation by bringing people together.
  • Time saving
  • Effective tool of persuasion in management- It helps to create Win-Win situation
  • Effective tool for group communication
  • Economical
  • It is the only way out during an emergency
  • Oral Communication Helps to Convey the Message more Appropriately with Suitable Tone, Voice and Use of Words.

Disadvantages of Oral Communication

  • Lack of retention/Documentation
  • Distortion in passing the message
  • No legal validity
  • Possibility of misunderstanding
  • Unsuitable for long messages
  • Difficulty in assigning responsibility
  • It is constrained by physical barriers: noise, environment, seating arrangement, technical faults in mike, telephone
  • Not effective when the target group is spread out
  • Depends on the Sender/Receiver’s Attitude
  • Communication is not a One Sided Activity. You will get response based on your words you use in your conversation
  • Bad/partial Listening Affects Message
  • Its Economy is Control Specific

Section 6: Written Communication


  • One of the best methods to communicate
  • Writing is one of the oldest known forms of communication
  • In today’s age of information and technology, writing has become a lost art

Examples of Written Communication

  • Report
  • Circulars
  • Graphs/Charts
  • Newsletter
  • E-mail
  • Fax
  • Form/Questionnaire
  • Notice, Agenda
  • Advertisement
  • Press Release
  • Invitation
  • Leaflet/Brochure
  • Manuals
  • Letter

Characteristics of Written Communication

  • Most formal type of communication- Written mode is preferred in formal communication
  • Used for documentation
  • Used for circulation of information
  • Conventional by nature – It has to follow definite pattern as per rules laid down by the language.
  • Presence of both sender and receiver is not necessary at the same time.
  • A Creative Activity- it requires conscious and creative effort.
  • Time Factor: The receiver will take his own time in filtering it through his mind and responding to it.
  • It has fewer cycle: In just one or few cycle the communication is completed (message is sent and received and that is the end of the event)

Advantages of Written Communication

  • Ready reference- In the absence of ready reference, great confusion may be created and the working of the organisation will virtually comes to a halt.
  • Legal defense- Maintenance of proper records, letters, reports and memos builds up legal defenses of the organisation. Necessary for legal and binding documentation
  • Promotes Uniformity- clear guidelines, policy and procedure
  • Mass Access- It gives access to a large audience through mass mailing to reach out to people at large and to win customers through wisely drafted mail-shots or circulars. Easily distributed
  • Suitable for distance communication
  • Image building- Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image.
  • Accurate and unambiguous- Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  • Permits substitution and revision
  • Allows you to store information for future reference
  • All recipients receive the same information
  • Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.
  • It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required

Disadvantages of Written Communication

  • Limited to literate world
  • Time Consuming- as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.
  • Lot of paper work and also, extra care should be taken to keep sensitive or confidential material in their own custody
  • Needs expertise in expression- Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use.
  • Costly- It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.
  • Lack of immediate feedback
  • No immediate clarification
  • Communication in writing suffers from lack of congruence with non-verbal communication.
  • The inadequacies of the first message may only be revealed when the reply arrives.
  • More men hours needed- It takes much more time to compose a message in writing. Therefore it is expensive.
Section 7: Non-verbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication

  • The word “Non-Verbal Communication” means communication which does not involve speech or words
  • This is the wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space, style of writing and choice of words.

Characteristics of Non-Verbal Communication

  • Instinctive: It indicates attitude, instincts and feelings of the speaker
  • Less conscious: The non-verbal part of communication, on the other hand, is less deliberate and conscious as most expressions and gestures are mostly unconsciously expressed, for the speaker too may not be aware of these signs
  • Subtle: it needs to be understood and expressed
  • Complimentary to verbal communication: it makes verbal communication more effective and meaningful
  • Forms the larger parts of the overall communication activity:
  • 55 Percent- Facial Expression, Body Posture, Gestures
  • 38 Percent - Tone of Voice and inflection
  • 7 Percent - Words

Classification of Non-Verbal Communication

  • Body Language
  • Paralanguage

Body Language

  • Body language is the reflection of thoughts, feelings and position
  • “We talk with our vocal cords, but we communicate with our facial expressions, tone of voice and our entire body.”- Paul Ekman
  • It includes:
  • Facial Expressions
  • Eye contact
  • Gestures
  • Body shape and posture
  • appearance

Facial Expressions

  • “The face is the index of the heart.”
  • We convey so much without speaking a word.
  • Every facial muscle is an instrument of communication with a significant role to play.
  • The face and eyes are the most expressive means of body communication

Eye Contact

  • Looking at somebody for a long time shows the intensity of our interest in him.
  • If the eye contact is brief or we take our eyes off the person very soon, it indicates nervousness or an embarrassment on our part.
  • Direct eye contact of more than 10 seconds can create discomfort and anxiety


  • Gestures are the physical movements of arms, hands, torso and head, which help one to express thoughts and/to emphasize one’s speech.
  • Gestures showing aggressiveness
  • Gestures showing rudeness


  • These gestures illustrate the words, which a speaker is saying
  • For example, “My third and final point is….” and holds up three fingers, this gesture is an illustrator


  • Regulators control oral communication by alerting the sender to the need to hurry up, slow down or repeat something.
  • For example, drumming finger on the table when someone is talking with another person.
  • When someone is delivering a long speech and the other person wants to restrict him, he/she may show his watch to regulate or moderate him


  • Indicates emotional states, such as anger or embarrassment, occurring usually in our facial expressions.

Positive Gestures

  • Leaning a little towards the speaker
  • Tilting the head
  • Eye Contact with the speaker
  • Gently nodding the head in agreement
  • Keeping palms open and avoiding clutching or folding them across the chest
  • Walking with the head upright, hands swinging freely by the sides

Negative Gestures

  • Signs of Nervousness
    • Hands in pocket
    • Covering the mouth with the hand while speaking
    • Biting nails
    • Scratching
    • Glancing sideways
    • Drumming fingers
    • Tapping feet
    • Crossed arms or legs
    • Setting the hair with hands
    • Sitting on the edge of the chair
    • Speaking too fast or too slow
    • Clearing the throat too often
    • Blinking the eyes a lot
    • Clicking the pen
    • Playing with paper weight
  • Staring
  • Pointing at someone
  • Showing fist
  • Folding both arms
  • Shake hands too hard
  • Give a very limp handshake
  • Stand too close
  • Whisper at a social gathering
  • Work while someone talks to you
  • Yawn
  • Artificial smile
  • Start gathering or folding papers before a meeting is over
  • Gestures showing lack of good sense
  • Banging the table
  • Chewing pen
  • Waving hands around you while talking
  • Wiping hands across face
  • Touching nose time and again
  • Attending meeting with the cellphone on
  • Staring pointedly at someone

Advantages of Body Language/Non-verbal Communication

  • It’s visible, so it helps the receiver of the message in decoding the message.
  • In Face-to-face communication, No message can be completely sent across without the accompaniment of facial expressions and gestures
  • Helps to establish rapport
  • Adds intensity to the process of communication

Disadvantages of Body Language/Non-verbal Communication

  • Can’t rely on it completely.
  • As people come from different background, they send out different body signals. So, it may be misinterpreted
  • Facial expressions, gestures and postures also tend to become ineffective if the listener is inattentive.
  • Not everyone is good at using their expressions appropriately
Section 8: 'How to say what you want to say?' - Paralanguage- Nonverbal communication

'How to say what you want to say?'

Paralanguage- Nonverbal communication


  • It is defined as “a type of non-verbal communication that includes articulation, pronunciation, rate, pitch, volume, pauses and other vocal qualities.
  • With verbal communication consists of the ‘what’ or the content of words, paralanguage involves the ‘How’ of a speaker’s voice or the way in which he speaks
  • Your tone shapes the meaning of your word or sentence.


  • Tells us about person’s gender, background, education, training and temperament
  • Kinds of voices- clear, musical, raucous (harsh/rowdy), cultivated, pleasant, unpleasant and so on

Take care of the following points in the use of your voice

  • Pitch Variation
  • Keep fluctuating your tone. Monotonous = Boring
  • High pitch indicates nervousness, anxiety, tension, fear, surprise, dynamism, anger, joy, cheerfulness or impatience
  • Low pitch indicates affection, sadness, boredom, pleasantness, intimacy or empathy
  • Speaking speed:
  • We should present the easy parts of a message at a brisk pace, because it is likely to be understood easily and soon
  • The difficult, complicated and highly technical part of information should be conveyed slowly
  • Increase in rate could indicate impatience, urgency, nervousness or anxiety
  • When we are relaxed, we speak at a comfortable speed.
  • Pause
  • Volume variation
  • Advantages of Paralanguage
  • Pauses at the right point is more important.
  • It can be highly effective in emphasizing the upcoming subject and in gaining the listener’s attention.
  • Frequent, arbitrary pauses spoil the speech and distract the listener’s attention
  • We must speak loud enough for our audience to hear us, but also remember not to be too loud
  • Softness and loudness in volume alters meaning specifically.
  • Loud voice= anger, cheerfulness, joy, strength, fearlessness, activity and high status
  • Softness in volume = affection, boredom, sadness, intimacy, empathy, fear, weakness, low status
  • Word Stress
  • By placing stress or emphasis in the same sentence or utterance can change the entire meaning.


I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

I never ask you to finish the entire home study course in two months

  • It’s closely allied to language and no oral message is complete without it.
  • It’s a sufficiently dependable indicator of the speaker’s place in the organisation. On the basis of his voice-quality one can easily guess his position in the hierarchy.
  • It tells us quite clearly about the speaker’s educational background
  • It speaks volumes about the speaker’s national and regional background.
  • It gives us clues regarding the speaker’s mental state.
  • It has important educational value in that a careful listener can learn from an effective speaker.

  • Limitations of Paralanguage
  • Can’t fully rely upon
  • What is said and how it is said must be blended. Since this does not happen often, it requires extra care to get to the exact content of the message.
  • The voice quality and pitch of the speaker may unnecessarily prejudice the receiver of the message who has to be very open minded and patient
  • It may sometimes misguide or mislead, as there may be a difference in the speech and the intention behind the spoken words
  • As speakers belong to different speech communities, it is difficult to achieve uniformity in oral communication
  • It’s likely to be misunderstood. The receiver of the message has to be in a proper frame of mind to decode the message/information conveyed by visuals or sound signals
Section 9: Barriers to communication


Categorization of Barriers

  • Semantic Barriers
  • Organisational Barriers
  • Interpersonal Barriers
  • Individual Barriers
  • Cross Cultural (Geographic) Barriers
  • Physical Barriers

Semantic Barriers

  • Due to the problems with meaning, significance and the sending and reception of the meaning and content of the message
    • Words have similar pronunciation but multiple meaning- For example, sight, site, cite etc.
    • Badly expressed message - Lack of coherence, awkward sentence structure and jargons are common faults
  • Wrong Interpretations- Whenever one interprets a symbol, one’s own understanding may be different from that of others.
  • Unqualified Assumptions - The sender may send information which is not clarified to the receiver, as he does not understand the assumption clearly.
  • Technical Language - Sometimes technical jargons creates tension, confusion and misunderstanding between the sender and receiver

Organisational Barriers

  • Due to the problems with physical distance between members with respect to their functional specialization of tasks, power, authority and status relationship, values held and ownership of information
  • It may originate in contradictory management policies, too many levels of management or the clash between line and staff operations
  • a)Organisation Culture & Climate – It influences the freedom, thrust and interaction pattern among it’s people
  • b)Organizational Rules and Regulations – E.g. Rigid rules
  • c)Status Relationship – Status, power and position. Fear of position and power of the other party
  • d)Complexity in organisational structure
  • e)Lack of co-operation between superior and subordinate

Interpersonal Barriers

  • It’s based upon the relationships, values held and attitudes of the participants in the process of communication
    • Barriers arising from Superiors
  • Shortage of time for employees due to busy schedule
  • Lack of trust
  • Lack of consideration for employee’s needs
  • Wish to capture authority – superior may hide confidential and important information from an employee
  • Fear of losing power of control
  • Bypassing inner feelings of employee
  • Barriers arising from Subordinates
  • Lack of Proper channel – may not feel free to communicate because of pressure of position power and authority
  • No interest to communicate
  • Lack of co-operation & mutual understanding
  • Lack of trust
  • Poor relationship between superior and subordinate
  • Fear of Penalty

Individual Barriers

  • Due to differences in individual competencies to think and act, which would include physical aliments or handicaps
  • They also have personal feelings, desires, fears, hopes, likes, dislikes, attitudes, views and opinions
  1. Style- A manner in which a person communicates
  • Linguistic Accent
  • The form of expression
  • Types of humor
  • The quality of credibility and charisma

2. Selective Perception – The receiver projects his interest and expectations as he/she decodes messages

3 Status relationship- Higher authorities tend to speak less

4. Poor Attention & Retention

5. Defensiveness

6 Closed Mind- Limited intellectual background, limited reading and narrow interests

7 State of health – Poor health

Cross Cultural (Geographic) barriers

  • Due to time, geographic locations and the effects of time upon reception of the message and other cross cultural factors
  • Culture, values, attributes of a group
  • National Character/basic Personality
  • Language

Physical Barriers

  • Noise
  • Temperature
  • Lighting
  • Room size
  • Arrangement of seating
  • Distance between speaker and listener/audience/participant
  • Voice and Visual Qualities
Section 10: How to listen? - Listening Skill


What is Listening?

  • Listening is the accurate perception of what is being communicated. It is the art of separating fact from statement and accusation
  • Listening involves following:
    • Hearing
    • Understanding
    • Retaining
    • Recalling
  • It is a two-way exchange in which both parties involved, must always be receptive to the thoughts, ideas and emotions of the other.
  • Difference between Listening & Hearing: Listening is a mental activity and hearing is a physical activity. While listening includes hearing in hearing, we receive sounds but we do not use the mind. In listening, we have to understand, retain and recall also.
  • We can’t fully retain what we hear and understand. We forget most of what we hear after sometimes. The reason for poor listening ability is the educational system which lays greater emphasis on the speaker than the listener. The system focuses major attention on reading, writing and speaking skills- not on listening skills.
  • Writing and speaking skills improve with practice. Although this is not in the case of listening skills. It will improve only by consciousness and concentration.

Do’s Of Listening

  • Keep Quiet while listening
  • Look for central themes and main ideas
  • Let the speaker finish without interrupting him
  • Control and minimize distractions
  • Be friendly towards the speaker
  • Avoid pondering on a single point
  • Keep your mind open to every subject and speaker
  • Accept criticism without losing temper
  • Communicate feedback to the speaker
  • Ask questions to encourage speaker
  • Try understand the opinions, views and values of the speaker

Don'ts of Listening

  • Interrupt the speaker
  • Thinking too much about a single point
  • Listening with negative attitude towards the speaker
  • Close-mindedness
  • Hesitation to give oral or non-verbal feedback
  • Listening to several people at a time
  • Working whilst listening
  • Daydreaming
Section 11: Written Communication- From 'what to write' to 'How to write'


Elements of Effective Writing


  • Message should be expressed in clear terms
  • Take good care to avoid ambiguity
  • State your purpose clearly


  • Every letter has an intended impact, which must be felt
  • Keep objective in mind before and whilst writing
  • Emphasize on important points (bold, underline, highlighting)
  • Keep in view the skill, knowledge, status and comprehension ability of the addressee


  • Letter should be reader centric
  • Keeping in mind the reader and putting oneself in the reader’s shoes while writing the letter.
  • Ask, “what do you want to tell the reader?”, “What action do you want the reader to take?”

Relevant Information

  • Contain all the facts and details which the receiver needs to know in order to respond or act
  • Be specific, definite and to the point, and not vague and generalized
  • It should focus on objective and should capture attention from the beginning to the end of the letter

Brevity/ Concise

  • Use least amount of words and state your objective
  • Find One Word to explain group of words


  • Ease of understanding
  • Simple, easy and informal style using easily understood words catches immediate attention and makes the desired impact


  • Use the language what the addressee can understand and interpret easily
  • Check phrases, expressions, words, grammar and spellings

Make your writing vigorous and direct

Wherever possible use active verbs, and avoid the passive voice.

  • Passive
    We are concerned that if this recommendation is turned down, the brand’s market share may be negatively affected.
  • Active
    We believe you must act on this recommendation to hold the brand’s share.


  • Business writing is purposeful, persuasive, economical and reader oriented.
    • Purposeful: you will be writing to solve problems and convey information. You will have a definite purpose to fulfill in each message.
    • Persuasive: you want your audience to believe and accept your message.
    • Economical: you will try to present ideas clearly but concisely. Length is not rewarded.
    • Reader oriented: you will concentrate on looking at a problem from the reader’s perspective instead of seeing it for your own.
  • Remember business writers seek to express rather than impress.
  • The Writing Process
  1. Prewriting
  2. Writing
  3. Revising

1. Prewriting

  • Analyze: Define your purpose. Select the most appropriate form (channel). Visualize the audience. Knowing what they need
  • Anticipate: Put yourself in the reader’s position and predict his or her reaction to this message.
  • Adapt: Consider ways to shape the message to benefit the reader, using his or her language. Selecting the best medium (oral, written, visual, or electronic) for delivering your message

2. Writing

  • Research: Collect data formally and informally. Generate ideas by brainstorming and clustering.
  • Organize: Group ideas into a list or an outline. Select the direct or indirect strategy.
  • Compose: Write first draft, preferably on a computer. …. (continue)
  • Adapt to your Audience- Be sensitive to audience needs by using a “you” attitude, politeness, positive emphasis, and unbiased language

3. Revising

  • Revise: Revise for content, clarity, tone, conciseness, and vigor. Revise to improve readability, readability, edit and rewrite for conciseness and clarity. By revising the writer will see his or her mistakes and make the necessary corrections they need to make.
  • Proofread: Proofread to verify spelling, grammar, punctuation, and format. Check for overall appearance.
  • Evaluate: Ask yourself whether the final product will achieve its purpose.

Distribute the Message

  • This is forth and final and most important step
  • When distributing the message you want to make sure you deliver your message using the chosen medium (oral, written, visual, or electronic)

Coherence in writing

  • Everything in your writing is logically laid out and connected.
  • If it was an essay, one thing leads on to another. for example one paragraph leads on to another-the main ideas of each paragraph seem to connect but still make sense. This makes the reader feel that your writing is constantly flowing.
  • it also means you are very consistent in your writing

you can express yourself clearly and continously through your essay for example

Section 12: How to write a letter?- Components of a business letter



  • It’s printed on the top of the letter and is called ‘letterhead’.
  • It contains the name of the firm/company, it’s emblem, postal, telegraphic and email address and telephone numbers
  • It’s usually on the top-right side of the paper

Reference Number & Date

  • Every business letter usually carries a reference number to which the receiver may refer to in all future correspondence
  • For example, Ref: 121113/HR/payroll2
  • Every document must be dated
  • It’s usually on the right hand side

Inside Address

  • Contains name and address of the organisation or the individual to whom the letter is being sent (receiver).
  • Must be complete and precise
  • For example,

Pallets Engineering Ltd.

Brook Industrial Estate

New Line Road


India-400 014

Salutation /Mode of Address

  • Mr. for addressing Man
  • Miss unmarried woman
  • Mrs. for a married woman
  • Ms. For a woman whose marital status is not known
  • Misc: Dr. For Doctor
  • Addressing by designation:
    • The Personnel Manager
    • The Production Head
    • The Marketing Manager
    • C.E.O

Subject of Reference Line

  • It replaces the salutation or is included with it and when it’s included, it’s placed after salutation
  • It gives a brief and quick indication of the subject of the letter
  • Helps to classify and file the letter

Body of the letter

  • The actual message is contained in the body of the letter, the paragraphs between the salutation and complimentary close

Complimentary Close

  • It’s written two line spaces below the last line of the text of the letter.
  • It’s placed on the left and is followed by a comma.
  • The first word begins with a capital letter

Sincerely yours

Thanking you



Respectfully Yours

Yours Truly

Truly Yours


  • It’s below complimentary close
  • The name of the signatory is typed in brackets three or four line spaces below (to leave space for the actual signature) and the designation/title is typed below the name
  • It includes the name of the company, either above or below the name, designation of the person who signs
  • For Example,

Yours truly,

John Smith


ABC Industries

Reference Section

  • Enclosures: It’s related documents sent with a letter include cheques, quotations, brochures, price-lists etc.
  • Courtesy copies: extra copies if more than one copies are needed, c.c.
Section 13: How to write an email? Electronic Writing Processes

Electronic Writing Processes

Benefits of E-Mail

  • Reduces paper waste
  • Conveys convenient communication
  • Reduces telephone bills
  • Reduces telephone tag and interruptions
  • Eliminates time barriers
  • Allows one message to be sent to multiple recipients

Elements of an Effective Subject Line

  • Helps reader sort through a crowded mailbox
  • Describes content in an understanding way
  • Will be meaningful in the future
  • Is followed with a restatement of the subject
  • Consider the importance of the message when deciding whether to send e-mail or talk to someone in person.
  • Human warmth cannot be conveyed by e-mail. Word your messages carefully, remembering that your e-mail message may be easily misinterpreted.
  • Save funny remarks and jokes to use in a face to face meeting. Be as polite as possible, avoiding the use of slang or jargon.
  • You will be judged by the quality of your words. Be direct, yet polite in your message. Say what you mean, mean what you say and refrain from swearing.
  • Anytime you send or receive an e-mail message, remember that a record of it remains. In some states, e-mail messages are now being used as evidence in courts of law. When you’re crafting a message , you should consider not only who is going to read it today, but who might read it a year from now.
  • Although directed to one person or a group, e-mail can easily be forwarded to others. Employees should be aware that their employers can and sometimes do monitor e-mail correspondence. In fact, people have been fired for inappropriately using company e-mail.
  • Don’t “shout.” Messages written in all capital letters are not only hard to read but perhaps more importantly, messages in all capital letters will be interpreted by others as shouting
  • Proofread your message before sending. Check to see that you’ve attached the correct files. Be sure to double check the TO: and CC: address lines carefully when addressing and responding to e-mail messages. As a rule of thumb, send information to the people who need to know, rather than to everyone on the original distribution list.
  • For the sake of courtesy, you should always acknowledge receipt of an email, even if you’re unable to take action on the matter immediately
  • Use graphics wisely. Unless graphics enhance your message in a meaningful way, don't use them.
  • Be wary about sending attachments. Most of the time, you don't know what software the recipient has or what filter settings are enabled.
  • Sending PDFs, Word documents, or Excel spreadsheets may not be a good idea, since you don't know if the recipient can read -- or even receive -- what you send. A better idea: links to Web pages where the information contained in the attachments is displayed.
  • Make sure links within your e-mail display and work properly. When you list "for more information" links, make sure they are clickable so the recipient does not have to cut and paste.
  • Also make sure they go to the exact page you want and this landing page is up to date and provides the information you want them to have. Sending people to your home page and leaving to them to figure out where to go is not a good idea.

Most Common Mistakes

  • Incomplete and irrelevant subject in email
  • Improper usage of CC and BCC
  • Not quoting the original email when replying
  • Replying to All

E-Mail Formatting Guidelines

  • Limit message to one screen
  • Keep line length and paragraphs short
  • Use mixed case
  • Use emoticons and e-mail abbreviations in moderation
  • Proofread message
Section 14: Presentation Skill-1- How to prepare for a presentation

Presentation Skill-1- How to prepare for a presentation

Why so Important?

  • To put your point forward
  • To win conversation
  • To let others understand you
  • To win an interview
  • To win a business deal
  • To be charismatic
  • To make our relationship more productive or meaningful
  • A presentation is delivered to a small, knowledgeable audience at a conference, seminar or business meeting. It’s purpose is more concretely and precisely defined.
  • It’s purpose is usually to inform, explain, persuade or present a point of view.
  • It is followed by a question-answer session
  • Elements of Presentation
  1. Presenter/Speaker: The person who is giving the presentation
  2. Audience: The people for whom the presentation is meant. The audience usually shares some common characteristics, like they all belong to a particular age group or profession or any other such attribute.
  3. Specific content: This is the content of the presentation, which is formulated with a major objective to be achieved.

Steps of designing a Presentation

  1. Consider the occasion and objective
  • Know the occasion
  • Know the purpose of presentation
  • Focus on what the presenter wants to achieve at the end of the presentation
  • It should be different

2. Prepare an audience analysis

  • Understand for whom the presentation is meant
  • Presentation must be in a form and style that suits and interests the audience and the content and tone should also depend on the nature of the audience
  • Design your presentation based on the relevance of the audience

3. Get acquainted with the Environment/location

  • Get familiar with the physical environment. Such as size of the room, seating arrangement, speaker’s position, podium, setting of the mike, lighting and ventilation etc.
  • Plan in advance

4. Decide the manner and mode of presentation

  • Decide whether the speaker wants to achieve the objective by a formal or informal presentation
  • Modes of Presentation:
  • Reading: A written script, accurate, difficult and rare to make eye contact with audience
  • Memorized Presentation: only if the speaker’s memory is good, it’s leaves bad impression if the speaker forget, it’s best to make some brief notes
  • Extemporaneous Presentation: in this case the speaker does not memorize the whole presentation, word by word. She/He takes some ideas in his mind and in a logical order, presents them in his own words.

5. Plan out the presentation: Preparation of Script

  • Failing to plan is plan to fail
  • Lot of efforts are needed in preparatory stage
  • Format of a presentation/composition of the script
    • Opening
    • Middle
    • Closing
  • Opening- Introductory remarks, stating the objective of the presentation, drawing the outline
  • Middle – The main body of the presentation, examples and visual aids, explanation of the topic in points, as per their priority
  • Closing – Giving a clear message of the presentation, summary of the presentation, inviting queries, thanking the audience and organisers

6. Preparation of Visual Aids, Handouts and Feedback forms

  1. Visual Aids
  • Visual aids are used as supports to the presentation, error in the same can leave a poor impact in the minds of the audience
  • Whatever we see, we tend to believe more emphatically and it leaves a greater and longer lasting impression
  • Examples: Charts, white/chalk board, film slides, transparencies, diagrams, maps, picture

Guidelines for the use of visual aids

  • Slides should be prepared neatly with no over-writing or spelling errors
  • The material should be well spaced and written in bigger enough fonts for the listener at the end of the room
  • Pause for a short while as audience absorb the contents of the visuals
  • Everyone in the audience should be able to see this visual aid clearly
  • The speaker must explain the visual aid if there is any likelihood that the audience may not immediately understand it.
  • The speaker must look at the audience more than at the visual aid
  • Slides must be in correct order
  • The speaker should use pictures, drawings and colour for interest. “A Picture is worth a thousand words.”
  • Avoid wordiness on slides
  • Handouts:
  • Should be prepared meticulously and carefully
  • Should be given to the participants prior to commencing the session so that they can come prepared at the presentation with focused queries
  • Should be in neat, error free and in order
  • Feedback Forms:
  • Points to consider
  • Scope of improvement
  • Expectation from the presentation
  • To what extent were they met
  • Gains from the session
  • Scope for further interaction
  • Grading of the speaker on various parameters such as, delivery, ideas, use of visual aids, handling the group, empathy, listening etc.
Section 15: Presentation Skill-2 How to prepare PowerPoint presentation

Presentation Skill-2 How to prepare PowerPoint presentation

Making Powerpoint Slides - Avoiding the Pitfalls of Bad Slides

  • Slide Structure: Good
  • Use 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation (Only for short presentation)
  • Write in point form, not complete sentences
  • Include 4-5 points per slide
  • Avoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only
  • This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you.
  • Slide Structure:Bad
  • Slide Structure :Good
  • Show one point at a time:
    • Will help audience concentrate on what you are saying
    • Will prevent audience from reading ahead
    • Will help you keep your presentation focused
  • Slide Structure :Bad
  • Do not use distracting animation
  • Do not go overboard with the animation
  • Be consistent with the animation that you use
  • Fonts : Good
  • Use at least an 18-point font
  • Use different size fonts for main points and secondary points
  • Use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial
  • Fonts : Bad
  • If you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have written
  • Don’t use complicated fonts
  • Colour : Good
  • Use a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the background
  • Ex: blue font on white background
  • Use colour to reinforce the logic of your structure
  • Ex: light blue title and dark blue text
  • Use colour to emphasize a point
  • But only use this occasionally

  • Colour: Bad
  • Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read
  • Using colour for decoration is distracting and annoying.
  • Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary
  • Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary
  • Trying to be creative can also be bad
  • Background : Good
  • Use backgrounds such as this one that are attractive but simple
  • Use backgrounds which are light
  • Use the same background consistently throughout your presentation
  • Background – Bad
  • Avoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read from
  • Always be consistent with the background that you use
  • Graphs : Good
  • Use graphs rather than just charts and words
    • Data in graphs is easier to comprehend & retain than is raw data
    • Trends are easier to visualize in graph form
  • Always title your graphs
  • Spelling and Grammar
  • Proof your slides for:
  • If English is not your first language, please have someone else check your presentation
Section 16: ​Presentation Skill-3 How to deliver presentation powerfully?

Presentation Skill-3 How to deliver presentation powerfully?

7. Rehearse the Presentation

  • The more you rehearse the better is your performance in front of an audience
  • It helps to eliminate fear

8. Consider personal aspects: Physical Appearance & Body Language

  • Have neat, clean and presentable appearance
  • Take good care of your grooming. Example: Clothes, hairstyle, accessories etc.
  • Confident voice, posture, gestures and eye contact
  • Walk and stand tall

9. Overcoming Nervousness

  • Be comfortable. The more comfortable you are, the more comfortable your audience will be
  • Practice makes the man perfect. Repetition is the mother of success
  • Pause at regular intervals to increase curiosity among audience
  • Speak slowly
  • Make regular movements

10. Making The Presentation: Do It

  • Just what you have worked for until now.
  • When the speaker is in the process of finally presenting the matter to the audience, he needs to be extremely careful about the introduction and conclusion of the presentation
  • First impression is the last impression
  • Delivering presentation
    • Visual
    • Vocal
    • Verbal

V3 Technique –

  • Your appearance does matter & Look at your posture
  • Be well dressed
  • Watch your body movements from other’s eyes
  • If you look nervous, the audience will notice
  • Stand as you would stand confidently
  • Change your facial expressions according to the emotions in your content
  • When it comes to serious points, make your face serious too
  • Your smile will make others smile
  • Enthusiasm spreads enthusiasm
  • Keep your eyes everywhere and notice what’s going on
  • Stand/sit near the podium if there is any.
  • If there is no podium, get interactive with the audience.
  • Keep doing appropriate gestures
  • Volume
  • Speed of your voice
  • Tone of Voice
    • With this tonality, if you accompany it by a set of raised eyebrows, is a very good sort of non-verbal cue to make sure the other person keeps talking

Questioning Tonality

  • You can make a person to say ‘yes’ and on top, if you nod at the same time, it increases the probability of ‘Yes’ answer.

Command Tonality

  • Command tonality on it’s own is not going to make sure that everyone, all the time, does everything you ask them to
  • However, it makes it more likely that your instructions will be carried out.
  • Emotional Speaking
  • Voice fluctuation
  • Emphasizing on certain words


I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter

I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter

I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter

I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter

I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter

I never say you should not get 10% growth in this quarter


You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

“You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

“You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

“You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

“You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

“You really need to practice, if you really want to be master at this subject.”

  • While delivering:
  • Use simpler and familiar vocabulary
  • Don’t use jargon, highly technical words.
  • Write your own script
  • Show enthusiasm
  • Don’t Overtalk
  • Always welcome
  • Ask for clarification
  • Accept criticism positively
  • Say ‘No’ if you don’t know the answer
  • Reply with more examples
  • How to handle Questions/Doubts?
  • How to Close
  • Do not close abruptly when you reach to agreement.
  • Summarize
  • Questions
  • Highlighting the main points
  • Suggesting future steps/actions
Section 17: How to do group discussion? - Strategies to do group discussion
How to do group discussion? - Strategies to do group discussion
Section 18: Summary and The Final Message
Summary and The Final Message

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Instructor Biography

Mayur Bardolia, Results Coach, Inspirational Speaker, Author

I'm Mayur Bardolia.

One of the most qualified and highly academically recognised as Results Coach, Inspirational Speaker, International NLP Trainer and an author.

I've devoted several years of my life to create training that teach people all my best strategies and techniques for personal development, business growth, profitability and happiness.

I am dedicated to inspiring individuals to achieve lifelong success & happiness.

I see everyone filled with infinite potentials. I see you and everyone as the dreamers, innovators and leaders who make the world a better place through their actions and creations.

I believe that we all have the ability to build a life, career and business that supports themselves, their family and the world.

I want to create magic in your life by helping you to increase your success, confidence, income, profit, happiness and business that leaves the lasting impact.

No matter wherever you are in life, I am committed to taking you from where you are now to where you want to be.

I will make sure we get your desired outcome whether in your personal life, professional life or both.

I promise to give away 10X more value than you ask for in return.

It's that simple!

I want to make it sure by delivering the world-class training, fresh ideas, wealth of resources and latest knowledge as well as techniques.

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