Cloud Computing is the latest trend in Software Architecture. This course covers the important questions on Cloud Computing architecture that may be asked in technical interview for Software professionals.
Many fortune 500 organizations use Cloud Computing. Therefore, Cloud Computing is also a very important topic in technical interview. This course contains basic to expert level Cloud Computing interview questions that an interviewer asks. Each question is accompanied with an answer so that you can prepare for job interview in short time.
Often, these questions and concepts are used in our daily programming work. But these are most helpful when an Interviewer is trying to test your deep knowledge of Cloud Computing concepts.
How will this course help me?
By attending this course, you do not have to spend time searching the Internet for Cloud Computing interview questions. We have already compiled the list of the most popular and the latest Cloud Computing Interview questions.
Are there answers in this course?
Yes, in this course each question is followed by an answer. So you can save time in interview preparation.
What is the best way of viewing this course?
You have to just watch the course from beginning to end. Once you go through all the videos, try to answer the questions in your own words. Also mark the questions that you could not answer by yourself. Then, in second pass go through only the difficult questions. After going through this course 2-3 times, you will be well prepared to face a technical interview in Cloud Computing topic.
What is the level of questions in this course?
This course contains questions that are good for a Fresher to an Architect level. The difficulty level of question varies in the course from a Fresher to an Experienced professional.
What are the sample questions covered in this course?
Sample questions covered in this course are as follows:
There are ten main benefits of Cloud Computing.
I. Flexibility: The businesses that have fluctuating bandwidth demands need the flexibility of Cloud Computing. If you need high bandwidth, you can scale up your cloud capacity. When you do not need high bandwidth, you can just scale down. There is no need to be tied into an inflexible fixed capacity infrastructure.
II. Disaster Recovery: Cloud Computing provides robust backup and recovery solutions that are hosted in cloud. Due to this there is no need to spend extra resources on homegrown disaster recovery. It also saves time in setting up disaster recovery.
III. Automatic Software Updates: Most of the Cloud providers give automatic software updates. This reduces the extra task of installing new software version and always catching up with the latest software installs.
IV. Low Capital Expenditure: In Cloud computing the model is Pay as you Go. This means there is very less upfront capital expenditure. There is a variable payment that is based on the usage.
V. Collaboration: In a cloud environment, applications can be shared between teams. This increases collaboration and communication among team members.
VI. Remote Work: Cloud solutions provide flexibility of working remotely. There is no on site work. One can just connect from anywhere and start working.
VII. Security: Cloud computing solutions are more secure than regular onsite work. Data stored in local servers and computers is prone to security attacks. In Cloud Computing, there are very few loose ends. Cloud providers give a secure working environment to its users.
VIII. Document Control: Once the documents are stored in a common repository, it increases the visibility and transparency among companies and their clients. Since there is one shared copy, there are fewer chances of discrepancies.
IX. Competitive Pricing: In Cloud computing there are multiple players, so they keep competing among themselves and provide very good pricing. This comes out much cheaper compared to other options.
X. Environment Friendly: Cloud computing saves precious environmental resources also. By not blocking the resources and bandwidth.
What is On-demand computing in Cloud Computing?
On-demand Computing is the latest model in enterprise systems. It is related to Cloud computing. It means IT resources can be provided on demand by a Cloud provider.
What are the different layers of Cloud computing?
Three main layers of Cloud computing are as follows:
What are the different deployment models in Cloud computing?
Cloud computing supports following deployment models:
I. Private Cloud: Some companies build their private cloud. A private cloud is a fully functional platform that is owned, operated and used by only one organization.
Primary reason for private cloud is security. Many companies feel secure in private cloud. The other reasons for building private cloud are strategic decisions or control of operations.
There is also a concept of Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). In VPC, private cloud is built and operated by a hosting company. But it is exclusively used by one organization.
II. Public Cloud: There are cloud platforms by some companies that are open for general public as well as big companies for use and deployment. E.g. Google Apps, Amazon Web Services etc.
The public cloud providers focus on layers and application like- cloud application, infrastructure management etc. In this model resources are shared among different organizations.
III. Hybrid Cloud: The combination of public and private cloud is known as Hybrid cloud. This approach provides benefits of both the approaches- private and public cloud. So it is very robust platform.
A client gets functionalities and features of both the cloud platforms. By using Hybrid cloud an organization can create its own cloud as well as they can pass the control of their cloud to another third party.
What is the difference between Scalability and Elasticity?
Scalability is the ability of a system to handle the increased load on its current hardware and software resources. In a highly scalable system it is possible to increase the workload without increasing the resource capacity. Scalability supports any sudden surge in the demand/traffic with current set of resources.
Elasticity is the ability of a system to increase the workload by increasing the hardware/software resources dynamically. Highly elastic systems can handle the increased demand and traffic by dynamically commission and decommission resources. Elasticity is an important characteristic of Cloud Computing applications. Elasticity means how well your architecture is adaptable to workload in real time.
What is Software as a Service?
Software as Service is a category of cloud computing in which Software is centrally hosted and it is licensed on a subscription basis. It is also known as On-demand software. Generally, clients access the software by using a thin-client like a web browser.
Many applications like Google docs, Microsoft office etc. provide SaaS model for their software.
The benefit of SaaS is that a client can add more users on the fly based on its current needs. And client does not need to install or maintain any software on its premises to use this software.
Explain the various modes of Software as a Service (SaaS) cloud environment?
Software as a Service (SaaS) is used to offer different kinds of software applications in a Cloud environment. Generally these are offered on subscription basis. Different modes of SaaS are:
What are the different types of Datacenters in Cloud computing?
Cloud computing consists of different types of Datacenters linked in a grid structure. The main types of Datacenters in Cloud computing are:
As the name suggests, containerized datacenter provides high level of customization for an organization. These are traditional kind of datacenters. We can choose the different types of servers, memory, network and other infrastructure resources in this datacenter. Also we have to plan temperature control, network management and power management in this kind of datacenter.
In a Low-density datacenter, we get high level of performance. In such a datacenter if we increase the density of servers, the issue with power comes. With high density of servers, the area gets heated. In such a scenario, effective heat and power management is done. To reach high level of performance, we have to optimize the number of servers’ in the datacenter.
Why do we use API in cloud computing environment?
Application Programming Interfaces (API) is used in cloud computing environment for accessing many services. APIs are very easy to use. They provide a quick option to create different set of applications in cloud environment.
An API provides a simple interface that can be used in multiple scenarios.
There are different types of clients for cloud computing APIs. It is easier to serve different needs of multiple clients with APIs in cloud computing environment.
What are the important things to care about in Security in a cloud environment?
In a cloud-computing environment, security is one of the most important aspects.
With growing concern of hacking, every organization wants to make its software system and data secure. Since in a cloud computing environment, Software and hardware is not on the premises of an organization, it becomes more important to implement the best security practices.
Organizations have to keep their Data most secure during the transfer between two locations. Also they have to keep data secure when it is stored at a location. Hackers can hack into application or they can get an unauthorized copy of the data. So it becomes important to encrypt the data during transit as well as during rest to protect it from unwanted hackers.
What are the different areas of Security Management in cloud?
Different areas of Security management in cloud are as follows:
Identity Management: This aspect creates different level of users, roles and their credentials to access the services in cloud.
Access Control: In this area, we create multiple levels of permissions and access areas that can be given to a user or role for accessing a service in cloud environment.
Authorization: In this aspect, we check for the permissions that are given to a user or role. If a user is authorized to access a service, they are allowed to use it in the cloud environment.
Authentication: In this area, we check the credentials of a user and confirm that it is the correct user. Generally this is done by user password and multi-factor authentication like-verification by a one-time use code on cell phone.
What are the main cost factors of cloud based data center?Costs in a Cloud based data center are different from a traditional data center. Main cost factors of cloud based data center are as follows:
Labor cost: We need skilled staff that can work with the cloud-based datacenter that we have selected for our operation. Since cloud is not a very old technology, it may get difficult to get the right skill people for handling cloud based datacenter.
Power cost: In some cloud operations, power costs are borne by the client. Since it is a variable cost, it can increase with the increase in scale and usage.
Computing cost: The biggest cost in Cloud environment is the cost that we pay to Cloud provider for giving us computing resources. This cost is much higher compared to the labor or power costs.
How can we measure the cloud-based services?
In a cloud-computing environment we pay for the services that we use. So main criteria to measure a cloud based service its usage.
For computing resource we measure by usage in terms of time and the power of computing resource.
For a storage resource we measure by usage in terms of bytes (giga bytes) and bandwidth used in data transfer.
Another important aspect of measuring a cloud service is its availability. A cloud provider has to specify the service level agreement (SLA) for the time for which service will be available in cloud.
How a traditional datacenter is different from a cloud environment?
In a traditional datacenter the cost of increasing the scale of computing environment is much higher than a Cloud computing environment. Also in a traditional data center, there are not much benefits of scaling down the operation when demand decreases. Since most of the expenditure is in capital spent of buying servers etc., scaling down just saves power cost, which is very less compared to other fixed costs.
Also in a Cloud environment there is no need to higher a large number of operations staff to maintain the datacenter. Cloud provider takes care of maintaining and upgrading the resources in Cloud environment.
With a traditional datacenter, people cost is very high since we have to hire a large number of technical operation people for in-house datacenter.
How will you optimize availability of your application in a Cloud environment?
In a Cloud environment, it is important to optimize the availability of an application by implementing disaster recovery strategy. For disaster recovery we create a backup application in another location of cloud environment. In case of complete failure at a data center we use the disaster recovery site to run the application.
Another aspect of cloud environment is that servers often fail or go down. In such a scenario it is important to implement the application in such a way that we just kill the slow server and restart another server to handle the traffic seamlessly.
What are the requirements for implementing IaaS strategy in Cloud?
Main requirements to implement IAAS are as follows:
What is the scenario in which public cloud is preferred over private cloud?
In a startup mode often we want to test our idea. In such a scenario it makes sense to setup application in public cloud. It is much faster and cheaper to use public cloud over private cloud.
Remember security is a major concern in public cloud. But with time and changes in technology, even public cloud is very secure.
Do you think Cloud Computing is a software application or a hardware service?
Cloud Computing is neither a software application nor a hardware service. Cloud computing is a system architecture that can be used to implement software as well as hardware strategy of an organization.
Cloud Computing is a highly scalable, highly available and cost effective solution for software and hardware needs of an application.
Cloud Computing provides great ease of use in running the software in cloud environment. It is also very fast to implement compared with any other traditional strategy.
Why companies now prefer Cloud Computing architecture over Client Server Architecture?
In Client Server architecture there is one to one communication between client and server. Server is often at in-house datacenter and client can access same server from anywhere. If client is at a remote location, the communication can have high latency.
In Cloud Computing there can be multiple servers in the cloud. There will be a Cloud controller that directs the requests to right server node. In such a scenario clients can access cloud-based service from any location and they can be directed to the one nearest to them.
Another reason for Cloud computing architecture is high availability. Since there are multiple servers behind the cloud, even if one server is down, another server can serve the clients seamlessly.
How databases in Cloud computing are different from traditional databases?
In a Cloud environment, companies often use different kind of data to store. There are data like email, images, video, pdf, graph etc. in a Cloud environment. To store this data often NoSQL databases are used.
A NoSQL database like MongoDB provides storage and retrieval of data that cannot be stored efficiently in a traditional RDBMS.
Database like Neo4J provides features to store graph data like Facebook, LinkedIn etc. in a cloud environment.
Hadoop like database help in storing Big Data based information. It can handle very large-scale information that is generated in a large-scale environment.
What are the main characteristics of Cloud Computing architecture?
Main characteristics of Cloud Computing architecture are as follows:
What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)?
In a Cloud environment, we can create a virtual private network (VPM) that can be solely used by only one client. This is a secure network in which data transfer between servers of same VPN is very secure.
By using VPN, an organization uses the public network in a private manner. It increases the privacy of an organization’s data transfer in a cloud environment.
What are the main components of a VPN?
Virtual Private Network (VPN) consists of following main components:
How will you secure the application data for transport in a cloud environment?
With ease of use in Cloud environment comes the important aspect of keeping data secure. Many organizations have data that is transferred from their traditional datacenter to Cloud datacenter.
During the transit of data it is important to keep it secure. Once of the best way to secure data is by using HTTPS protocol over Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
What are the large-scale databases available in Cloud?In Cloud computing scale is not a limit. So there are very large-scale databases available from cloud providers. Some of these are:
What are the options for open source NoSQL database in a Cloud environment?
Most of the cloud-computing providers support Open Source NoSQL databases. Some of these databases are:
What are the important points to consider before selecting cloud computing?
Cloud computing is a very good option for an organization to scale and outsource its software/hardware needs. But before selecting a cloud provider it is important to consider following points:
What is a System integrator in Cloud computing?
Often an organization does not know all the options available in a Cloud computing environment. Here comes the role of a System Integrator (SI) who specializes in implementing Cloud computing environment.
SI creates the strategy of cloud setup. It designs the cloud platform for the use of its client. It creates the cloud architecture for the business need of client.
SI oversees the overall implementation of cloud strategy and plan. It also guides the client while choosing the right options in cloud computing platform.
What is virtualization in cloud computing?
Virtualization is the core of cloud computing platform. In cloud we can create a virtual version of hardware, storage and operating system that can be used to deploy the application.
A cloud provider gives options to create virtual machines in cloud that can be used by its clients. These virtual machines are much cheaper than buying a few high end computing machines.
What is Eucalyptus in a cloud environment?
Eucalyptus is an open source software to build private and hybrid cloud in Amazon Web Services (AWS).
It stands for Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs To Useful Systems.
We can create our own datacenter in a private cloud by using Eucalyptus. It makes use of pooling the computing and storage resources to scale up the operations.
In Eucalyptus, we create images of software applications. These images are deployed to create instances. These instances are used for computing needs.
A Eucalyptus instance can have both public and private ip addresses.
What are the main components of Eucalyptus cloud architecture?
The main components of Eucalyptus cloud architecture are as follows:
What is Auto-scaling in Cloud computing?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides an important feature called Auto-scaling in the cloud. With Auto-scaling setup we can automatically provision and start new instances in AWS cloud without any human intervention.
Auto-scaling is triggered based on load and other metrics.
Let say if the load reaches a threshold we can setup auto-scaling to kick in and start a new server to handle additional load.
What are the benefits of Utility Computing model?
Utility computing is a cloud service model in which provider gives computing resources to users for using on need basis.
Some of the main benefits of Utility computing are:
What is a Hypervisor in Cloud Computing?
Hypervisor is also known as virtual machine monitor (VMM). It is a computer software/hardware that can create and run virtual machines.
Hypervisor runs on a host machine. Each virtual machine is called Guest machine.
Hypervisor derives its name from term supervisor, which is a traditional name for the kernel of an operating system.
Hypervisor provides a virtual operating platform to the guest operating system. It manages the execution of guest OS.
What are the different types of Hypervisor in Cloud Computing?
Hypervisors come in two main types:
Why Type-1 Hypervisor has better performance than Type-2 Hypervisor?
Type-1 Hypervisor has better performance than Type-2 hypervisor because Type-1 hypervisor skips the host operating system and it runs directly on host hardware. So it can utilize all the resources of host machine.
In cloud computing Type-1 hypervisors are more popular since Cloud servers may need to run multiple operating system images.
What is CaaS?
CaaS is also known as Communication as a Service. It is available in Telecom domain. One of the examples for CaaS is Voice Over IP (VoIP).
CaaS offers business features like desktop call control, unified messaging, and fax via desktop.
How is Cloud computing different from computing for mobile devices?
Since Mobile devices are getting connected to the Internet in large numbers, we often use Cloud computing for Mobile devices.
In mobile applications, there can be sudden increase in traffic as well as usage. Even some applications become viral very soon. This leads to very high load on application.
Why automation of deployment is very important in Cloud architecture?
One of the main reasons for selecting Cloud architecture is scalability of the system. In case of heavy load, we have to scale up the system so that there is no performance degradation.
While scaling up the system we have to start new instances. To provision new instances we have to deploy our application on them. With a fully automated deployment process we can start new instances based on automated triggers that are raised by load reaching a threshold.
What are the main components in Amazon Cloud?
Amazon provides a wide range of products in Amazon Web Services for implementing Cloud computing architecture. In AWS some of the main components are as follows:
Amazon Elastic Load Balancing (ELB)
What are main components in Google Cloud?
Google is a newer cloud alternative than Amazon. But Google provides many additional features than AWS. Some of the main components of Google Cloud are as follows:
What are the major offerings of Microsoft Azure Cloud?
Microsoft is a relatively new entrant to Cloud computing with Azure cloud offering. Some of the main products of Microsoft cloud are as follows:
What are the reasons of popularity of Cloud Computing architecture?
These days Cloud Computing is one of the most favorite architecture among organizations for their systems. Following are some of the reasons for popularity of Cloud Computing architecture:
What are the Machine Learning options from Google Cloud?
Google provides a very rich library of Machine Learning options in Google Cloud. Some of these API are:
How will you optimize the Cloud Computing environment?
In a Cloud Computing environment we pay by usage. In such a scenario our usage costs are much higher. To optimize the Cloud Computing environment we have to keep a balance between our usage costs and usage.
If we are paying for computing instances we can choose options like Lambda in AWS, which is a much cheaper options for computing in cloud.
In case of Storage, if the data to be stored is not going to be accesses frequently we can go for Glacier option in AWS.
Optimizations like server-less computing, load balancing, and storage selection can help in keeping the Cloud computing costs low with no degradation in User experience.
Do you think Regulations and Legal Compliance is an important aspect of Cloud Computing?
Yes, in Cloud Computing we are using resources that are owned by the Cloud provider. Due to this our data resides on the servers that can be shared by other users of Cloud.
There are regulations and laws for handling user data. We have to ensure that these regulations are met while selecting and implementing a Cloud computing strategy.
For security there are laws that have to be followed irrespective of Cloud or Co-located Data center. This is in the interest of our end-customer as well as for the benefit of business continuity.
I am a Software Architect with expertise in Cloud Computing, Amazon Web Services, Microservices, Data Science, Hadoop, Spark, Machine Learning and Java architecture. Learning, using and sharing Technology is my passion.
I have built systems that are running enterprise software of companies across the world. I have gained a lot of knowledge by working hands-on on these large scale software projects.
With these courses I aim to share my knowledge with the future Software Engineers, Developers, Leaders and Architects .
I am sure the knowledge in these courses can give you extra power to win in life.
All the best!!