Study This or Die Alone and Unloved!
Your angry uncontrolled screaming, breaking, hitting, backstabbing, negativity, venting, rage-against-the-machine, chattiness, bullying, chatiness, and gossip are killing your mental, social, and physical health.
We are here to show you another way. Anger can be managed and we have proven this fact to be so.
I am Dr. Scott Brown, I am a finance professor at a major state university. I hold a Ph.D. in finance from the Darla Moore School of Business of the University of South Carolina.
Dr. Joel Wade is a clinical psychologist, family therapist, and a national wellness speaker. Joel holds a Ph.D. in psychology.
This course gives you a clear path for reprogramming your brain to become a softer and more gentler you in your not-as-distant-as-you-may-think future. The applications of these methods have given Dr. Brown significant relief from problems arising from uncontrolled angry outbursts. Every step is backed by research from top universities in the field of psychology.
Enroll now if you are serious about kicking your bad anger habits.
Your time-bomb is ticking. Every second you hesitate from enrolling in this course to heal your unhealthy anger responses increases your odds of heart attack, stroke, estrangement, divorce, or incarceration.
Enroll now before it is too late! -Dr. Scott Brown
Assistant professor of finance of the AACSB Accredited Graduate School of Business of the University of Puerto Rico.
P.S. You’d be surprised at the inmates on death row who did not premeditate what got them there. Enroll now!
P.P.S. Take this course for the peace of mind of those you love. Click that enrollment button up there to enroll right now.
I am Dr. Scott Brown. I have suffered from chronic uncontrolled maladaptive anger thoughts and responses most of my life. This has damaged many of my relationships.
My uncontrolled outbursts became so severe that my marriage was threatened.
I embarked on a journey of cognitive restructuring that has dramatically reduced my outbursts. The best evidence comes from comments from my wife that I am a much calmer person today than even a few years ago.
This is a course on basic anger management.
If you came from a dysfunctional family, you likely learned maladaptive behavior that has created distortions in your thinking and communication regarding perceived grievances from others. This course is designed to give you constructively healthy ways to interact with the world about you.
At the end of this course you will have a clear path to a more peaceful mindset. Following the path will lead to more peace and happiness in your life.
In this course you will learn the biology of anger as well as its social uses. You will receive scientifically supported techniques for reducing your maladaptive anger ruminations as well as verbal and physical responses — invariably in some form of attack.
I’m Dr. Joel Wade, a Marriage and Family therapist and Life coach. I’ve spent over 35 years studying psychology and emotions, and working with students and clients helping them to live a more effective and fulfilling life.While it’s easy to stay with the habits and behaviors we’ve learned and practiced over a lifetime, those habits can often get us into a lot of trouble. Anger is the most destructive emotion in this regard. It can
disconnect us from our higher brain functions, and lead us to behave in embarrassing and hurtful ways towards others, and often towards those we love the most. It can rip apart a marriage, and destroy careers and friendships. Ignoring our own responsibility for the effects of our anger and impulsiveness is one of the main causes of violence and most criminal activity.
Fortunately, it’s also possible to change our habits. It takes a desire and a decision to change, and focused, intentional practice over time, but as human beings we have a unique ability to consciously change our own habits.
This is frankly why I do what I do. I get to see the most conscious, self-directing side of my clients, who come to me for help to purposefully improve their lives. In many ways, this is at the heart of what makes for a heroic, adventurous life: the willingness to face challenges and bring the best within us to overcome and triumph over those challenges.
I’ve been both fascinated and perplexed from a young age at the kind of behavior I would see among my friends and classmates; behavior that hurt them, that sometimes hurt me; behavior that seemed to do nothing but create trouble and pain. That’s part of what’s led me to a lifetime of study and practice in psychology, learning what makes for a good life, and how to get control over rotten habits and behavior.
There are plenty of great tools and ideas that can help you to overcome problem anger, and Scott and I are here to show you what you can practice now to begin to master your own emotions. But the first step is to decide to do it. Once you’ve made that decision, it’s really a matter of practicing and mastering certain skills and habits.
Joel talks about what it takes to make change happen. This can happen if your situation is just too painful.
When others are trying to help us it is usually our allies. The want the best for us.
I am a marriage and family therapist as well as a life coach and I have spent my career helping people make positive changes.
But I don’t make the changes in their life.
None of these things actually change you. They change your stance and your motivation.
But the actual change takes work. The actual change you make in your life is very personal.
And it is very unique to each one of us. And the bottom line is that it takes work.
The work of integrating what you learn is substantial. You get good at what you practice.
If you practice bickering, you get good at that. That will make you depressed if you practice it enough.
If you practice not gossiping and not judging, you will get good at that.
The process of changing and learning skills for learning a happier life are no different fundamentally from any other skill. It takes practice and using your will land certain things that can help that along.
The first step is self-acceptance. I don’t mean anything goes and everybody else has to deal with it.
Look at the truth of your life right now and accept what is true as true.
What is the state of your relationships and your work? You don’t have to like it. You don’t have to think it is going to be this way forever.
It is very much like those maps in a shopping mall or on campus.
Think “I am right here and I want to get there.” Plot your course.
Acknowledge and accept what is true.
This also requires kindness toward yourself. You might have done things you feel shameful for. This is because it violated your values.
The point is not to beat yourself up. The point is to take those messages and focus on what you need to do know to not repeat doing things that hurt you in the past. Fixed trait versus growth mindsets are important to understand.
Under-achievers don’t lean into situations.
But there really is only one way I can make the point I want to make.
If you don’t correct your maladaptive responses to anger, you run a much higher risk of …
I can think of lots more tragic events that can be circumvented through a controlled assertive response to anger triggers in your life rather than Hulk-like rage.
Uncontrolled anger can lead to assault and murder that is not premeditated. The problem you face with your uncontrolled anger is that you really are your worst enemy when mad.
Here are some simple signs that you are angry,
These are all serious signs of thoughtlessly uncontrolled maladaptive (rather than thoughtfully controlled assertive) responses to anger arising from grievances.
“Forgiving Dr. Mengele” is a stunningly well-made movie about the life Eva Mozes Kor. Her family was rounded-up into a Nazi camp for murdering Jews. When not actively murdering the rest of her family Dr. Josef Mengele tortured Eva and her sister Miriam.
He shattered the lives of fourteen hundred other Jewish twins.
Eva shocked the Jewish community when she announced that she had decided to forgive the Nazi murder. This psychological feat of healing was in itself amazing to watch.
Pictures of Eva at an earlier age look older because of all of the pained rage she was carrying. When she forgave Mengele her face became more pleasant looking.
Watch the movie.
The other fascinating aspect of the movie deals with cultural rage. Marisol and I were shocked to see throngs of enraged Jews who felt that Eva had crossed some kind of line drawn in the sand.
Then the third lesson was how difficult Eva found it to be to forgive the Palestinians. Watch this movie if you want to learn more about the difficulty of managing cultural anger.
Did You Know That You Rewire Your Brain Folds When You Learn Good Behavior or Unlearn Bad Behavior?
The brain starts out smooth as a fetus. Ridges called gyri with valleys called sulci develop as consciousness develops.
The brain folds in on itself over and over again to accommodate higher animal functions as it grows.
If you could unfold your brain it would be the size of a beach ball. At 10 months after inception the brain is just about as wrinkly as it gets. The brain does not add any new folds after that.
Some of the gyri and sulci are common to all humans.
But off of those major tracks brain folds look different from person to person. And although the number of gyri and sulci do not increase the shape can change.
This has been shown to be the case with stroke patients. As they use new parts of the brain to compensate the actual electromagnetic topography of brain ridges changes.
This can be shown in MRI.
Brain plasticity is a vital concept in cognitive restructuring for lasting self-treatment of anger and panic maladaptive rumination and behavior disorders. This was explained to me by veteran clinical psychologist Dr. Joel Wade.
He explains that “every time you resist the urge to ventilate, demand, swear, gossip, chat, be hostile, bully, break, kick, or punch, the shape of your brain folds are changing. Over time your urges toward maladaptive responses to anger will subside permanently as your brain’s electromagnetic shape changes. But don’t forget that this takes months and years of practiced anger management.”
If you have lost all hope of kicking the explosive or passive-aggressive anger habit, I am here to tell you that persistent practice of the techniques in this course works miracles. And it is all based on hard science!
Brain plasticity occurs when a function moves to a different location; in normal life or after a brain injury. Neuroplasticity theory supports goal-directed experiential therapeutic brain injury treatment in rehabilitation.
Neuroplasticity explains measurable improvements with physical therapy post-stroke.
We are inviting you to treat your maladaptive anger ruminations and ventilations as brain damage. This will help you to follow the Wade Rules of Anger Management.
The first is to feel no guilt about past anger. The second is to feel no shame in moving forward!
The old limbic system in the form of the hypothalamus and amygdala have an impact on anger. But rage from brain damage is rare.
When people are in rage they know what they are doing.
That isn’t to say that there are genetic differences. Asian babies are more tranquil than Caucasian babies.
There is a trend in law to lay the blame on biology. A murderous woman has been acquitted in Los Angeles because the judge bought her story of post-partum depression.
Tom Cruise was publicly attacked for suggesting that psychological disorders of this type are routinely over-medicated.
A rapist was San Antonio was acquitted for high testosterone levels after admitting guilty to three instances. It is time to stop inventing excuses for our bad behavior.
It is time to stop claiming that the devil made us do it. You can control your temper and this course is designed to show you how.
If there is a single result in psychological research at the highest academic level, it is that venting increases anger. It does not decrease it.
Screaming your head off is a form of venting.
But there are others. Some are subtler.
Take for instance gossip. Another is swearing excessively.
Demandingness is another form of venting. As is rage against the machine.
Negativity and bullying are other forms of venting as is breaking, hitting, and slapping. Chattiness is also a form of venting anger.
And Americans are extremely prone to venting anger.
Think about why this is harmful. We all know that practice makes perfect.
If you want to play a musical instrument you have to practice a lot.
Venting is a form of practicing anger. The more you vent you more you are practicing being anger.
And the angrier you become. And the law of neural plasticity says that as you do this you are reshaping your thinking into an angry brain map.
Every time you bite your tongue you back up your decision to not vent with action. Every time you resist the urge to vent you are reshaping your gyri and sulci into a brain with peaceful ridges and valleys.
The social purpose of anger is to make a grievance known. This can be done constructively through assertive communication seeking positive solution where everyone wins.
As long as solutions to grievances are sought in this manner the focus remains on the source rather than the anger itself.
This helps you find ways to get along with people, places, and situations that anger you.
Anger management is a life-long skill building commitment. We have to stick to our practice of anger management as does the master of any art!
There are a number of areas of your life that you need to build sound strategies for working through anger by constantly seeking positive solutions.
Frustration — right now we have a municipal bond crisis in Puerto Rico. This has affected my salary and benefits as a professor of finance at the University of Puerto Rico. Before I learned to manage my anger under the tutelage of Dr. Joel Wade I would vent endlessly about how “unfair” the situation is. My Udemy campus is part of my anger management program. The more money I make on Udemy the less agitated I feel about the plight of our island and university. That is because the local political debt problem has less impact on my family. This is a clear example of how I have applied Dr. Wade’s advice of staying focused on a solution without getting wrapped up in any guilt feelings from prior angry ventilations.
Noise — I don’t like rap or regaeton music one iota. Well … except for M.C. Hammer and Snoop Dog. But the rest makes me feel like a cat on a tin roof. Another disturbing noise to me is the nightly news in English or Spanish. I am clear about this because I take notice of my physiological responses to environments. I don’t avoid the music or the news anymore. I just watch myself more when I know that I am in a situation where I might be more prone to ventilate in some way.
Crowds — A lot of us humans are freaked out in a crowd. I am not but I am a lot more edgy. So now I take note of my schedule during the day. If I know I am going to be in a crowd, I plan mentally to be on guard for dealing with more anger urges suddenly welling up from within.
Driving — This particular activity is a big bundle of anger buttons for most of us. Now I stop before walking out the door. I remind myself to be wary of sudden anger urges on the road ahead.
Booze — Studies have shown that people ventilate, bully, gossip, and engage in many maladaptive anger responses blamed on alcohol. But they only do so when they know they can get away with it. So if you start practicing reasoned responses to anger you will develop control over your behavior when drinking.
Exercise & Sports — Rules exist in a sport by reason not by rage. As you practice anger management you will begin to see exercise and sports as team fun rather than a crushing of enemies.
Always remember a couple of facts regarding anger management. Anger is a biological response to grievances. We perform poorly on intelligence tests when enraged.
This is imprinted as part of our fight or flight response. Anger is involved in both but not much reason.
The calmest mind sees the most options.
The great Japanese karate masters try to agitate their students when practicing self-defense in a street fight. The do this to teach the karateka that keeping a calm mind allows the victim of assault to see the most options. And escaping is usually one of the best.
When you carefully consider your options after feeling agitated over a grievance you are most likely to determine the best response through reason. Then once the reasonable solution is found you can learn how to express yourself in a controlled assertive response.
Aggressive responses to grievance can create short term payoffs. But these never exceed long term costs.
Cornelius Vanderbilt used to assault captains of ships who would try to horn in on his passenger trade on the Hudson. He nearly beat some of them to death with his bare hands. That was when he was a brawny young Dutchman.
His aggressive and violent responses to perceived grievances made family life a prison for his kin. He drove his wife mad and put her in an asylum.
Then he had an affair.
This brash and harshly demanding untampered response to grievances contrasts starkly with that of good natured Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie believed that his main contribution to his firm was that of keeping the peace.
Andrew Carnegie took great pains to express his grievances in an assertive manner that did not threaten the other party. He invited scenarios where all involved would win.
I used to respond like Cornelius Vanderbilt to problems in my life. As I practice what we are teaching you in this course, I respond more and more like Andrew Carnegie.
Ruminations are distorted thinking patterns. They can be repetitive.
Angry ruminations can persist for months, years, or a lifetime. Dr. Joel Wade gave me the strangest yet most powerful advice I have ever received from a health care professional. This was regarding ruminations in particular and maladaptive anger responses in general.
He told me to never feel shameful or guilty about them.
I have never told Joel this but I was really skeptical. But Dr. Wade had my attention.
I began trying it. In email a few months later I mentioned at how much less angry I was according to my wife. We have been married for 224 years.
I explained to Joel that following his advice worked. He responded in explaining that every time I circumvent a maladaptive rumination by stopping angry thoughts this way that I am reforming my brain ridges and valleys. Remember those gyri and sulci?
Over time I have realized that by not feeling guilty or shameful about my maladaptive anger thinking I have been much abler to unwire it. This has made me much more focused on simply finding solutions to problems (grievances) in my life while feeling as little guilt or shame as possible — even under embarrassment at times.
Now I am on a positive, rather than negative learning feedback loop. That is what this course teaches you to do!
Bonus Lecture: My Special Udemy Coupon Offer to You
These questions are intended to check how well you have followed along. Don't ever give up studying and practicing anger management.
"There is no one like you that I know of who is this transparent, that is what makes your service and education so valuable. Please keep on." -L.B. A Washington State Stock Investor
Dr. Scott Brown and “Intelligent Investing” — helping you get the most out of your hard earned investment capital.
As an investor, I have spent over 35 years reading anecdotal accounts of the greatest investors and traders in history. My net worth has grown dramatically by applying the distilled wisdom of past giants.
I have researched and tested what works in the world’s most challenging capital markets — and I teach you every trick I know in my Udemy courses!
>>>Learn from leading financial experts!
>>> How about discovering how I have tripled family member’s accounts in six years with simple stock picks?
>>> Want to master set and forget limit stop loss tactics for sound sleep?
>>> Does Forexinterest you?
>>>Is your employer sponsored 401(k) plan optimized?
>>>Do you know the fastest rising highest dividend yielding common stock shares in the market today?
>>> High roller? How would you like to know how to dramatically lever your savings with deep-in-the-money call options?
Enrollin my Udemy courses — you can prosper from all of this — plus much, much more now!
(In the last six years we have exploded our net worth and are absolutely debt free, we live a semi-retired Caribbeanlifestyle in atriple gatedupscale planned community from a spacious low maintenance condo looking down on our tropical beach paradise below).
My Curriculum Vitae:
Investment Writing and Speaking:
I am an internationalspeaker oninvestments. In 2010 I gave a series of lectures onboard Brilliance of the Seas as a guest speaker on their Mediterranean cruise. Financial topics are normally forbidden for cruise speakers. But with me they make an exception because of my financial pedigree.
On day 6 the topic I discussed was “Free and Clear: Secrets of Safely Investing in Real Estate!“ The day 7 topic was “Investment Style and Category: How the Stock Market Really Works!” Then on day 8 I spoke about “The 20% Solution: How to Survive and Thrive Financially in any Market!” The final talk on day 11 was “Value Investing for Dummies: When Dumb Money is Smart!”
Gina Verteouris is the Cruise Programs Administrator of the Brilliance of the Seas of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines. Regarding my on-board teachings she writes on June 19th, “You have really gone above and beyond expectations with your lectures and we have received many positive comments from our Guests.”
I sponsored and organized an investing conference at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas in 2011 under my Wallet Doctor brand. This intimate conference was attended by 14 paying attendees.
As such many strides were made in financial education that week. For instance I met a woman who is a retired engineer from the Reno, Nevada area.
She made a fortune on deep in the money calls during the bull markets of the 90s.
This humble and retired engineer inspired me to look more seriously at deep in the money calls with far expiration. She also gave me an important clue regarding trading volume.
Her call option and volume insights have been confirmed in the Journal of Finance.
In 2012 I gave a workshop at the FreedomFest Global Financial Summit on stock investing at the Atlantis Bahamas Resort. I was also a panelist on a discussion of capital markets.
My course “How to Build a Million Dollar Portfolio from Scratch" at the Oxford Club is an international bestseller. In 2014 I co-authored “Tax Advantaged Wealth” with leading IRS expert Jack Cohen, CPA. This was the crown jewel of the Oxford Club Wealth Survival Summit.
I have been a regular speaker at the Investment U Conferences.
In 2012 I gave a workshop entitled “How to Increase Oxford Club Newsletter Returns by 10 Fold!” The conference was held at the Grand Del Mar Resort in San Diego, California. This resort destination is rated #1 on TripAdvisor.
In 2013 I spoke at the Oxford Club’s Investment U Conference in San Diego California. The talk was entitled “The Best Buy Signal in 103 Years!” Later in the summer I spoke at the Oxford Club Private Wealth Conference at the Ojai Valley Inn.
This was at the same time that Jimmy Kimmel married Molly McNearney in the posh California celebrity resort. It was fun to watch some of the celebrities who lingered.
I also operate a live weekly investment mentorship subscription service under the Bullet-Proof brand every Monday night by GoToWebinar.
I am an associate professor of finance of the AACSB Accredited Graduate School of Business at the University of Puerto Rico. My research appears in some of the most prestigious academic journals in the field of investments including the Journal of Financial Research and Financial Management. This work is highly regarded on both Main Street and Wall Street. My research on investment newsletter returns was considered so important to investors that it was featured in the CFA Digest.
The Certified Financial Analyst (CFA)is the most prestigious practitioner credential in investments on Wall Street.
Prestigious finance professor Bill Christie of the Owen School of Business of Vanderbilt University and then editor of Financial Management felt that our study was valuable to financial society. We showed that the average investment newsletter is not worth the cost of subscription.
I am the lead researcher on the Puerto Rico Act 20 and 22 job impact study. This was signed between DDEC secretary Alberto Bacó and Chancellor Severino of the University of Puerto Rico.
(See Brown, S., Cao-Alvira, J. & Powers, E. (2013). Do Investment Newsletters Move Markets? Financial Management, Vol. XXXXII, (2), 315-338. And see Brown, S., Powers, E., & Koch, T. (2009). Slippage and the Choice of Market or Limit orders in Futures Trading. Journal of Financial Research, Vol. XXXII (3), 305-309)
I hold a Ph.D. in Finance from the AACSB Accredited Darla Moore School of Business of the University of South Carolina. My dissertation on futures market slippage was sponsored by The Chicago Board of Trade. Eric Powers, Tim Koch, and Glenn Harrison composed my dissertation committee. Professor Powers holds his Ph.D. in finance from the Sloan School of Business at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT]. Eric is a leading researcher in corporate finance and is a thought leader in spin offs and carve outs.
Dr. Harrison is the C.V. Starr economics professor at the J. Mack Robinson School of Business at Georgia State University.
He holds his doctorate in economics from the University of California at Los Angeles. Glenn is a thought leader in experimental economics and is the director of the Center for the Economic Analysis of Risk.
Tim Koch is a professor of banking. Dr. Koch holds his Ph.D. in finance from Purdue University and is a major influence in the industry.
My dissertation proved that under normal conditions traders and investors are better off entering on market while protectingwith stop limit orders. The subsequent article was published in the prestigious Journal of Financial Research now domiciled at Texas Tech University — a leading research institution.
I earned a masters in international financial management from the Thunderbird American Graduate School of International Business. Thunderbird consistently ranks as the #1 international business school in the U.S. News & World Report, and BloombergBusinessWeek.
I spoke at the 2010 annual conference of the International Association of Business and Economics (IABE) conference in Las Vegas, Nevada. The research presented facts regarding price changes as orders flow increases in the stock market by advisory services.
I spoke at the 2010 Financial Management Association [FMA] annual conference in New York on investment newsletters. The paper was later published in the prestigious journal “Financial Management.”
I presented an important study named “Do Investment Newsletters Move Markets?” at the XLVI Annual Meeting of the Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administración (CLADEA) in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The year before that I presented my futures slippage research at a major renewable energy conference in Ubatuba, Brazil.
I spoke at the Clute International Conferences in 2011 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The research dealt with the price impact of newsletter recommendations in the stock market.
I presented a working paper entitled “The Life Cycle of Make-whole Call Provisions” at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Southern Finance Association in Fajardo, Puerto Rico in session B.2 Debt Issues chaired by Professor LeRoy D. Brooks of John Carroll University. Luis Garcia-Feijoo of Florida Atlantic University was the discussant. I chaired the session entitled “Credit And Default Risk: Origins And Resolution.” Then I was the discussant for research entitled "NPL Resolution: Bank-Level Evidence From A Low Income Country" by finance professor Lucy Chernykh of Clemson University and Abu S Amin of Sacred Heart University and Mahmood Osman Imam of the University of Dhaka in Bangladesh.
That same year I presented the same study to the Annual Meeting of the Financial Management Association in Chicago, Illinois. I did so in session 183 – Topics in Mergers and Acquisitions chaired by James Conover of the University of North Texas with Teresa Conover as discussant. I chaired session 075 – Financial Crisis: Bank Debt Issuance and Fund Allocation. Then I was the discussant for TARP Funds Distribution: Evidence from Bank Internal Capital Markets by Elisabeta Pana of Illinois Wesleyan University and Tarun Mukherjee of the University of New Orleans.
I am a member of the MBA Curriculum Review Committee, the MBA Admissions Committee, The Doctoral Finance Admissions Committee, the Graduate School Personnel Committee, and the Doctoral Program Committee of the School of Business of the University of Puerto Rico.
I am the editor of Momentum Investor Magazine. I co-founded the magazine with publisher Daniel Hall, J.D. We have published three issues so far. Momentum Investor Magazine allows me to interview very important people in the finance industry. I interview sub director Suarez of the DDEC responsible for the assignment of Puerto Rico act 20 and 22 licenses for corporate and portfolio tax reduction in the third edition. Then I interview renowned value investor Mohnish Prabia in the upcoming fourth edition — to be made available via Udemy. Valuable stock market information will be taught throughout.
In October of 2010 I arranged for the donation to The Graduate School of Business of the University of Puerto Rico of $67,248 worth of financial software to the department that has been used in different courses. This was graciously awarded by Gecko Software.
I have guided thousands of investors to superior returns. I very much look forward to mentoring you as to managing your investments to your optima! –Scott
Dr. Scott Brown, Associate Professor of Finance of the AACSB Accredited Graduate School of Business of the University of Puerto Rico.
Joel F Wade, PhD is the author of Mastering Happiness, A Pocket Guide for Mastering Happiness, The San People of the Kalahari, and the upcoming Virtue of Happiness, drawing from the increasingly useful research in psychology in general, and positive psychology in particular, and over three decades as a teacher, marriage and family therapist and life coach. He has written regularly for a variety of publications, including The New Individualist, and The Good Men Project; and he writes the Beyond Wealth columns along with Alexander Green for the Oxford Club.
As a speaker, Dr. Wade enjoys teaching clear, practical skills and ideas that can be used immediately, inspiring his listeners to take effective steps toward a more rewarding, joyful, and resilient life. As a life coach he works with people around the world via phone and Skype.